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Books and Documents

Books and Documents

As studying, learning and teaching the Quran was incumbent on every Muslim, mosques were the earliest centres of formal education. Free lectures were given on the Holy Quran and Sunnah; later a Jurisprudence, Logic, Ethics, Philosophy were also included gradually. However, standard educational institutions were later set up and handsomely endowed not only providing free education but also free board and lodging. Throughout the Muslim world education was free at all levels and illiteracy was almost unknown....In distant Spain fifteen years after the death of Imam Ghazali was born Ibn Rushd who was destined to keep alight the torch lit by Al-Kindi and Farabi - and dominate thinking" in awakening Europe. Imam Ghazali's fame had spread even to the distant Spain and Ibn Rushd felt honour bound to defend Philosophy and its Masters and refute Ghazali's "Incoherence of Philosophers" with "Incoherence of the incoherent." -- Masarrat Husain Zuberi

 

Aristotle and Imam Ghazali are two immortals of history who put their seal on European and Muslim philosophical scholarship through succeeding generations. The generations disappeared in the fold of time but their teachings continue to attract mankind. Still they remain difficult and controversial as in their own times…. The general 'theme of such accusation is that in his enthusiastic defence of religion, Al-Ghazali, unintentionally, shut the door to scientific enquiry. "The mystic way of the Sufi prescribed is incompatible with rational methods of science" and the accusation takes another form that "the Muslims, unfortunately, followed Al-Ghazali, and neglected, little by little, the study of sciences. Their once great civilization faded. On the other hand Ibn Rushd defended sciences and medieval Europe followed the way prescribed by him to attain it. This is the true spirit of Latin Averroeism which led to the rise of European Science.

This calumny first propagated in the West has, unfortunately, been taken up as a refrain by Muslim scholars of the present [2] day as well. I have, in all humility, attempted putting him in his correct historical perspective to defend Al-Ghazali against this persistent Calumny. Though Averroeism became a symbol of intellectual revolt in the 13th-14th Century Europe, Al-Ghazali's own [3] influence cannot be ignored or belittled. Influence of Muslim thought on the West is an engrossing subject as it played a significant part in sparking both the humanist and scientific movements. The later Reformation and the earlier Renaissance owed much to the borrowings from the East, writes MASARRAT HUSAIN ZUBERI

MOLWI MASOOD AALAM NADWI writes in his well known book "Muhammad Ibnê Abdul Wahab" - on the side commentary: "The Southern part of Najd has the famous town of Riyadh, the Capital of his (Wahabi) headquarters in Dariya. Both these villages are in the valley called Waadi Hanifa (situated in Najd)." (Pp/16)

Allama Dahlaan has quoted these Ahadith from the Sihaah: The Holy Prophet (Sallalaahu Alayhi Wasallam) said: "During the initial part of my Dawah in Mecca, I particularly invited the outside tribes who used to arrive during the Hajj season. From all these tribes the most hostile and ugly reaction was from the Banu Hanifa tribe." (The same tribe in, which Ibn-e-Abdul Wahab was born. He founded Wahabism which is being followed by the Tableeghi Jamaat) (Addarus Sunniah, pp/52)

He quotes a further Hadith: Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddiq (Radiallahu Anhu) reports that the Prophet (Sallalaahu Alayhi Wasallam) said: "From the tribes that live in Waadi Hanifa, fine shall emerge till the final era. That valley shall be notorious for its fine because of the rise of false leaders." (Pp/52)

Hazrat Imraan, the son of Hazrat Haseen (Radiallahu Anhu) reports that the Prophet (Sallalaahu Alayhi Wasallam) disliked three tribes lifelong. (1) Banu Saqeef (2) Banu Hanifa (3) Banu Umayya (Tirmizi Shareef)

Molwi Abdur Rahim Shah has confessed that he himself drew the attention of Molwi Yusuf Kandehlwi (son of Molwi Ilyas, founder of the Tableeghi Jamaat) to the internal corruption of the Jamaat. Each time his reminders were ignored.

We quote: "For approximately 5 to 6 years, I have been continuously drawing the attention of Moulana Yusuf to the glaring weaknesses of the Tableeghi Jamaat. I also stated to him that if he did not pay attention to these problems, the Ulema would not remain silent for long. They will be forced by circumstances to react and the end result can never be predicted." (Usoolé Dawató Tableeg, pp/46)

A frustrated man goes on to state his subsequent actions: "Finally, when I did not see a desirable result, I resorted to a lot of Istikaara and Duas. Alhamdulillah, when I was thoroughly convinced of the dangers of Tableeghi Jamaat and the harm inflicted on the Ummah, I openly began to rectify their mistakes in my lectures in the presence of the Tableeghi Jamaat." (Usoolé Dawatô Tableeg, pp/46)

