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Books and Documents

Books and Documents

Sharia and Iranian Theory of Kingdom  شریعت اور ایرانی نظریہ بادشاہت

عباسی حکومت کی کمزوری او رنئی حکومتوں کے قیام کے بعد علماء اور ایرانی دفتری لوگوں میں ایک بار پھر یہ تصادم ہوا کہ مسلمان حکمران کو کیسا ہونا چاہئے؟ کیا اسے شریعت کے ماتحت ہوناچاہئے یا خود مختاری او رمطلق العنان؟ اس مقصد کے تحت دونوں گروہوں نے ایک ایسا ادب تخلیق کیاکہ جس میں انہوں نے حکمران کو ہدایت کی کہ اس کے لئے کون سا راستہ مناسب ہے۔ چنانچہ علماء کی جانب سے نمائندہ تحریر الماوردی (وفات 1058) کی ہے جس نے اپنی کتاب ‘‘الاحکام السطانیہ’’ میں ایک ایسی حکومت کانقشہ پیش کیا ہے کہ جس میں حکمران شریعت کے اندر رہتے ہوئے اپنے فرائض ادا کرے اور شریعت کے نفاذ میں علماء سے ہدایات لیتا رہے، خلیفہ یا حکمرا ن کے فرائض بیان کرتے ہوئے الماوردی ان باتوں پر زور دیتا ہے۔

 

Ulema during the Safavid and Ottoman Rule  علماء صفوی اور عثمانی دور حکومت میں

تاریخ کے اس عمل میں ایران میں علماء کے دو گروہ پیدا ہوئے ایک اصولی اور دوسرا اخباری۔ اصولی اس بات پر یقین رکھتے تھے کہ قرآن و حدیث کی روشنی میں حالات کو دیکھتے ہوئے اجتہاد کیا جاسکتا ہے جب کہ اخباری علماء کے نزدیک فقہ کو صرف احادیث پر رہنا چاہئے او راسے اصول رائے یا دلیل کی بنیاد پر نہیں ہونا چاہئے لیکن بعد میں اخباری علماء کمزور ہوگئے کیونکہ بدلتے ہوئے حالات میں ضروری تھاکہ اجتہاد کیا جائے۔

 

Rise of Ulema  علما ء کا عروج

بدلتے ہوئے حالات نے انہیں پھر اس بات کا موقع دیاکہ وہ ایک موثر جماعت کی حیثیت سے ابھریں’ انہیں اس بات کا موقع عباسیوں کی نئی فتوحات کی وجہ سے ملا کہ جس کے نتیجہ میں نہ صرف نئے علاقوں پر قبضہ ہوا بلکہ نئے لوگ بھی ان کے ساتھ آئے۔ ان نئے لوگوں میں تبلیغ کا کام مشنری علماء نے کرنا شروع کردیا اور جو لوگ مسلمان ہوئے ان میں ان علماء کے لئے احترام کے جذبات پیدا ہوئے کہ جنہوں نے انہیں گمراہی سے نکال کر نئ روشنی دی اور اس طرح علماء کو باعزت مقام مل گیا اور ان میں سے اکثر کو تو اولیاء کا درجہ دے دیا گیا۔

 

Ulema and Madrasa  علماء اور مدرسہ

سنی عالم اسلام کے مقابلہ میں مصر میں فاطمی خلافت ( 909 سے1171) نےمشہورالازھر کی بنیاد ڈالی جو کہ اگرچہ مسجد کا نام تھا مگر یہ ایک مدرسہ تھا کہ جس کا مقصد یہ تھا کہ یہاں ایسے مشنری علماء کی تربیت کی جائے کہ جو سنی عقائد کےخلاف تبلیغ کر کے لوگوں کو شیعی عقائد کی طرف مائل کرسکیں۔ فاطمی ریاست نےالازھر کی مکمل طور پر سرپرستی کی اور اس میں مشہور علماء کو بحیثیت استاد کےمقرر کیا اور ان کی اچھی تنخواہیں مقرر کیں تاکہ وہ اطمینان کےساتھ درس و تدریس میں مشغول رہ سکیں۔

 

