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Books and Documents

Books and Documents

How Islam Spread in Islam: The Irony of History  ہندوستان میں اسلام کیسے پھیلا؟: المیہ تاریخ

ہندوستان میں اسلام اوّل جنوبی ہندوستان میں تاجروں کے ذریعے پھیلا پھر سندھ میں عربوں کی فتح کے بعد اور آخر میں ترکوں کی فتح کے بعد شمالی ہندوستان آیا ۔ ہندوستان میں مسلمان کی آمد سے قبل یہاں جو مذہبی ، سیاسی، سماجی، اور اقتصادی حالت تھی اس کی بنیاد ذات پات تھی ۔ معاشرے کےمختلف طبقے مختلف ذاتوں اور طبقوں میں تقسیم تھے ۔ اب ذات پات کی تقسیم میں اس بات کی کوئی گنجائش نہیں تھی کہ کوئی شخص اپنی صلاحیت کے ذریعے معاشرے میں کوئی اعلیٰ مقام حاصل کرسکے ۔ یہاں انسان کی پیدائش ہمیشہ کے لیے اسے ایک نہ تبدیہ ہونے والا سماجی مقام اور مرتبہ دیتی تھی۔ جس سے چھٹکارا پانا یا تبدیل کرنا اس کے لیے ایک ناممکن امر تھا ۔

Spiritual Kingdom of Sufis: The Irony of History  صوفیاء کی روحانی سلطنت: المیہ تاریخ

روئے زمین کے بادشاہ خدائے بزرگ و بر تر کی بر گزیدہ مخلوق ہیں ان کے حکم کی خلاف ورزی یا اہانت شروع میں کسی طرح جائز نہیں ۔ پس کسی معاملے میں ظاہری یا پوشیدہ ان کی مخالفت جائز نہیں ..... نبی کریم صلی اللہ علیہ وسلم نے فرمایا ہے کہ جس نے سلطان کی اطاعت کی اور جس نے میری اطاعت کی اس نے اللہ کی اطاعت کی اور جس نے اللہ کی اطاعت کی وہ بخشا گیا ۔ (1)

Mysticism and Society: The Irony of History  تصوف اور معاشرہ: المیہ تاریخ

اسلامی معاشرے میں اس وقت سماجی تبدیلیاں آنا شروع ہوئیں جب اسلامی فتوحات کے ذریعے عراق و ایران فتح ہوئے اور ایک بڑی تعداد نے اسلام قبول کرلیا ۔ چونکہ عرب معاشرے میں کسی فرد کی شناخت اس کے قبیلے کے ذریعے سے ہوتی تھی اس لیے جب غیر عرب مسلمان ہوئے تو مسئلہ یہ پیدا ہوا کہ انہیں کس طرح عرب کے قبائلی نظام میں ضم کیا جائے ۔ چنانچہ اس کا حل یہ نکالا گیا کہ مسلمان ہونے والے افراد کو کسی نہ کسی عرب قبیلے کا رکن بننا پڑے گا۔ غیر عرب قبیلوں میں شمولیت کے بعد یہ لوگ موالی کہلائے کہ جس کا واحد مولا ہے ۔ چونکہ موالی عرب نہیں تھے اس لیے عرب قبائلی نظام میں ان کی حیثیت ثانوی ہوکر رہ گئی ۔

 

The Formation of Sufi Tradition: The Irony of History  صوفی روایات کی تشکیل : المیہ تاریخ

انسان کی فطرت میں توہمات کا اثر اس قدر ہوتاہے کہ اس کی وجہ سے اس کے جذبات کو آسانی سے بھڑکایا جاسکتا ہے ۔ اس لیے وہ روایات کہ جو عقیدہ اور توہمات کی بنیاد پر تشکیل دی جاتی ہیں، وہ جلد ہی مقبول ہوجاتی ہیں اور انہیں لوگ بغیر کسی تر دو کے قبول کرلیتے ہیں ۔ مثلاً اگر یہ مشہور کردیا جاتا ہے کہ کسی صوفی یا پہنچے ہوئے پیر کیے قبر اچانک دریافت ہوئی ہے لوگ اس کی تحقیق کئے بغیر عام طور سے قبر پر ثواب یا منت ماننے کی غرض سے جانا شروع ہوجاتا ہے ۔ اور اس قبر کی دریافت ہونے کے ساتھ ہی اس کے ارد گرد روایات بننے کا سلسلہ شروع ہوجاتاہے ۔

 

Social Responsibility and Spending Money on the Needy: Chapter 17 And 18, Essential Message of Islam

However, the word literally means ‘the close ones.’ Therefore, in the second instance it understandably stands for people who are close enough, but not necessarily relatives.4 The subsequent reference to the neighbour who is a ‘stranger’ neither a relative, nor ‘close enough,’ must therefore include anyone, regardless of religion, nationality, or race. In other words, this verse explicitly calls for kindness to all people including strangers who may belong to other faiths, nationalities or races.,,,,,

 

Sufis Role in Indian History: The Irony of History  ہندوستان کی تاریخ میں صوفیوں کا کردار: المیہ تاریخ