From this very place the old workers of Tableeghi Jamaat start their action of ‘brainwashing’. Brain-washing is a technical term, which means that any new person should be changed to this extent mentally, that he may remain attached to the Jamaat only, detaching himself from everyone, and he must disassociate himself from everything of his past to adopt into the mental environment of the Jamaat. This action of brainwashing gradually moves forward. At the end of a journey again certain new people are initiated for a long journey. As a result of repeated rounds of preaching, the new people are strongly attached to the regional workers. This relationship gradually brings one so close to Tableeghi Jamaat, that after some time to pass the Chilla (religious penance) of forty days, a caravan of simple Muslims marches towards the Centre at Nizamuddin Delhi. Reaching there, they meet a group of artistic religious teachers (Ulema) of Tableeghi Jamaat under whose supervision and control they have to pass each moment of their days and nights. In a depressing environment of this mental training, everyday the world-wide progress and extension of Jamaat, the artificial piety of the Central Amir-e-Jamaat, the belief shaking explanations of the faith of the Unity of Allah, wrong interpretations of Polytheism (Shirk) and bad innovations (Bidah), and the desire-provoking descriptions of the dignitaries of Deoband, all these things influence the mind to the extent that ultimately they become the disciple of some ‘Sheik’ (Spiritual Guide), or they are initiated to become disciple. In this way they are made the mental-slaves of their Jamaat and its faith

Let us examine the meaning of Khatimun Nabiyeen as Muslims generally understand it, and also see as to whom the first man was to reject the generally accepted meaning. We quote a well-known Qadiani Book, printed in Pakistan, in which they have rightly quoted Maulvi Qasim Nanotwi’s interpretation of the concept of Khatimun Nabiyeen to prove the truth of Mizra Gulam Ahmed Qadiani. It states: "Muslims are unanimous that the Prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) is Khatimun Nabiyeen because the Quran bears testimony to this. Muslims are also unanimous that the word Khatimun Nabiyeen used in the Quran is in his praise and is pointing out his greatness. Now the only question is, what is the meaning of the word Khatimun Nabiyeen. Obviously Qasim Nanotwi Sahib, the founder of Darul Uloom Deoband, has rejected the generally understood meaning of this Quranic verse.

After laying down the foundations of the Tableeghi Jamaat in the Name of Islam, and in order to work out decided objectives, they felt the necessity of inflammatory literature, which will infuse into the minds of people, division and corrupt faith that will create different groups among Muslims, which will never unite!Therefore to accomplish this work the writing services of Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanvi were acquired, as Maulana Shabbir Ahmad Usmani has stated in "Makalamatus Sadrain". He said, addressing Maulana Hifzur Rahman in the same function at Calcutta: "Please see, Hazrat Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanvi was our acclaimed dignitary, in this connection we heard some people saying that he was being given an allowance of Six Hundred Rupees per month, by the British."(Makalamatus Sadrain, pp/11, Published at Deoband) Surely the British Government was not his disciple (Mureed) for it to forward this amount as Nazrana (Gift) for the Pir. Moreover, Nazarenes are presented occasionally; monthly payment means that it was the remuneration for services rendered! The burning question is, how did the British establish a link with Maulana Thanvi, and how did he end up on the British payroll?

The Delegation reaching Hijaz, reported to the Muslims of India: "The Graves (Shrines) of Jannatul Mualla were dismantled and the house where the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) was born, was demolished, but the Najdi Government has assured us that it will not demolish or dismantle the Shrines of Madina similarly." (Report, Khilafat Committee, pp/43)

Again after one year in 1926, to review the condition created by the tyrannical hold of the Najdi Government in Hijaz, a world congregation was held during the Haj season at Mecca, and a Delegation of the Khalifat Committee was also sent to attend this conference under the auspices of Motamar-Alam-e-Islami.

In the book "Malfoozaté Ilyas", He (Maulana Manzoor Nomani ) writes, quoting one of his (Maulana Ilyas’s) statements: "He once said, ‘Hazrat Maulana Thanvi had done a great job, therefore it is my desire that his teachings be propagated amongst the masses and the method of preaching must be mine, so that his teaching will become popular among the public." (Malfoozat, pp/5 7)The structure of any missionary association has two parts, firstly teachings, and secondly the method of preaching. From these two if either is related to Islam then this association is qualified to be called an Islamic Association. But in the above statement of Maulana Ilyas the disturbing fact is that in both the aspects, neither is related to Allah and His Prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam). The teachings of Thanvi Sahib and the method of preaching of Maulana Ilyas himself. This makes it quite clear that the real object of the Tableeghi Jamaat is not to propagate the teachings of the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) but to propagate the teachings of Thanvi Sahib.