Ulema and Bureaucrats  (علما ء اور دفتری (بیورو کریٹس

بدلتی ہوئی سیاسی صورت حال نے ایران کے دفتری یا نوکر شاہی کے ہاتھوں کو مضبوط کیاکیونکہ جب فتوحات کے ذریعہ عباسی سلطنت میں توسیع ہوئی اور اس میں نئے علاقے اور مختلف مذاہب کے لوگ شامل ہوئے تو اس کے نتیجہ میں بہت سے انتظامی مسائل کے ساتھ نئے سماجی اور ثقافتی مسئلے بھی پیدا ہوئے جن کی وجہ سے اس بات کی ضرورت محسوس کی گئی کہ خلیفہ اپنے لامحدود اختیارات کو استعمال کرتے ہوئے انہیں حل کرے’ ان کے حل میں خلیفہ نے سب سے پہلے اپنے ذاتی اور خاندان کے لوگوں کی حمایت کی اس میں دفتری لوگ تھے علماء نہیں ۔

 

Ulema aur Siyasat: Preface and Foreword   علما ء اور سیاست

ایک مرتبہ ایسا طبقہ وجود میں آگیا، تو اس نے اپنے اقتدار او رطاقت کو محدود کرنے کے بجائے اور پھیلانا شروع کردیا۔ خاص طور پر روز مرہ کی زندگی میں جو رسومات تھیں ان کی ادائیگی کا ذمہ اس نے اٹھا لیا، اور پھر ان رسومات کی ادائیگی کو اس قدر پیچیدہ بنا دیا گیا کہ صرف وہی ان کو پوراکرنے کےاہل ہوگئے یہ صورت حال ہندو مذہب میں ہے کہ جہاں مذہبی رسومات کی ادائیگی صرف برہمن طبقہ ہی کرسکتا ہے۔ یہی وجہ تھی کہ ذات پات کی تقسیم کے ابتدائی دور میں اگر چہ اولیت کشتری طبقہ کو تھی مگر بعد میں اس کا درجہ دوسرا ہوگیا او ربرہمن کو اولیت مل گئی۔

 

The Study Qur'an (SQ), a project of HarperCollins, can perhaps best be understood as an analog to its forerunner, the HarperCollins Study Bible. Originally published in 1993, the SB is an ecumenical project. Though various denominational actors and figures are cited, the SB bears no preference for one over another. Aside from its denominational accommodations, the SB is significant as an academic project – entry level courses in academic institutions teaching the Bible or Christianity routinely mandate the SB as required reading. As a result of its widespread use in academia, the SB has sold quite well, having exceeded 150,000 copies since initial publication. Therefore, although the SB may not hold much currency within devotional congregations, it retains a majority market share in academic environments.

 

Guiding Souls—Dialogues on the Purpose of Life
Yoginder Sikand, New Age Islam

Leading a truly meaningful life is about ‘finding God in the human heart’, as Kalam puts it. Realising our true selves—the purpose of life, according to various spiritual traditions—is something that requires both self-reflection as well as social engagement, Kalam suggests. The ‘voyage of inner exploration’ leads us to realize our connection with the rest of humanity, guided by compassion: ‘independence from narcissism is self-realisation’, as he beautifully puts it.

 

A Muslim-Atheist Debate: A Liberal Muslim and a Non-Believer In Search Of Common Ground
Maajid Nawaz

It's worth teasing out the implications of what Mr Nawaz is saying. Over-simplifying only a little, let us agree that of the world's 1.6 billion Muslims, some 10% are open, as of now, to his proposal for a form of Islam that fits comfortably with secularism, human rights and equality.

 

What is Indian secularism?
Sarvepalli Gopal

..As far back as in July 1948, in the wake of months of communal frenzy, Nehru looked forward with confidence to a brighter future. ‘I believe’, he wrote, ‘that India can only become great if she preserves that composite culture which she had developed through the ages … whatever might happen in the present, sometime or other, India will have to tread that path to self-realisation and greatness.’ That note of optimism can strengthen us still.

 

Exposed by Wikileaks: The US Empire According to Itself

Time and again as I read this book, I felt nauseated as US officials callously or, sometimes, almost indifferently decided on courses of action that resulted in deaths, often on a substantial or even massive scale. And some pretty ordinary people carried out elite bidding. Is what they do normal? Is it sane? Would most people do it? Of course not. The US elite, and elites generally, are seriously psychologically disordered. But so are those who lack the moral capacity and courage to refuse to obey their orders. Or, to put it another way: accepting money to exploit or kill others is the act of a coward.....

‘Islam and the Future of Tolerance’ And ‘Not in God’s Name’
Irshad Manji

How refreshing, then, to read an honest yet affectionate exchange between the Islamist-turned-liberal-Muslim Maajid Nawaz and the neuroscientist who advocates mindful atheism, Sam Harris. “Islam and the Future of Tolerance” begins on an impolitic note. Harris tells Nawaz that to reform Islamic practices one must “pretend” that “jihad is just an inner spiritual struggle, whereas it’s primarily a doctrine of holy war.”