صوفیوں نے اگر چہ ترک دنیا تو کی ، مگر انہوں نے جنگلوں او رپہاڑوں میں رہنے کے بجائے شہروں میں رہنا پسند کیا کہ جہاں ان کی خانقاہوں کی تعمیر میں حکمراں اور امراء نے حصہ لیا تاکہ اس خدمت کے بعد وہ بھی ثواب میں حصہ بٹاسکیں ۔ یہ بھی ایک حقیقت ہے کہ خانقاہ کے اخراجات کی بڑی رقم حکمرانوں اور امراء کی جانب سےآتی تھی ۔ اس طرح سے ایک طرف تو امداد لی جاتی تھی اور دوسری طرف اسے دنیاوی طاقت واقتدار سے علیحدہ کر کے ایک متبادل قوت بنا دیا تھا کہ جہاں صوفی کو تمام روحانی اور دنیاوی اختیارات پر کنٹرول تھا اور وہ لوگوں کی ضروریات پوری کرتا تھا ۔

 

Perception of Religious Harmony in Indian System of Governance: The Irony of History  ہندوستانی نظام سلطنت میں مذہبی ر واداری کی ضرورت کا ادراک : المیہ تاریخ

اکبر نے ہندوؤں میں اعتماد پیدا کرنے کی غرض سے اور مذہبی رواداری کا ثبوت دیتے ہوئے جزیے کو ختم کیا ہندوؤں سے یاترا ٹیکس اٹھایا اور حکومت کے اقتدار میں غیر مسلموں کو برابر کی شرکت دے کر مغلیہ سلطنت کے ڈھانچے کو بدل دیا اقتدار اب صرف ایک ہی طبقے میں محدود نہیں تھا بلکہ اس میں اہل ہندوستان مذہبی بنیادوں سے بالا تر شریک تھے ۔ اس کی وجہ سے ہندوستان کے عوام میں یہ احساس ہوا کہ مغلیہ سلطنت ہندوؤں او ر مسلمانوں کی مشترکہ سلطنت ہے۔

 

The Irony of History  المیہ تاریخ

ہندوستان میں مسلمانوں کی آمد کو تین ادوار میں تقسیم کیا جاسکتا ہے ۔ جنوبی ہندوستان کے ساحلی علاقوں میں بحیثیت تاجر، سندھ اور شمالی ہندوستان میں بحیثیت فاتح اور حکمران۔ جب مسلمان جنوبی ہندوستان کے ساحلی علاقوں میں تاجر کی حثییت سے آئے تو ان کا رویہ پر امن تھا وہ اس بات کے خواہش مند تھے کہ پر امن سر گرمیوں کے ذریعے زیادہ سے زیادہ تجارتی فوائد حاصل کریں ۔ ہندوستان کے ہندو حکمرانوں نے ان نووارد مسلمانوں کے ساتھ نہ صرف یہ کہ رواداری اور حسن سلوک کا رویہ اختیار کیا بلکہ انہیں ہر قسم کی سہولتیں دیں۔

 

Pakistan has also kept its occupation the area as a pretext of fraudulent agreement between Pakistan and 2 of its stooges from occupied Jammu & Kashmir without the knowledge and consent of people of Gilgit Baltistan on 28th April 1949 on the same date, when UNCIP had asked Pakistan to withdraw its forces from this disputed part. In 1963 Pakistan illegally conceded 7000 Sq KMs area of Shimshal, part of Hunza (Occupied Gilgit Baltistan) to China  for the construction of Karakorum Highway (KKH) which is being used extensively by both China and Pakistan for economic as well as military purposes....

 
Exposing Lies, Telling the Truth
Robert J. Burrowes, New Age Islam

Exposing Lies, Telling the Truth
Robert J. Burrowes, New Age Islam

He shows, again and again, that the one recurring legacy of violence is more violence. Time after time, he shows that even when the war ended, 'the violence never stopped'. He also illustrates how those secondary beneficiaries of Empire – those of us in western countries who benefit from the violence and plunder of 'our' elites and who are too afraid to challenge, let alone confront, these elites....

 

6 Pervasive Misconceptions about Iranian Women
Nina Ansary

The historical narrative of the “woman question” in Iran is an intricate labyrinth, not a story that can be accurately recounted by portraying women as either “oppressed” or “liberated” during a particular historical period. In fact, that audacious history winds through unexpected twists and turns, gains and losses, triumphs and defeats....

 
God for the 21st Century
Roshan, New Age Islam

God for the 21st Century

Contrary to what many atheist commentators had predicted, the march of ‘modernity’ in the 21st century has not led to the extinction of religion. Belying their hopes, modern science miserably failed to disprove God. In fact, today there is an increasing convergence between science and religion, something that was considered absolutely impossible by many ‘progressives’ just a few decades ago....

 

Can A Smart Person Believe In God?