The Central leader of Tableeghi Jamaat, Maulvi Manzoor Nomani in his book called "Malfoozate Maulana Ilyas", writes: "Once he said that dream is the 46th part of Prophethood (He refers to Maulana Ilyas). Some people achieve such progress via a dream that it cannot be attained from prayer and penances, because in the dreams direct knowledge is revealed, which is a part of apostlehood then why will there be no progress?" (Malfoozate Maulana Ilyas, pp/51) .

Uptil now the discussion was an introduction to make the mind of followers even, now listen to the primary objective. "Again he said that nowadays, I am receiving the knowledge of realities, so try your utmost that I may get maximum sleep."(Malfoozate Maulana Ilyas, pp/51)At this point the statement of the Editor of Malfoozat shall not be devoid of interest. He writes: "On account of dryness my sleep was diminishing, then on the advice of the doctor and Hakim I started massaging my scalp with oil which increased the duration of my sleep."(Malfooz, pp/.51)

The Editor of "Malfoozat" writes: "Maulana Ilyas said that the method of this preaching was also manifested to me during a dream."(Malfoozat, pp /51). You will realise that this statement of Maulana Ilyas has brought to light all the hidden facts.

NewAgeIslam.com does not believe in sectarianism of any kind, but deems discussions and debates essential for clearing the atmosphere of doubt and stopping the mudslinging that keeps going on in the community as a matter of routine, with Ulema of one sect feeling no compunction in calling the ulema of other sects Kafirs and deviants, and indeed liable to be put to death. This is one reason why people professing belief in religions other than Islam have genuine difficulty in taking our claims of peacefulness seriously. We will publish all the eight chapters of Maulana Arshad Quadri’s book on Tableeghi Jamaat. We begin with the Question & Reply, Introduction, Foreword, Implication and Author’s experience. Anyone who disagrees with him on any point will be welcome to debate in our pages within the bounds of civilised and relevant discourse. That will only further the understanding of the Jamaat that is the purpose of the reproduction of this book.

Sultan Shahin, Editor, New Age Islam

Hardly any Libyan literature has been translated from Arabic. Now, a former American diplomat to Libya has published a collection of Libyan short stories in English. The edition offers insights into a hitherto undiscovered literary landscape. By Susannah Tarbush 

 

Muslims themselves have written books in Arabic, Turkish and Persian that challenged Islam more than The Satanic Verses. Indeed, Islamic society has traditionally tolerated some blasphemy. To take three examples, the renowned poet, Abu Nuwas (who died about 813), specialized in writing about wine and pederasty, and boasted of writing about virtually everything that displeases God. EI2 1.144 Al-Mutannabi (915-55) wrote of “droplets sweeter on the lips than the declaration that God is one.”[4] Similarly, Abu’l-‘Ala al-Ma‘arri (973-1058) penned some very daring statements: Although your mouths hymn Allah One and Peerless,
Your hearts and souls from that ye owe Him shrink.
I swear your Torah gives no light to lead us,
If there ’tis found that wine is lawful drink.[5] Ironically, therefore, the charge that Muslims are acting “medieval” misses the point; in fact, they are not medieval enough. Modern books challenging Islam can be found for sale in the Middle East and other parts of the Muslim world,, and some of them have become best sellers.

Travel leads to knowledge, but if you suppress it, the product is poison secreted to preserve the stasis of ‘orthodox judgement’. There are ‘renegades’ like Sir Syed whose rihla of England produced a frank admission of low Muslim civilisation in India, spurring him on to a reformist modernism we today condemn as heresy, writes veteran Pakistani journalist Khaled Ahmed in his review of Journeys to the other Shore: Muslim and Western Travellers in Search of Knowledge; By Roxanne L Euben; Princeton University Press 2006; Pp313

 

A Golden Age by Tahmima Anam; London: John Murray ; 2007; 276 pp (hb).

It has been a mystery why the great novel of 1971 has never been written. ..Ffor 36 years there has been nothing we could point to and unhesitatingly claim was the definitive novel of 1971, the fictional equivalent of say, either, Jahanara Imam's Ekatturer Deengulo or Mayedul Islam's Muldhara. Until now, that is, says Khademul Islam.

 

The Qur’an is a book which emphasizes ‘deed’ rather than ‘idea’. There are, however, men to whom it is not possible organically to assimilate an alien universe by re-living, as a vital process, that special type of inner experience on which religious faith ultimately rests. Moreover, the modern man, by developing habits of concrete thought - habits which Islam itself fostered at least in the earlier stages of its cultural career - has rendered himself less capable of that experience which he further suspects because of its liability to illusion. The more genuine schools of Sufism have, no doubt, done good work in shaping and directing the evolution of religious experience in Islam; but their latter-day representatives, owing to their ignorance of the modern mind, have become absolutely incapable of receiving any fresh inspiration from modern thought and experience --  Dr Mohammad Iqbal in the Preface of The Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam.