Peace for the Sake of Peace
Belinda F. Espiritu, New Age Islam

Peace for the Sake of Peace

This de-monopolization of resources has made the violent method totally irrelevant. Opting for war does not arise out of any kind of necessity but is only the result of the ignorant misuse of freedom, which shall be rewarded, as the Quran says, with “disgrace in this world and severe punishment on the Day of Resurrection” (2:85)……

Peace Is the Core Constituent of All Kinds of Positive and Constructive Activities
Moin Qazi, New Age Islam

Some of the Prophet's companions wanted to first solve the problems that existed at that time between the Makkans and the Muslims, instead of first accepting peace. The Prophet did not agree with this approach. Instead, he unilaterally accepted the conditions of the Makkans. The Hudaibiya peace treaty thus became possible only because the Prophet accepted all the conditions of the other party and did not insist on justice. This shows the importance of peace for its own sake in Islam, not linking it to, or predicating it on, justice or human rights. This is expressed in a phrase that appears in the Quran (4:128): As-sulh Khair, which means ‘reconciliation is best'. .....


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Maulana Wahiduddin Khan on his book "The Age of Peace"

Ulema and Modernity  علما ء اور جدیدیت

اسلام کے ابتدائی دور میں جب کہ شام و عراق اور ایران فتح ہوئے تو نئے ہونے والے مسلمان اپنے ساتھ اپنی آبائی اور قدیم روایات کو ساتھ لے کر آئے، اس موقع پر بھی علماء نے اس بات کی شدت سے مخالفت کی کہ نئے ثقافتی اور سماجی قدروں کو اسلامی معاشرے میں ضم کیا جائے اور اس بات کی حمایت کی کہ عرب ثقافت کو جس کو وہ اسلامی کہتے تھے اس کی خالصیت کو برقرار رکھا جائے ۔

اس کا نتیجہ یہ ہوا کہ وہ تمام دانشور کہ جو روشن خیال اور لبرل نظریات رکھتے تھے انہیں زندیق یا مانی اور مزوک کے پیروکار کہہ کر یا تو قتل کردیا گیا یا ان کی زبان بندی کردی گئی انہیں میں سے ابن مقفع تھا جو کہ مجوسی سےمسلمان ہوا تھا اور جس کی عربی زبان پر اس قدر مہارت تھی کہ وہ اہل زبان کی غلطیاں نکالا کرتا تھا  علماء کے اس رویہ کی وجہ سے اسلام کےابتدائی دور ہی میں ذہنی طور پر مسلمان معاشرہ کو پھیلنے نہیں دیا گیا او راسے ایک دائرے میں محدود کردیا ۔

 

Muslim Cosmopolitanism In The Age Of Empire

In Muslim Cosmopolitanism in the Age of Empire, Seema Alavi makes an admirable and successful attempt to rethink some key assumptions of South Asian and global history. Specifically, the book inserts into history five important Muslim men of religion, including Sayyid Fadl, Rahmatullah Kairanwi, Haji Imdadullah Makki, Nawab Siddiq Hasan Khan and Maulana Jafer Thanesri, who were hounded by the British government for their role in 1857 and fled India to seek their fortunes in different cities of the Ottoman Empire.

 

Disaster Capitalism: Outsourcing Violence and Exploitation

Loewenstein provides the evidence to demonstrate this fact in one case after another. The ones that I found most interesting are the use of mercenaries in Afghanistan which provided further evidence that US policy, and even its military strategy and tactics 'on the ground', is being progressively taken over by corporations, and the 'occupation' of Haiti, post-earthquake in 2010, by the UN and NGO 'aid' agencies which forced locals into the perpetual victimhood of corporate-skewed 'development'…..

Why Liberalism Needs Islam
Anna Provitola and Daniel Steinmetz-Jenkins

Why Liberalism Needs Islam

EVERY FOUR OR FIVE YEARS, Ayaan Hirsi Ali writes a book telling the world about the horrors of Islam. In her latest installment, Heretic, Hirsi Ali rightly feels the need to justify why another such book is in order. Apparently, she now has a bit more hope for the future of Islam. ...

 

Fallacious Thesis of Atheist Evolutionists

A gravely erroneous impression has been created by atheist evolutionists that modern science has conclusively proven Darwin’s theory of evolution of species by ‘natural selection’ to be true, and, in this way, has finally debunked the ‘theory’ of God as well as the belief that life has been created by God. Many ill-informed people with little knowledge of both theology and science have fallen prey to this fallacious thesis. The fact, however, is, as this slim yet remarkably  engaging and informative book tells us, not all scientists accept Darwin’s claims, and many scientists are confirmed believers in God…..

