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Books and Documents

Books and Documents

THE Qur’an in its simple, forceful manner emphasizes the individuality and uniqueness of man, and has, I think, a definite view of his destiny as a unity of life.1 It is in consequence of this view of man as a unique individuality which makes it impossible for one individual to bear the burden of another,2 and entitles him only to what is due to his own personal effort,3 that the Qur’an is led to reject the idea of redemption. Three things are perfectly clear from the Qur’an :

(i) That man is the chosen of God: ‘Afterwards his Lord chose him [Adam] for himself and turned towards, him, and guided him, (20:122).

(ii) That man, with all his faults, is meant to be the representative of God on earth, says Dr Mohammad Iqbal in Lecture 5 of The Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam

 

 

As a cultural movement Islam rejects the old static view of the universe, and reaches a dynamic view. As an emotional system of unification it recognizes the worth of the individual as such, and rejects blood-relationship as a basis of human unity. Blood-relationship is earth-rootedness. The search for a purely psychological foundation of human unity becomes possible only with the perception that all human life is spiritual in its origin.1 Such a perception is creative of fresh loyalties without any ceremonial to keep them alive, and makes it possible for man to emancipate himself from the earth, says Dr Mohammad Iqbal in Lecture 6 of The Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam.

 

Broadly speaking religious life may be divided into three periods. These may be described as the periods of ‘Faith’, ‘Thought’, and ‘Discovery.’ In the first period religious life appears as a form of discipline which the individual or a whole people must accept as an unconditional command without any rational understanding of the ultimate meaning and purpose of that command. This attitude may be of great consequence in the social and political history of a people, but is not of much consequence in so far as the individual’s inner growth and expansion are concerned. Perfect submission to discipline is followed by a rational understanding of the discipline and the ultimate source of its authority. In this period religious life seeks its foundation in a kind of metaphysics - a logically consistent view of the world with God as a part of that view. In the third period metaphysics is displaced by psychology, and religious life develops the ambition to come into direct contact with the Ultimate Reality. It is here that religion becomes a matter of personal assimilation of life and power; and the individual achieves a free personality, not by releasing himself from the fetters of the law, but by discovering the ultimate source of the law within the depths of his own consciousness, says Dr Mohammad Iqbal in Lecture 7 of The Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam.

 

INDEX

The Reconstruction of Religious
Thought in Islam 

By

Dr. Muhammad Iqbal

 

Bibliography

The Reconstruction of Religious
Thought in Islam 

by

Dr. Muhammad Iqbal

 NOTES AND REFERENCES

The Reconstruction of Religious
Thought in Islam 

by

Dr. Muhammad Iqbal

 

Tarif Khalidi's new English edition of Islam's sacred book offers valuable perspectives, says well-known scholar and author Ziauddin Sardar in his review of the new translation of The Holy Quran. He goes on: We look for two things in any new translation of the Qur'an. How close does it get to communicating the meaning of the original, that inimitable oral text, the very sounds of which move men and women to tears and ecstasy? And does it offer something more: a new perspective, perhaps; or an innovative rendering?

There is an insistence on the quality of cosmopolitan character of literatures produced by different nations, a search for the common features. Without the hidden agenda of comparability to European, and more broadly to western, literatures the concept of world literature loses its ground, becoming a kind of commodity of the global era. The semi-Orientalist judging of other literatures is a heritage that the concept carries with it. The emergence of the Arabic novel during the nineteenth century was strongly influenced by the hierarchy of literary genres in the Arabic literary tradition. -- Fakhri Saleh

 

Sana Haroon has written an excellent book that will help us understand the killing fields of the Tribal Areas of Pakistan today. This month (April 2008) the local Al Qaeda warlord and alleged killer of Ms Benazir Bhutto, Baitullah Mehsud of Wana, convened a big conference of the Tehreek-e Taliban Pakistan (TTP) in Aurakzai Agency near the tomb of Haji Turangzai to proclaim that his emirate had come to stay. He was himself not there for fear of being killed by an American drone but his deputy representing Bajaur was there as were warriors from all other tribal areas including Malakand in the NWFP, Book Review by Khaled Ahmed in the Daily Times.

 
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