What is the character and general structure of the universe in which we live? Is there a permanent element in the constitution of this universe? How are we related to it? What place do we occupy in it, and what is the kind of conduct that befits the place we occupy? These questions are common to religion, philosophy, and higher poetry. But the kind of knowledge that poetic inspiration brings is essentially individual in its character; it is figurative, vague, and indefinite. Religion, in its more advanced forms, rises higher than poetry. It moves from individual to society. In its attitude towards the Ultimate Reality it is opposed to the limitations of man; it enlarges his claims and holds out the prospect of nothing less than a direct vision of Reality, writes Dr Mohammad Iqbal in Lecture 1 of The Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam

Scholastic philosophy has put forward three arguments for the existence of God. These arguments, known as the Cosmological, the Teleological, and the Ontological, embody a real movement of thought in its quest after the Absolute. But regarded as logical proofs, I am afraid, they are open to serious criticism and further betray a rather superficial interpretation of experience, writes Dr Mohammad Iqbal in Lecture 2 of The Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam.

 

We have seen that the judgement based upon religious experience fully satisfies the intellectual test. The more important regions of experience, examined with an eye on a synthetic view, reveal, as the ultimate ground of all experience, a rationally directed creative will which we have found reasons to describe as an ego. In order to emphasize the individuality of the Ultimate Ego the Qur’«n gives Him the proper name of Allah, and further defines Him as follows: ‘Say: Allah is One:
All things depend on Him;
He begetteth not, and He is not begotten;
And there is none like unto Him’ (112:1-4), writes Dr Mohammad Iqbal in Lecture 3 of The Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam

THE Qur’«n in its simple, forceful manner emphasizes the individuality and uniqueness of man, and has, I think, a definite view of his destiny as a unity of life.1 It is in consequence of this view of man as a unique individuality which makes it impossible for one individual to bear the burden of another,2 and entitles him only to what is due to his own personal effort,3 that the Qur’«n is led to reject the idea of redemption. Three things are perfectly clear from the Qur’«n:

(i) That man is the chosen of God: ‘Afterwards his Lord chose him [Adam] for himself and turned towards, him, and guided him, (20:122).

(ii) That man, with all his faults, is meant to be the representative of God on earth,

says Dr Mohammad Iqbal in Lecture 4 of The Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam

 

THE Qur’an in its simple, forceful manner emphasizes the individuality and uniqueness of man, and has, I think, a definite view of his destiny as a unity of life.1 It is in consequence of this view of man as a unique individuality which makes it impossible for one individual to bear the burden of another,2 and entitles him only to what is due to his own personal effort,3 that the Qur’an is led to reject the idea of redemption. Three things are perfectly clear from the Qur’an :

(i) That man is the chosen of God: ‘Afterwards his Lord chose him [Adam] for himself and turned towards, him, and guided him, (20:122).

(ii) That man, with all his faults, is meant to be the representative of God on earth, says Dr Mohammad Iqbal in Lecture 5 of The Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam

 

 

As a cultural movement Islam rejects the old static view of the universe, and reaches a dynamic view. As an emotional system of unification it recognizes the worth of the individual as such, and rejects blood-relationship as a basis of human unity. Blood-relationship is earth-rootedness. The search for a purely psychological foundation of human unity becomes possible only with the perception that all human life is spiritual in its origin.1 Such a perception is creative of fresh loyalties without any ceremonial to keep them alive, and makes it possible for man to emancipate himself from the earth, says Dr Mohammad Iqbal in Lecture 6 of The Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam.

 

Broadly speaking religious life may be divided into three periods. These may be described as the periods of ‘Faith’, ‘Thought’, and ‘Discovery.’ In the first period religious life appears as a form of discipline which the individual or a whole people must accept as an unconditional command without any rational understanding of the ultimate meaning and purpose of that command. This attitude may be of great consequence in the social and political history of a people, but is not of much consequence in so far as the individual’s inner growth and expansion are concerned. Perfect submission to discipline is followed by a rational understanding of the discipline and the ultimate source of its authority. In this period religious life seeks its foundation in a kind of metaphysics - a logically consistent view of the world with God as a part of that view. In the third period metaphysics is displaced by psychology, and religious life develops the ambition to come into direct contact with the Ultimate Reality. It is here that religion becomes a matter of personal assimilation of life and power; and the individual achieves a free personality, not by releasing himself from the fetters of the law, but by discovering the ultimate source of the law within the depths of his own consciousness, says Dr Mohammad Iqbal in Lecture 7 of The Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam.

 

INDEX

The Reconstruction of Religious
Thought in Islam 

By

Dr. Muhammad Iqbal

 

Bibliography

The Reconstruction of Religious
Thought in Islam 

by

Dr. Muhammad Iqbal

1 2 ..39 40 41 42 43 44 45


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