Before ISIS, all religious denominations stand in the line of fire. Christians and Muslims know only too well the bitterness and despair of a life spent under the ominous flag of Takfirism—a heretical perversion of Islam, also known as Wahhabism, which reared its hideous head a mere two centuries ago.  Evil has a new face and it is Takfirism! Doing nothing while millions of lives are at risk is tantamount to murder. We owe it to our children to carry on this fight so as to prevent the shadow of our shameful inaction from falling on future generations.....

 

Reading Nazrul Islam after Walter Benjamin

Nazrul Islam, all the same, faced condemnation and stiff resistance from all quarters, Brits, Hindus and Muslims alike. Some wiseacres happened also to be admirers of Fascism, if not outright Fascists. One of these tooth and nail colonial fighters survived long enough to reminisce, to carry it kit and caboodle, till the 1980s…

 

The Lessons of Anwar al-Awlaki
Anwar al-Awlaki

This is the digital legacy of Awlaki, who was killed in a drone strike in Yemen in September 2011. Addressing a V.F.W. convention in Pittsburgh last month, President Obama championed the counterterrorism record of his administration. ‘‘I’ve shown,’’ he said, ‘‘I will not hesitate to use force to protect our nation, including from the threat of terrorism.’’ He listed some of the terrorists killed on his watch. ‘‘Anwar al-Awlaki, a leader of the Al Qaeda affiliate in Yemen — gone,’’ Obama said to applause.

Arabs in the jihadist Woodstock

According to Mustafa Hamid, it was, however, the Qais camp run by Mawlawi Nasrullah Mansur of the Harkat-e-Inquilab-Islami, Afghanistan that was not only the training hub for Arab jihadists but also the Afghans who went on to become leaders and cadres in Mullah Omar’s Taliban.

 

Reappraising the Common Muslim Mindset about Women Rights in Islam
Ghulam Rasool Dehlvi, New Age Islam

When the Qur’an accorded women such a lofty status and rights that they could not even imagine in the seventh century Arabia, then why this discrepancy between the actual Qur’anic provisions for women and their sorry state of affairs in the Muslim world today? Reappraising the common Muslim mindset, Qazi attempts to answer the above question with quite a different approach. ...

A Spiritual Magazine with a Difference
Suleiman Khan, New Age Islam

For one thing, unlike most other ‘Islamic’ magazines, it is not linked to any particular Muslim sect. Discussions about minor details of jurisprudence or Fiqh and rituals and debates about external forms of piety, such as about dress and deportment, may be a major focus of many other ‘Islamic’ magazines—but these do not find any space in Spirit of Islam, whose focus, its masthead announces, is ‘global peace and spiritual living’. Absent, too, from its pages are heated polemics seeking to prove the veracity of one Muslim sect and the falsity of the rest, hagiographical accounts of Muslim religious and political figures, past and present, uncritical laudatory accounts of Muslim history, diatribes against so-called ‘enemies of Islam’....

