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Books and Documents

Books and Documents

Today, Muslim women face attack — not the horrors of fundamentalist regimes, obviously, but verbal abuse, spitting, minor assaults such as pulling headscarves off — on the streets of the liberal democracies in which they grew up or where they took refuge. Often with small children in tow, they are harassed as symbols of the very world view that is presumed to subjugate them.....

 

As promised, the cleric had issued a backdated marriage certificate that showed them, at the date of filming, to have been “Sigheh,” or temporarily married. Under Sigheh, the duration of the marriage is determined in advance; it could be as short as an hour or as long as a decade. If a child is born, he or she is a rightful child, with all legal entitlements from both parents. When the Sigheh expires, the couple should separate, unless the arrangement is mutually extended. ....

Anyone who dares to protest against the atrocities of Pakistani administration and its intelligence agencies is tortured, prosecuted and eventually eliminated. It may be recalled that innocent protestors were killed in Chilas, when they protested peacefully against the construction of Diamar Bhasha Dam on their land, the UN disputed territory without their consultation. Similarly, innocent protestors were killed in Hunza.  ....

 
Parenting—The Spiritual Way
Parenting—The Spiritual Way
Roshan Shah, New Age Islam

I was only one thing—the mother of my son”, she writes. “Nothing else mattered. No one else mattered. Definitely not me, my body, or my mind. Everything else could wait.” In this regard, Behl advises parents that they need to give time to each other and to themselves, too. “Your child will respect you more when he sees you have a life outside of him,”...

What is being lost as Syria bleeds? Not just lives, but a tradition of pluralism and tolerance, all too rare in the Middle East, and a rich cultural treasure-house. ....

 

In her book, Purifying The Land Of The Pure, Farahnaz Ispahani explains the plight of minorities in Pakistan.

Though Mohammed Ali Jinnah had re-assured Pakistan's minorities in his August 11, 1947, speech that they would be "free to go to your temples, mosques or any other place of worship" and that there would be "no discrimination, no distinction between one community and another", this vision remained unfulfilled.

"What about Hazrat Khadijah, the first wife of the Prophet? Wasn't she a businesswoman? She can only impress people who don't know history or culture. What "our" culture is she talking about? "Isn't Heer Ranjha part of Punjabi culture? It is the most celebrated folk story here. For centuries it has been sung and dramatised. It is essentially a celebration of love. How is it any different from the celebration of Valentine's Day?....

 

Unlike The Bible there is one version of the Quran inherited from generation to generation back to the prophet Mohammad. Any ancient manuscript that will be discovered will not be of any interest to the Muslim communities and will be rejected if it has a verse different of what we have in our present Holy Book.....

 

مسلم امہ اور اس کے اتحاد کے بارےمیں ہماری تاریخی غلط فہمیاں ہیں کیونکہ جہاں تک ابتدائی دور میں مسلم امہ کا تعلق ہے وہ ہمیشہ سے اندرونی طور پر اختلافات کاشکار رہی ۔ سیاسی گروہ بندیاں ، فرقے عقائد کا اختلاف اور سماجی و سیاسی اختلافات نے اسے کئی ٹکڑوں او رجماعتوں میں تقسیم رکھا اور ہوا کہ بیرونی طور پر ان جماعتوں اور گروپوں کو معاشی و سیاسی مفادات نے جکڑے رکھا، مگر جیسے ہی یہ مفادات کمزور ہوئے مسلم امہ کا اتحاد اس کےساتھ بکھر گیا۔

 

“A Hizmet Approach to Rooting out Violent Extremism” by Ozcan Keles and Ismail Mesut Sezgin produces a case study in this context. It provides a critical and detailed analysis of the Hizmet’s refutations of the ideological, theological and text-based rhetoric of the violent extremism, which could be aptly termed ‘radical jihadism’….

Dispossessed in the Name of 'Security'
Dispossessed in the Name of 'Security'
Robert J. Burrowes, New Age Islam

'There are no military strategies that focus on the root causes of climate change and what should be done to change these, because the military's primary objective is to secure the current world order, no matter how unjust or unsustainable it is'.  And yet, despite everything that the military and corporations do to destroy the bonds of human solidarity in our world, many people still act selflessly...

