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Books and Documents

Books and Documents

ہندوستان میں مسلمان معاشرہ، دو طبقوں میں منقسم تھا ۔ ایک اشراف یا امراء کا طبقہ اور دوسرا جلاف اور عوام کا۔ طبقہ اعلیٰ نے جو ثقافتی اقدار تخلیق کیں مثلاً ناموس ، عزت، عصمت،  شان و شوکت اور آن بان کے لئے بہترین قیمتی سازوسامان ، ہیرے جواہرات، ہاتھی گھوڑے اور محلات رکھتا تھا ۔ عمدہ کھانا کھاتا اور نفیس لباس استعمال کرتا تھا وہ اسی طرح اپنے حرم میں خوبصورت عورتیں جمع کرتا تھا جیسے دوسری قیمتی اشیاء اور جس طرح قیمتی اشیاء کی حفاظت کرتا تھا اسی طرح بیگمات کی حفاظت کی غرض سے اونچی اونچی دیواروں کی محل سرائیں تعمیر کراتا تھا او ر پہرے پر فوجی و خواجہ سرا رکھا کرتا تھا۔ ان پر پردے کی سخت پابندی ہوتی تھی تاکہ دوسروں کی ان پر نظر نہ پڑے ۔

ہندوستان میں اسلام اوّل جنوبی ہندوستان میں تاجروں کے ذریعے پھیلا پھر سندھ میں عربوں کی فتح کے بعد اور آخر میں ترکوں کی فتح کے بعد شمالی ہندوستان آیا ۔ ہندوستان میں مسلمان کی آمد سے قبل یہاں جو مذہبی ، سیاسی، سماجی، اور اقتصادی حالت تھی اس کی بنیاد ذات پات تھی ۔ معاشرے کےمختلف طبقے مختلف ذاتوں اور طبقوں میں تقسیم تھے ۔ اب ذات پات کی تقسیم میں اس بات کی کوئی گنجائش نہیں تھی کہ کوئی شخص اپنی صلاحیت کے ذریعے معاشرے میں کوئی اعلیٰ مقام حاصل کرسکے ۔ یہاں انسان کی پیدائش ہمیشہ کے لیے اسے ایک نہ تبدیہ ہونے والا سماجی مقام اور مرتبہ دیتی تھی۔ جس سے چھٹکارا پانا یا تبدیل کرنا اس کے لیے ایک ناممکن امر تھا ۔

روئے زمین کے بادشاہ خدائے بزرگ و بر تر کی بر گزیدہ مخلوق ہیں ان کے حکم کی خلاف ورزی یا اہانت شروع میں کسی طرح جائز نہیں ۔ پس کسی معاملے میں ظاہری یا پوشیدہ ان کی مخالفت جائز نہیں ..... نبی کریم صلی اللہ علیہ وسلم نے فرمایا ہے کہ جس نے سلطان کی اطاعت کی اور جس نے میری اطاعت کی اس نے اللہ کی اطاعت کی اور جس نے اللہ کی اطاعت کی وہ بخشا گیا ۔ (1)

اسلامی معاشرے میں اس وقت سماجی تبدیلیاں آنا شروع ہوئیں جب اسلامی فتوحات کے ذریعے عراق و ایران فتح ہوئے اور ایک بڑی تعداد نے اسلام قبول کرلیا ۔ چونکہ عرب معاشرے میں کسی فرد کی شناخت اس کے قبیلے کے ذریعے سے ہوتی تھی اس لیے جب غیر عرب مسلمان ہوئے تو مسئلہ یہ پیدا ہوا کہ انہیں کس طرح عرب کے قبائلی نظام میں ضم کیا جائے ۔ چنانچہ اس کا حل یہ نکالا گیا کہ مسلمان ہونے والے افراد کو کسی نہ کسی عرب قبیلے کا رکن بننا پڑے گا۔ غیر عرب قبیلوں میں شمولیت کے بعد یہ لوگ موالی کہلائے کہ جس کا واحد مولا ہے ۔ چونکہ موالی عرب نہیں تھے اس لیے عرب قبائلی نظام میں ان کی حیثیت ثانوی ہوکر رہ گئی ۔

