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Books and Documents

Books and Documents

Why Search For Truth?- تلاشِ حق کیوں؟  حصہ 2
Afaq Danish, New Age Islam
Why Search For Truth?- تلاشِ حق کیوں؟ حصہ 2
Afaq Danish, New Age Islam آفاق دانش

کوئی بھی فرد ہو یا جماعت وہ یہ پسند نہیں کرتی کہ اس پر کوئی بھی فرد یا جماعت گمراہی کا لیبل چسپاں کرے ۔ کیوں کہ ایسی صورت اور حالات کے پیدا ہونے سے سماجی رشتوں پر بُرا اثر پڑتا ہے۔ شادی بیاہ اور کاروبار اور ملازمت میں ملنے والی سہولتوں اور مراعات سے محرومی کا امکان پیدا ہوجاتا ہے۔ یہی وجہ ہے کہ آدمی اپنے انفرادی اور سماجی تحفظ کے لیے خود کو کسی نہ کسی عقیدہ یا مذہب سے وابستہ رکھنا ضروری سمجھتا ہے۔ کچھ لوگ اپنے مشاہدے اور مطالعہ کی روشنی میں اپنے یقین و عقیدے میں تبدیلی تو کرلیتے ہیں مگر اس کا اظہار عام نہیں کرتے۔

 

Imam Hasan Mujtaba was born to Fatima Zahra (s.a) in the second year of the Hijri. His Kunniyat (agnomen) is Abu Muhammad. Amirul Momineen Ali (a s) said that in his natural disposition, Hasan is very much like his noble grandfather, the Prophet of God (saw). The holy Prophet (saw) has repeatedly said, “These two sons of mine (viz. Hasan and Husain) are the leaders of the youths of paradise.” But here we will not mention the holy verses or traditions showing the grace and honour of Imam Hasan. How can we do so when nearly one-fourth of the holy Quran shows the excellence and nobility of the holy family of the Prophet (saw)?...

 

A pious erudition, gentle contemplative quietude, a concentrated and secluded spiritual life, typical of so many Sufis, was not necessarily the only ideal image of a saint during his lifetime, in the eyes of ordinary people. Undertaking a journey into himself (since the Path to the Absolute in the end turns out to be a journey to the very depth of one’s own ego), ‘polishing the mirror of his heart’, a mystic-introvert could become a cult figure of popular Islam.  This could only occur where there could be some sort of easy transformation into an accessible ideal, for example, the transformation of the scholar-theoretician al-Hujwiri into the people’s benefactor, Data Ganjbakhsh....

 

It was Emperor Akbar, during whose reign Lahore became the Mughal capital, who finally completed the construction of the architectural complex of the Dargah. However, the tomb continued constantly to be reconstructed and expanded till recently. Its spacious arched row, where there is a mosque and halls for Majalis, has been built in our times, and the massive silver doors are a gift of the last Shah of Iran. With transformation into a popular saint, al-Hujwiri, as usually happens, lost his original name and acquired the nickname Data Ganjbakhsh, consisting of two synonymous parts: data (Sanskrit for ‘giver’, or ‘generous’) and Ganjbakhsh (Persian for ‘generous’, or ‘lavish’). However, in everyday life he is called by a still shorter name - Data Sahib....

 
Why Search For Truth?- تلاشِ حق کیوں؟ حصہ 1
Afaq Danish
Why Search For Truth?- تلاشِ حق کیوں؟ حصہ 1
Afaq Danish, New Age Islam آفاق دانش

حقیقت تو یہ ہے کہ ہم سبھی لوگ اپنے لیے ایک خدا کا انتخاب کرنے پر مجبور ہیں۔ ایک فرانسیسی مفکر والٹیر نے کہا تھا کہ خدا ہماری اپنے ناقابل تردید ضرورت ہے، اگر وہ واقعی موجود نہیں ہے تو ہم کو اسے ایجاد کرنا پڑتا ہے۔ دینی مدارس میں چاہے وہ کسی بھی مذہب یا عقیدے کے لوگوں سے آباد ہوں سب ایک خاص طرزِ فکر اور رجحان کے افراد ہوتے ہیں انھیں اپنے سے کم عقل لوگوں کو آسمانی عذاب و عتاب سے ڈرا کر اپنے ماتحت رکھنے کا شوق ہوتا ہے۔

 

We shall also discuss in brief the Shura for the selection of the third caliph. We have always claimed that people, who do not accept that Nass existed for Imamat, must accept that Ijma is the right of the Ummah. But from the very beginning, it was deprived of this right. Even if it is proved for the first and the second Caliph, our aim here, is to prove that the Shura appointed by Umar did not constitute Ijma. After the ten years of his Caliphate, the second Caliph, it must be said, committed error in appointing the Shura....