 

مشنریوں کے سماجی بہبود کے کاموں کی وجہ سے ہندوستان میں روایتی عوامی بہبود کا تصور بری طرح متاثر ہوا کیونکہ اب تک لوگوں کی مدد ان پر ترس کھاکر کی جاتی تھی اور انہیں جو کچھ بھی دیا جاتا تھا وہ خیرات و صدقے کی شکل میں ہوتا تھا اس لئے غریب لوگوں کو اپنی غربت اورمحتاجی کااحساس ہوتا تھا۔ معاشرہ میں ایسے اداروں کا وجود نہیں تھاکہ جو لوگوں کی خدمت کریں، اور جہاں فرد کی اہمیت نہ ہو بلکہ ادارے کی اہمیت ہو۔

 

She acknowledges the problems with “many Salafi, or fundamentalist interpretations of Islam,” and she rightly notes, for example, that honour killings are “almost unknown outside the Islamic world and its diaspora.” Yet she goes on to say, in the next sentence, that “honour killings are not mentioned in the Qur’an.” This is typical of the kind of careful dance she does throughout the book....

 
A Truly Universal Message about a Truly Universal Issue
Pope Francis
A Truly Universal Message about a Truly Universal Issue
Roshan Shah, New Age Islam

A worldview that has no room for God, being purely materialistic, is thus a sure recipe for mindless hedonism that leads to environmental disaster because each thing produced and consumed is a depletion of the earth’s treasures. Obsession with a lifestyle based on consumerism can only lead to violence and mutual destruction, Pope Francis stresses. “In the end, a world of exacerbated consumption is at the same time a world which mistreats life in all its forms,”.....

مذہبی رواداری اور امن پسندی کا اس وقت خاتمہ ہونا شروع ہوا جب عیسائی مشنری تبلیغ کی غرض سے ہندوستان اٗٓ نا شروع ہوئے مشنریوں کی جماعتیں جدید تعلیم و تربیت ، تنظیمی ڈھانچہ ،ڈسپلین ،حکومت و عہدے داروں کی سرپرستی کی وجہ سے زیادہ فعال اور موثر تھیں ۔ انہوں نے اسلام اور ہندوستان کے مذاہب کا مطالعہ اس مقصد کے تحت کیا تھا کہ ان کی خامیوں کو اجاگر کیا جائے اور ان پر حملہ کر کے انہیں شکست دی جائے۔انہوں نے چھاپہ خانے کی ایجاد سے بھرپور فائدہ اٹھایا او ربڑی تعداد میں اپنے مذہبی عقیدوں پر کتابیں اور پمفلٹس لکھے اور ان کو اٗٓزادانہ طریقے سے لوگوں میں تقسیم کیا۔

 

As Ms Ispahani stresses, with her carefully chosen extracts from the report, Justice Munir and Justice Kayani were astutely and firmly establishing the absurdity of the arguments made before them. “No two Ulema,” they wrote, “have agreed before us as to the definition of a Muslim. If the constituents of each of the definitions given by the Ulema are given effect to, and subjected to the rule of ‘combination and permutation’ and the form of charge in the inquisition’s sentence on Galileo is adopted mutatis mutandis as a model, the grounds on which a person may be indicted for apostasy will be too numerous to count.” In conclusion, the Muslim Commission made a pithy remark: “If we adopt the definition given by any one of the Ulema, we remain Muslims according to the view of that Alim (scholar) but Kafirs according to the definition of everyone else.” In reproducing that line, Ms Ispahani has said it all.

The Struggle for Merdeka in West Papua
The Struggle for Merdeka in West Papua
Robert J. Burrowes, New Age Islam

....Indonesian elite ensures that West Papua is relatively isolated from media scrutiny, access to international agencies and diplomats (even though many western states are well known to oppose any indigenous struggle for self-determination, given it would only raise questions about their own subjugated indigenous populations)....

 

1946ء میں مسلم لیگ نے مشائخ کی ایک کمیٹی کو قائم کیا اس کےبارےمیں سلیم ۔ ایم ۔ قریشی نے اپنے مقالہ ‘‘پاکستان میں مذہب و سیاست’’ میں لکھا ہے کہ ‘‘نواب ممدوث’’ سر فیروز خاں نون ’ اور سردار شوکت حیات جیسے لوگ بھی کہ جو کسی طور سے مذہبی نہیں تھے۔ انہیں مذہبی خطابات دیئے گئے جیسے ممدوٹ شریف، دربار سرگودھا شریف وغیرہ تاکہ عام مسلمانوں کو یہ تاثر دیا جائے کہ ان کے حامیوں میں بڑے بڑے مشائخ بھی ہیں۔

 

علما ء کا نقطہ نظر ان بدلتے ہوئے سیاسی حالات میں ایک نہیں تھا ۔مثلاً ان میں کچھ اب ہندوستان کو دارالحرب سمجھتے تھے ، جب کہ کچھ اسے اب تک دارلامن یا ان دونوں کے درمیان قرار دیتے تھے اور اس لئے انہوں نے مسلمانوں کو ہدایت کی کہ وہ ہجرت کر کے دوسرے ملک میں نہیں جائیں اور ہندوستان ہی میں رہیں کہ جہاں انہیں مذہبی امور کی آزادی ہے۔ لیکن کچھ علماء کی تعداد ایسی تھی کہ جنہوں نے اس چیز کوذہن میں رکھتے ہوئے کہ ان کا رابطہ انگریزوں سے نہ ہوجائے ۔ ہندوستان سے حجاز ہجرت کرلی اور اور وہاں پر ہی مستقل سکونت اختیار کرلی ۔