 

انسان کی فطرت میں توہمات کا اثر اس قدر ہوتاہے کہ اس کی وجہ سے اس کے جذبات کو آسانی سے بھڑکایا جاسکتا ہے ۔ اس لیے وہ روایات کہ جو عقیدہ اور توہمات کی بنیاد پر تشکیل دی جاتی ہیں، وہ جلد ہی مقبول ہوجاتی ہیں اور انہیں لوگ بغیر کسی تر دو کے قبول کرلیتے ہیں ۔ مثلاً اگر یہ مشہور کردیا جاتا ہے کہ کسی صوفی یا پہنچے ہوئے پیر کیے قبر اچانک دریافت ہوئی ہے لوگ اس کی تحقیق کئے بغیر عام طور سے قبر پر ثواب یا منت ماننے کی غرض سے جانا شروع ہوجاتا ہے ۔ اور اس قبر کی دریافت ہونے کے ساتھ ہی اس کے ارد گرد روایات بننے کا سلسلہ شروع ہوجاتاہے ۔

 

However, the word literally means ‘the close ones.’ Therefore, in the second instance it understandably stands for people who are close enough, but not necessarily relatives.4 The subsequent reference to the neighbour who is a ‘stranger’ neither a relative, nor ‘close enough,’ must therefore include anyone, regardless of religion, nationality, or race. In other words, this verse explicitly calls for kindness to all people including strangers who may belong to other faiths, nationalities or races.,,,,,

 

At least 90% of married Egyptian women between the ages of 15 and 49 have undergone FGM, a practice that continues to cause an unknown number of deaths. In Tunisia – often seen as a liberal beacon in the region – 47.2% of women have suffered domestic violence; in Egypt, 99.3% of women have experienced sexual harassment. Saudi Arabian women of any age need the permission of a male legal guardian to travel, marry, work or access education, and must wear abaya robes and headscarves in public....

 

صوفیوں نے اگر چہ ترک دنیا تو کی ، مگر انہوں نے جنگلوں او رپہاڑوں میں رہنے کے بجائے شہروں میں رہنا پسند کیا کہ جہاں ان کی خانقاہوں کی تعمیر میں حکمراں اور امراء نے حصہ لیا تاکہ اس خدمت کے بعد وہ بھی ثواب میں حصہ بٹاسکیں ۔ یہ بھی ایک حقیقت ہے کہ خانقاہ کے اخراجات کی بڑی رقم حکمرانوں اور امراء کی جانب سےآتی تھی ۔ اس طرح سے ایک طرف تو امداد لی جاتی تھی اور دوسری طرف اسے دنیاوی طاقت واقتدار سے علیحدہ کر کے ایک متبادل قوت بنا دیا تھا کہ جہاں صوفی کو تمام روحانی اور دنیاوی اختیارات پر کنٹرول تھا اور وہ لوگوں کی ضروریات پوری کرتا تھا ۔

 

اکبر نے ہندوؤں میں اعتماد پیدا کرنے کی غرض سے اور مذہبی رواداری کا ثبوت دیتے ہوئے جزیے کو ختم کیا ہندوؤں سے یاترا ٹیکس اٹھایا اور حکومت کے اقتدار میں غیر مسلموں کو برابر کی شرکت دے کر مغلیہ سلطنت کے ڈھانچے کو بدل دیا اقتدار اب صرف ایک ہی طبقے میں محدود نہیں تھا بلکہ اس میں اہل ہندوستان مذہبی بنیادوں سے بالا تر شریک تھے ۔ اس کی وجہ سے ہندوستان کے عوام میں یہ احساس ہوا کہ مغلیہ سلطنت ہندوؤں او ر مسلمانوں کی مشترکہ سلطنت ہے۔

 

Given the horrors that continue to be committed in the name of Islam by some self-styled ‘Islamic groups in different parts of the world today, it is hardly surprising that many non-Muslims have serious misgivings about Islam and those who claim to follow it. Harsh, extremely literalist, punitive, misogynist and hate-driven interpretations of Islam and the brutalities that follow from them continue to reinforce widespread negative stereotypes about Islam and Muslims across the world......