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NEW COMMENTS

  • this is an excellent article a must read for the ignorant ulemas. this article is also for those non muswlims who think Islam is about ...
    ( By Khwaja Saadat Noor )
  • Dear Zuma, You can add the following verses to those quoted in your last comment to demonstrate the defensive character of the Prophet's mission: "God ...
    ( By muhammd yunus )
  • Dear Zuma! I fully agree with your comments and your concluding statement that instruction to "fight, in Quran could not be applicable to modern days ...
    ( By muhammd yunus )
  • I have shown that the road for reform through the Ulema is blocked and the reasons for it. I have also shown the alternate path to ...
    ( By Naseer Ahmed )
  • Naseer Ahmed says: "No one actually supports Triple Talaak, or considers it desirable. The traditionalist ulema and sects which believe in taqlid are bound by ...
    ( By Asif Merchant )
  • Dear Zaheer Hussain Khan, Hazrat Umar (r/a)'s era was different. It overlapped with the pre-Islamic era, when the sexual relations were lose and women were free ...
    ( By muhammd yunus )
  • The following are the extracted quranic verses to support non-Muslims were violence when Muhammad was on earth:...
    ( By zuma )
  • Dear Muhammd Yunus, You have quoted the past history on how Muslims were surrounded by hostile Muslims due to their hatred upon Muslims. ...
    ( By zuma )
  • ALL AHLE SUNNAH WAL JAMA'A AND ALL WAHABIS HAVE FAITH IN TRIPLE TALAQ & HALALA FOR THESE ....
    ( By Zaheer Husain Khan )
  • Secular parties should stop giving legitimacy to these mullahs. By legitimizing them...
    ( By Ghulam Mohiyuddin )
  • These jihadists do not just take Islam backwards. They actually negate Islam. They...
    ( By Ghulam Mohiyuddin )
  • Dear Zuma! I appreciate your explanation of verses 9:5 and 9:29 by cross referencing other...
    ( By muhammd yunus )
  • Since the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (and many other ex-colonies) follows to the letter...
    ( By Rashid Samnakay )
  • ok... so lets say that a muslim saudi guy married a christian girl , which is halal , then they had sex , then he ...
    ( By Ahmad Nicolae Khalaf )
  • Muslims must be wise enough to handle the interpretation of the word, fight, in Quran. No doubt Quran was the inspiration from Allah, one has ...
    ( By zuma )
  • Vishnu Prasad, let’s me explain why Quran 9:5 as well as Quran 9:29 should not be misinterpreted as aggressive violence against non-Muslims. Before ....
    ( By zuma )
  • Free speech seems to be fatal throughout the subcontinent. What can be worse than killing a man for his views or beliefs? Just reciting the ...
    ( By Ghulam Mohiyuddin )
  • Vishnu Prasad, You have quoted Quran 9:5 as well as Quran 9:29 to draw attention on Islamic teaching to direct Muslims to fight against those ...
    ( By zuma )
  • Whither we are headed”? A quote from Abraham Lincoln says, “If we could first know where we are, and whither we are tending, we ...
    ( By Royalj )
  • @gulam mohiyuddin K ban triple talaq.But when u r talking about gender equality.U should also raise the issue of banning the saints sadhus who roam ...
    ( By Bristol King )
  • @Ghulam Mohiyudin Itz Not what Muslim personal Law board says.. Itx what Quran anD Hadees is saying..
    ( By R'aina F'ayaz )
  • Translation of Azaan:
    ( By Jayaraman Subri )
  • Ayaan Hirsi Ali:
    ( By Jayaraman Subri )
  • Do u know that Hindu of polygamy cannot get a govt job.meraj do u know'
    ( By ଜ୍ୟୋତିର୍ମୟ ପଣ୍ଡା )
  • @Meraj Siddiqui Why should you compare to Hindu in all aspects? Shows inferiority complex in you.You ....
    ( By Samir Padhi )
  • No Hindu divorces by saying 3 words.They ho through the legal procedure.So why are you people not ready for that? Har baat ....
    ( By Samir Padhi )
  • @Dushyant Chauhan Do you need proof? Read Telegraph, Hindustan Times and Times of India.'
    ( By Meraj Siddiqui )
  • @Meraj Siddiqui From where you get this fudged data?'
    ( By Dushyant Chauhan )
  • So ur sheikh ul islam or what'
    ( By Sheik Aftar Ali )
  • Sultan Shaheen why are you not writing about? According to survey divorces and polygamy are more we can say not double but triple and four ...
    ( By Meraj Siddiqui )
  • Triple Talaq, the tool of politicans how to grab vote , womens undermines'
    ( By Irshad Lone )
  • @Deepak Sunder Correct 100%'
    ( By Meraj Siddiqui )
  • Mr Siddiqui as per the observation I made about the religions and found that all religions are based on truth but ....
    ( By Deepak Sundar )
  • Sultan shahin, correct yourself first and tell. Is Quran written or revealed? Are you brother of Tarek Fatah? I think so. If one ....
    ( By Meraj Siddiqui )
  • Crime and Criminals. --------------------------- Sh.L K Advani,Murli Monohar Joshi,Uma Bharati and others are again summoned by Court for destruction of Babri Masjid and ....
    ( By Mrinal Dey )
  • Study Ahadith and Qur'an yourself.. everything and articles on internet are too not authentic....
    ( By Mohammad Imran Ansari )
  • U Ulema's are the most valuable people for Muslims community... Political parties and some over illetrate Muslims who wants Haram are trying to tharnish thr ...
    ( By Mohammed Shakeeb )
  • @ﺭﺍﻓﻊ ﺷﻤﺴﯽ Bhai log, kyon ye jhanjat me padte ho.. Jo kharab he usko hatao aur Jo achha he usko aapnao. Baat itne me ...
    ( By Swapnasis Nanda )
  • For all those who are capable of thinking beyond hindutva
    ( By ﺭﺍﻓﻊ ﺷﻤﺴﯽ )
  • Bahut khub #Riyaz bhai, ye #sanghio ka page he.
    ( By ﺭﺍﻓﻊ ﺷﻤﺴﯽ )