Contrary to what many believe, science definitely has not disproven God. This myth draws its sustenance in part from the way atheist scientists have defined what science and the ‘scientific method’ are, leaving out the question of God in what they regard as science. That is why, Guillen says, God will never be part of science’s so-called theory of everything, given the way atheist scientists have defined what science and is not. But that does not at all mean that science has or can ever disprove God.....

Matters of Faith, Peace and War
Maulana Wahiduddin Khan

A couple of days after I started reading Fatah’s book, I received a couple of books penned by Maulana Wahiduddin Khan, as soft-spoken a man as one can come across. Also, a proponent of enduring peace who never tires of reminding Muslims – and the world – that Islam stands for peace, he is an intellectual who believes that Jihad begins not with fighting the enemy in battle but overcoming your own ‘nafs’. This does not necessarily mean that everybody within the community or the larger polity happily soaks in what he says....

 

Muslims Won’t Listen To Hirsi Ali
Tarek Fatah

Hirsi Ali identifies her audience as “Mecca Muslims”, her label for non-radical, religious Muslims, a category few Muslims will understand unless they read her book. She writes: “I hope to engage (Mecca Muslims) … in a dialogue about the meaning and practice of their faith. I hope that they will be one of the primary audiences for this book....

Heresy Based On Hearsay
Ziya Us Salam

Does it strike her that in Islam no woman is expected to change her name following marriage and she can even walk out of it without giving any reason whatsoever? The prophet’s wives retained their maiden names. And a woman enjoys three times the rights of the man over her children. These nuances would not have struck her mind. In the season of Islam bashing, she adds to the din. Full of contradictions and anomalies, low on facts....

Related Article:

Salam! Maulana Ziya Us Salam

 

Zakaria, then a 10-year-old, is baffled when her aunt Amina's husband, Sohail, takes a second wife, something unheard of in their family till then. Zakaira tells parallel stories of Amina's polygamous marriage and Pakistan's hopes and betrayals through this book....

 

The Broader Notion of Din Al-Islam: Chapter 7, Essential Message of Islam

There can be no debate that din al-Islam is the religion of the followers of the Prophet Muhammad: Islam. However, the Qur’an also uses the generic word Islam, and its different roots, and the word din, with various shades of meaning. Thus the Qur’an uses the word ‘din’ to denote judgment (1:4), divine law (2:193), law (of the land) (12:76), obedience or devotion (39:3), faith, religion, moral responsibility (107:1), religion in the conventional sense (110:2) etc. Based on these Qur’anic illustrations, the term din would appear to embrace the broader notion of obedience (to God) or compliance (with God’s commandments), as against religion in its popular sense.....

 

This book is not without its flaws. A drawback of the anecdotal style in which it is written is that Ahmad’s life is presented with neither chronological nor thematic consistency. Comprehensive indices would make this a minor irritant, but since the index here is rather incomplete, reviewing material on any particular event or subject necessitates paging through the entire book....

 

Qur’anic Reflections on Nature: Chapter 4, Essential Message of Islam
Muhammad Yunus

The Qur’an is alive with reflections on the beauty and harmony of nature and on its relationship with life as part of its ontological debate. These reflections are in the form of statements, which capture the laws of the cosmos in expansive open ways that captivate and beguile us by their beauty, majesty and accuracy. Thus for example, the following Qur’anic observations are picturesque and imaginative, and at the same time clearly indicative of the axial and the orbital rotations of heavenly bodies that science discovered many centuries later…..

Book Review: The Upstairs Wife - Hopes and Betrayals
Rafia Zakaria

According to Pakistani law, a man can have up to four wives, which could leave a woman devastated and publicly humiliated after her husband decides to exercise this legal right. It’s this interplay between the private and public that journalist and human rights activist Rafia Zakaria explores in her first book, The Upstairs Wife: An Intimate History of Pakistan….

 
Culture of the Cosmos Is a ‘Culture of Peace’
Belinda F. Espiritu for New Age Islam

Culture of the Cosmos Is a ‘Culture of Peace’

Maulana Khan explains that the culture of the cosmos is a ‘culture of peace’, which enables the cosmos to function for millions of years without witnessing any confrontation that could have impaired its functioning. In his thoughts, “if a ‘culture of violence’ had informed the cosmos, by now it would have been devastated, and there would have been no possibility for human life to exist”....

 

With the authorities having loudly and repeatedly declared the word off-limits to all non-Muslims, especially in their Malay-language religious texts, arguments, counter-arguments and outright displays of obstinacy have come (and will probably keep coming) from all sides in the past decade....

 

Imagining Pakistan as an Islamic State
Dr Ishtiaq Ahmed

In the liberal-Marxist intellectual environment in which I received my political grooming in the Lahore of the late 1960s, the standard view was that the Muslim League, especially its supreme leader, Mohammad Ali Jinnah, wanted a separate state for the Muslim nation to escape exploitation at the hands of the Hindu moneylenders....

 

Correct the focus. The US must take a firm stand to ensure that the Wahhabi philosophy does not get propagated disproportionately in Muslim countries around the world particularly in Pakistan. The US must ensure that the philosophy of Sufism is given the share of voice that it deserves as the belief system of the majority....

 


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