Dante had been central to Joe’s academic career but until Katherine’s death he had only experienced him as a scholar and an admirer. “Now, for the first time, I identified with him in a visceral way,” he says. “After Katherine died, I turned to books about death and loss but nothing I read really spoke to me: until I realised that Dante had experienced exactly what I was going through. His muse, Beatrice, dies, and she becomes his guide in The Divine Comedy....

 

ہندوستان میں مسلمانوں کی آمد کو تین ادوار میں تقسیم کیا جاسکتا ہے ۔ جنوبی ہندوستان کے ساحلی علاقوں میں بحیثیت تاجر، سندھ اور شمالی ہندوستان میں بحیثیت فاتح اور حکمران۔ جب مسلمان جنوبی ہندوستان کے ساحلی علاقوں میں تاجر کی حثییت سے آئے تو ان کا رویہ پر امن تھا وہ اس بات کے خواہش مند تھے کہ پر امن سر گرمیوں کے ذریعے زیادہ سے زیادہ تجارتی فوائد حاصل کریں ۔ ہندوستان کے ہندو حکمرانوں نے ان نووارد مسلمانوں کے ساتھ نہ صرف یہ کہ رواداری اور حسن سلوک کا رویہ اختیار کیا بلکہ انہیں ہر قسم کی سہولتیں دیں۔

 

.....there is no Qur’anic basis to extending any special favor or according any spiritual superiority to an individual just because he or she is, or claims to be, a descendent of the Prophet, and that there is absolutely no Qur’anic basis for anyone, no matter his line of descent from the Prophet, to claim intercession with God on anyone’s behalf as a spiritual guide. .....

 

Pakistan has also kept its occupation the area as a pretext of fraudulent agreement between Pakistan and 2 of its stooges from occupied Jammu & Kashmir without the knowledge and consent of people of Gilgit Baltistan on 28th April 1949 on the same date, when UNCIP had asked Pakistan to withdraw its forces from this disputed part. In 1963 Pakistan illegally conceded 7000 Sq KMs area of Shimshal, part of Hunza (Occupied Gilgit Baltistan) to China  for the construction of Karakorum Highway (KKH) which is being used extensively by both China and Pakistan for economic as well as military purposes....

 
Exposing Lies, Telling the Truth
Robert J. Burrowes, New Age Islam
Exposing Lies, Telling the Truth
Robert J. Burrowes, New Age Islam

He shows, again and again, that the one recurring legacy of violence is more violence. Time after time, he shows that even when the war ended, 'the violence never stopped'. He also illustrates how those secondary beneficiaries of Empire – those of us in western countries who benefit from the violence and plunder of 'our' elites and who are too afraid to challenge, let alone confront, these elites....

 

.....any generalization of the noted Qur’anic verses to foment hatred against contemporary Christians and Jews will be tantamount to distorting the message of the Qur’an. To the critic however, this may sound apologetic, as it contradicts the ground reality of the present day Muslim world, where anti-Semitic sentiments run high. It may therefore be useful to clarify this by drawing on modern secular scholarship. Thus to quote Karen Armstrong: “Anti-Semitism is a Christian vice. Hatred of the Jews became marked in the Muslim world after the creation of the state of Israel in 1948. It is significant that Muslims were compelled to import anti-Jewish myths from Europe and translate into Arabic such virulently anti-Semitic texts as the Protocols of the elders of Zion......