 
How To Be A Happy Muslim Insha Allah
Nigar Ataulla, New Age Islam
How To Be A Happy Muslim Insha Allah
Nigar Ataulla, New Age Islam

How To Be a Happy Muslim Insha’Allah is a book by trained counselor Sheima Salam Sumer which intends to guide you in achieving inner peace and joy by combining Islamic teachings with mental and physical health concepts. This book will empower you to feel content and in control of your emotions, no matter what is happening in your life, and to be able to cope with and solve any problems that you face. ...

مدرسہ رحیمیہ کے اس ماڈل کو 1867ء میں دیوبند میں اختیار کیا گیا۔ اس میں جو مضامین رکھے گئے تھے وہ یہ تھے صرف و نحو، بلاغت، عربی، ادب، اسلامی تاریخ ، منطق، یونانی و عرب فلسفہ، علم مناظرہ ، علم کلام، اقلیدس ، طب یونانی، فقہہ ، اصول فقہہ حدیث، تفسیر ۔ بعد میں منطق اور فلسفہ کو نصاب سے نکال دیا گیا ۔ اس پورے نصاب میں جدید تقاضوں کے تحت علوم کو شامل نہیں کیا گیا اور نہ ہی کسی یورپی زبان کو نصاب کا حصہ بنایا گیا۔

 

علماء کی اس کمزوری اور ان کی نااہلی کا احساس شاید اورنگ زیب کو بھی ہوگیا تھا، اس لئے اس نے فقہہ عالمگیری کی تدوین شروع کرائی اور جب یہ مکمل ہوگئی تو اس بات کا اظہار کیا کہ یہ اس قدر مکمل اور جامع فقہہ کی کتاب ہے کہ اس کے بعد مسلمانوں کو علماء سے فتویٰ لینے اور مشورہ کرنے کی ضرورت نہیں رہے گی اور یہ انہیں علماء کی ضرورت سے آزاد کرادے گی۔

 

ہندوستان کے دو بڑے حکمرانوں میں جن میں علاء الدین اور اکبر کے نام قابل ذکر ہیں انہوں نے واضح طور پر شریعت کو مسترد کرکے اپنی پالیسی عملی تقاضوں کے تحت تشکیل دی اور یہی وجہ تھی کہ ان کے دور حکومت میں جو استحکام اور خوش حالی و امن و امان تھا وہ کسی اور زمانہ میں نہیں تھا انہوں نے خصوصیت سے علماء کے اثر و رسوخ کو بالکل ختم کردیا اور سلطنت کو خالص سیاسی بنیادوں پر چلایا۔ دوسرے حکمرانوں نے اس کے بجائے یہ راستہ اختیار کیا کہ ان سے مفاہمت رکھی مگر انہیں سیاسی معاملات میں دخل نہیں دینے دیا۔

 

اکبر کے دربار کے دوسرے بڑے عالم مخدوم الملک عبداللہ سلطانپوری تھے، جن کی عزت و شہرت سوری خاندان کے زمانہ سے تھی مگر یہ مذہبی معاملات میں اس قدرمتشدد تھے کہ اپنے مذہبی مخالفوں کو اذیتیں دےکر مروا دیتے تھے ۔ ان کی یہ بھی شہرت تھی کہ انہوں نے بڑا مال جمع کرلیا ہے۔ اسی لئے ان کےمرنے کے بعد ان کے ترکہ کی جانچ کےلئے بھیجا تو پتہ چلا کہ انہوں نے سونے کی اینٹوں کو اپنے گھر میں قبروں میں دفن کر رکھا تھا، بعد میں یہ اینٹیں اور ان کی کتابیں ضبط ہوئیں اور شاہی خزانے میں داخل ہوئیں ( بدایونی’ II ۔ ص۔ 321)

 

مخدوم الملک اس ضمن میں ان تمام علماء کے خلاف تھے کہ جن کے عقائد پر انہیں شبہ تھا ان میں ابو الفضل و فیضی کے والد شیخ مبارک بھی شامل تھے ۔لہٰذا ان کی اس پر تشدد پالیسی کے خلاف علماء کئی گروہوں میں تقسیم ہوگئے’ ان میں سے کچھ نے خود کو سیاست سے بالکل علیحدہ کرلیا او رکچھ اپنے مفادات  کےلئے ریاستی علماء سے مل گئے۔

 
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