 

A certain individual borrowed my poetical works, of which there was no other copy, and retained the manuscript in his possession, and circulated it, and struck out my name which stood at its head, and caused all my labour to be lost. May God forgive him! I had also composed another book, entitled ‘The Highway of Religion’ (Minhaj ad-din), on   method of Sufism - may God make it flourish! A shallow pretender, whose words carry no weight, erased my name from the title page and gave out to the public that he was the author, notwithstanding that connoisseurs laughed at his assertion. (al-Hujwiri 1992: 2)...

 

Behind the first veil we find ma‘rifat (Gnosis of God); behind the second, tauhid (Unification); behind the third, ıman (Faith); behind the fourth, ţaharat (Purification from Foulness); behind the fifth, Salat (Prayer) and so on right up to the last, eleventh veil, which hides Sama‘ (Audition), i.e. collective zeal with the singing of mystic verses to music. The practice of Sama ‘became a virtual stumbling block, the most contradictory subject of Sufi literature, around which controversies raged continually. Theologians have discussed endlessly whether the inclusion of Sama ‘in the mystic ritual is lawful, or whether it is only bid‘a, a reprehensible innovation. The most lively, spectacular and entertaining part of the Sufi ritual, Sama ‘in the first instance afforded the possibility of a quick attainment of the state of Wajd (ecstasy)....

...Caliphate was transferred to Abu Bakr, even though all the companions were aware of its adverse effects in the future. Thus Imam Muhammad Bukhari in Sahih Bukhari describes the events surrounding the last illness of the Messenger of Allah (saw) in the following words: Ibn Abbas said, “Thursday! What (a great calamity) took place on Thursday!” Then he started weeping till his tears moistened the gravels of the ground. Then he said, “On Thursday the illness of Allah’s Apostle was aggravated and he said, “Fetch me a pen and ink so that I may write something for you, after which you will never go astray.”...

 

If they say: In the early period it was necessary to formulate the laws of Shariat through Ijtehad, but after that there was no need of it. In reply I say: The laws of Islam were complete in the life of the holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) as evident from the verse,

“This day I have perfected your religion.” (Surah Maidah: 3)

Then how is it that Ijtehad was required to frame the Islamic laws? Now let us understand that Ijtehad was not needed to frame the Islamic laws. It was required for another purpose. Consider this statement: Laws that are derived on the basis of conjecture and Ijtehad are mutable with the passage of time....

 

There is no controversy regarding the matter that Hazrat Ali ibne Abi Talib is the caliph – the difference is on the point whether Ali (a.s.) is the absolute legatee and immediate successor of the Prophet (s.a.) or is he the fourth one? It is clear that Ahle Sunnat believe him to be the fourth Caliph, whereas the Shias consider him to be the immediate Caliph after the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.a). But in the beginning, we will quote the writings of some great scholars. And with a little study, accompanied by the rules of research, arrive at some conclusions so that the falsity of those claims is exposed….

 

Visited by angels and demons, they composed hymns, drove away the demons, healed, blessed, as if having made up their mind to compensate for earthly delight, rudeness and carnality of many bygone and many future epochs with the powerful upsurge of enthusiasm and with the ecstatic action of renunciation of the world. (Hesse 1945, 1: 387-8)  These words of Hermann Hesse about Christian saints are equally applicable to the South Asian Auliya. One of the most intriguing questions, arising in the course of study of the cult of saints, happens to be: who became a Wali in the mass consciousness of the faithful and why?...

 

Mu’awiyah used to severely punish all those who mentioned any virtue of Ali (a.s.). Whenever anyone related anything against Ali (a.s.), no matter how great an allegation, he was rewarded amply by Mu’awiyah. Thus, in that period, it was impossible to differentiate truth from falsehood. Only the ignoramuses would differ on this score. Ziyad and Hajjaj were the worst characters in this regard. These two usurpers could never stand anyone having love and regard for Ali (a.s.). Such a person was invariably arrested and severely punished by them....

 

“The purpose of our calling you all here was not this; we have invited you to prove an important matter by discussion.”  And he said, “I am Mamoon the Caliph, the follower of Islam and I consider Hazrat Ali to be the most superior among all creatures and most deserving of caliphate. I invite all of you to accept this belief and to express your opinion here.” Ishaq bin Ibrahim says, “I said: Caliph! Please tell us why you consider Ali (a.s.) most superior so that others may also know about it.” Acceding to the request, Mamoon said, “O Ishaq! What factors prove superiority? ...

 

The cult of saints was from the very beginning under suspicion by the representatives of ‘official’ Islam, seeing in it shirk, or assigning of ‘partners’ to Allah, i.e. polytheism. In the strict monotheism of Islam, worship of objects and people, even though saints, was looked upon as a terrible sin and infidelity (Kufr). Particularly intolerant to the cult of saints was the attitude of the Hanbali madhab, and in modern times that of the Wahhabis, advocates of the purification of Islam from external influences and of return to its sources. ...