The historical narrative of the “woman question” in Iran is an intricate labyrinth, not a story that can be accurately recounted by portraying women as either “oppressed” or “liberated” during a particular historical period. In fact, that audacious history winds through unexpected twists and turns, gains and losses, triumphs and defeats....

 
God for the 21st Century
God for the 21st Century
Roshan, New Age Islam

Contrary to what many atheist commentators had predicted, the march of ‘modernity’ in the 21st century has not led to the extinction of religion. Belying their hopes, modern science miserably failed to disprove God. In fact, today there is an increasing convergence between science and religion, something that was considered absolutely impossible by many ‘progressives’ just a few decades ago....

 

Contrary to what many believe, science definitely has not disproven God. This myth draws its sustenance in part from the way atheist scientists have defined what science and the ‘scientific method’ are, leaving out the question of God in what they regard as science. That is why, Guillen says, God will never be part of science’s so-called theory of everything, given the way atheist scientists have defined what science and is not. But that does not at all mean that science has or can ever disprove God.....

The Qur’an fully clarifies itself in a passage dating from the late Medinite period that asks the Muslims to be just and virtuous to those who did not fight against them over religion, nor expelled them from their homelands (60:8), and reminds them that their enemies could eventually turn their friends (60:7), thus predicting the eventual friendship of the Medinite Muslim community with their Meccan foes. The revelation also clarifies that it forbade the Muslims to befriend only those who fought against them over religion, and expelled them from their homelands and helped (others) in their expulsion (60:9).....

 
Matters of Faith, Peace and War
Maulana Wahiduddin Khan
Matters of Faith, Peace and War
Ziya Us Salam

A couple of days after I started reading Fatah’s book, I received a couple of books penned by Maulana Wahiduddin Khan, as soft-spoken a man as one can come across. Also, a proponent of enduring peace who never tires of reminding Muslims – and the world – that Islam stands for peace, he is an intellectual who believes that Jihad begins not with fighting the enemy in battle but overcoming your own ‘nafs’. This does not necessarily mean that everybody within the community or the larger polity happily soaks in what he says....

 
Muslims Won’t Listen To Hirsi Ali
Tarek Fatah
Muslims Won’t Listen To Hirsi Ali
Tarek Fatah

Hirsi Ali identifies her audience as “Mecca Muslims”, her label for non-radical, religious Muslims, a category few Muslims will understand unless they read her book. She writes: “I hope to engage (Mecca Muslims) … in a dialogue about the meaning and practice of their faith. I hope that they will be one of the primary audiences for this book....

Addressed to a largely unlettered people and aimed at bringing about a quantum change in the social order of the world under the ambit of its monotheistic discourse, the Qur’an does not talk about pursuing universal knowledge in a direct and straightforward way. However, its broader message resonates with exhortations and inspirations to acquiring universal knowledge.

The very first revelation of the Qur’an is a commandment to reading and an affirmation of the intellectual potential of man (96:1-5/Ch. 1.2). With the progress of the revelation the Qur’an declares that: i) man is assigned the role of God’s deputy on earth and endowed with the intellectual faculty to identify and characterize every object individually (2:30-35/Ch. 5.1), ii) granted special ‘favours’ above much of the creation (17:70), iii) fashioned in the finest model (95:4), and iv) whatever is in the heavens and the earth is made serviceable to him  (31:20, 45:13)....

 

Pieced together, the foregoing verses and those in the last two chapters bring across the Qur’anic vision of a universal brotherhood of humanity that will allow people of diverse faith, culture, colour and language to live together, to know each other and to assist each other to make life easy and peaceful for all human beings. Some Muslim scholars, however, advocate that the non-Muslims (in its present day sense), who do not believe in the Prophet Muhammad, will not qualify for God’s mercy.....

He also wanted to talk to her on Skype but Erelle put him off until the next day. The next evening she was ready for him, her hair covered by a Hijab, the traditional headcovering - and with a photographer positioned out of sight to take pictures of the terrorist on the computer screen....

 


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