 

It is true that in our times a Sajjadanasheen may be in service in a temporal establishment, has a family and may not necessarily live in the Dargah. He is supposed to spend a few nights in a year at the Mazar of his ancestor saint, and participate in Maulud, ‘Urs and other festive ceremonies. A great deal has been written about the cult of saints by Western travellers, the South Asian men of letters and publicists and, of course, by scholars: this phenomenon seemed to be too broad-based and picturesque to be ignored....

 

The Messenger of Allah (s a w) said, “Of whomsoever I am the Master, this Ali is his Master too. O Allah! Love those who love him and be an enemy to those who are inimical to him.” There is unanimity of the whole community of the Shia and Sunni scholars over the authenticity and correctness of this tradition. When the Messenger of Allah (s a w) reached a place called Ghadeer Khum on his return from the farewell Hajj...

 

The excessiveness of the cult of saints threatened to eradicate the distance between the temporal and the spiritual. The sacred was constantly lost in the profane because of an inevitable mixing-up of ritual with everyday life. Profanation increased in the practice of pilgrimage: thus, memorial services for saints during their ‘Urs were marked by tumultuous fairs and were accompanied by unrestrained public revelry, performances by vagrant buffoons and songstresses of easy virtue, wrestling bouts and cockfights. It was understandable that the rulers of the Delhi Sultanate, Firoz Shah Tughlaque or Sikandar Lodi, zealous for a purity of faith, endeavoured to bring Ziyarat under control and, in particular, prohibit female Muslims from attending ‘Urs....

 

Abu Hurayrah was a companion of the holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.), who embraced Islam in the year of the battle of Khaibar. Being unemployed all the time, he always accompanied the holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.). Also, as he was aware of the real attitude of Abu Hurayrah the Prophet (s.a.w.a.) said, “O Abu Hurayrah! Visit me only occasionally, so that your love for me increases.” This shows that Abu Hurayrah did not love the Prophet (s.a.w.a.). However, this matter is beyond the domain of our discussion here. Yes! Abu Hurayrah is the greatest narrator of Ahle Sunnat traditions and in their view his reports are reliable. In spite of the fact that this humble writer himself was from the Ahle Sunnat, he considers the errors of Abu Hurayrah opposed to justice....

 

Like the majority of the Shaikhs of the Chishtiyya order, Qutbuddin Bakhtiyar lived in voluntary penury and could not provide for his large family. Stale bread, only God knows where from, appeared under the saint’s prayer rug every day, and constituted all the sustenance of his house-hold. When the saint’s talkative wife spread this news among the neighbours, the ‘miracle’ immediately ceased.  It is paradoxical, but a living saint, performing kar mat, was as a rule supposed to be inferior in significance to a dead saint...

 

In the popular Islam of the lower strata of society saints were venerated in the first instance not as Gnostics but as miracle workers, bearers of divine bliss (baraka), intercessors and patrons of various social groups and castes of artisans. By virtue of their closeness to the people, voluntary penury and their ascetic mode of life, Auliya often carried greater authority than the ‘official’ experts of religion, and therefore the authorities tried in every way possible to enlist their support….

 

From the above narration, it becomes clear that Mughirah cursed Amirul Momineen Ali (a.s.) even though the holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) had said, “One who curses Ali, curses me and one who 35 curses me, curses Allah.” Hence, hahabuddin Alusi writes in his Tafseer, “Anyone, who curses Ali bin Abi Talib, whether in his life or after he passed away, would be an infidel.” Thus in the book Hayatul Haiwan, Allamah Damiri and in Yanabiul Mawaddah of Khwaja Kalaan Qunduzi have also established this fact. Thus, it is confirmed that by committing this deed, Mughirah had become an infidel. Therefore any tradition related by him will not be reliable….

 

In the majority of cases this syncretism was a by-product of superficial Islamisation, the illegitimate offspring of popular Islam, uncon-sciously retaining in it a conglomerate of pre-Islamic religious beliefs.  Only in rare instances did syncretism become the policy of the upper social strata and intellectual elite, and it is precisely this syncretism that evokes particularly tender emotion on the part of modern historians. ….

One of the errors and negligence of the historians was that they followed the idiom “to find fault in the great ones is a fault” to the hilt. They almost seemed bewitched and enchanted. They not only refused to condemn one of the many Muslim oppressors who passed in the history of Islam nor did they ever criticize them, rather, they listed their names among the truthful ones. They regarded the deadly poison that had permeated into the body of the ummah, as a useful and effective tonic….

 

By the Grace of the Almighty and under the shade of the attention and guidance of the universal wisdom, the guide of the path, the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.), we begin the book TASHREEH WA MUHAAKAMAH DAR TAAREEKH-EAALE MUHAMMAD [Analysis of the History of Aale Muhammad (s.a.w.s.)]. With all humility, the author hopes this book will be considered as the foremost among such works. It is well known that love and affection for the family of the infallibles and pure ones (Ahle Bayt (a.s.)) is incumbent on the Muslim Ummah. Hence, it is our most important duty to know the conditions and the history of events connected with this pious household (a.s.). ...

 
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