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Islam and Pluralism

Indian Pluralism, A Model of Successful Co-existence, Recent Challenges
Sultan Shahin, Founding Editor, New Age Islam
Indian Pluralism, A Model of Successful Co-existence, Recent Challenges
Sultan Shahin, Founding Editor, New Age Islam

IN this post-9/11 world characterised by a burgeoning clash of civilisations, multiculturalism and tolerance of religious diversity is under threat practically everywhere in the world. It has virtually ceased to exist in large parts of South Asia. In Pakistan, for instance, a near civil war in raging among religious, sectarian, ethnic and linguistic groups. Poor Pakistanis don’t even feel secure to go to mosques to pray. How does India then thrive in relative peace in the midst of this chaos, despite having the second largest population in the world, an astounding variety of religions, cultures, ethnicities and languages and dialects? [Indian constitution, for instance, recognises 22 languages and the country is home to at least 844 major dialects.] This question has staggered political scientists and sociologists around the world in recent times. …......

 To understand this one has to go to the very roots of Indian way of life, our dharma, that is now known as Hindu religion but it was always a conglomeration of religions, philosophies, including atheism and agnosticism. Yes atheism was as much an integral part of Hindu dharma as was faith in one God or a multiplicity of gods or any particular deity which may have had a following in only one small locality. So one Hindu family could have had a couple of devout believers in one God or several gods or atheists or agnostics, all living together under the same roof, their beliefs causing no hindrance in their lives together. In different parts of India too there were different religions, different scriptures, and people from different parts used to travel carrying their beliefs with them and sharing them with one another.

So when beliefs like Islam or Christianity or Judaism came from foreign lands, they hardly faced any problem in being accepted. In any case the Hindu or more correctly the Indian considered the whole world as a family, a kutumb.  One of the cardinal principles of Hindu philosophy was that there are many ways to the God and ultimately they all lead to the same divine truth. So while Islam’s encounter with some other religions was quite violent, Hinduism provided it with a fertile ground for growth. -- Sultan Shahin, editor, New Age Islam, speaking at Geneva in a United Nations informal seminar on multicultural experiences on 10 June, 2010.

Dargah Naugazi, an impressive grave 18 yards (16.2 metres) long, named after a pir (saint) called Nuh Aleihi Salaam, is located in a narrow lane. Interestingly, Nuh is believed to be Noah and the grave the famous Ark. Another interpretation is that the mound perhaps was built over the remains of the Ark. The shrine, visited by scores of devotees, has no independent custodian. Ram Milan, a devotee who makes an offering every day, says that for him the dargah is no less than a temple. He experiences a lot of mental peace when he visits the dargah. Ram Milan, like most of Ayodhya's residents, is not interested in the background of the pir. And like the rest, he is not the kind who would willingly desecrate a place of worship. -- T.K. Rajalakshmi    

Photo: Dargah of Sheesh Paigambar

The Prophet was keen on establishing relations based on respect, equality and justice with non-Muslims, and recommended that they be treated well. He said: "He who hurts [non-Muslims] is my enemy until Judgment Day" and "He who killed a person under a treaty shall never go to heaven." This respect is also reinforced in the hadith (sayings and actions of the Prophet Muhammad) by the Prophet's companion Jaber Ibn Abdellah: "A funeral passed by, and the Prophet stood up in respect. We said to him, 'It is a Jewish man's funeral.' He said: 'If you see a funeral, you shall stand up. Is it not a soul?'" -- Hind Al-Subai Al-Idrisi

 

The Mughal period, particularly the reign of Akbar (1556-1605), was perhaps a more enlightened one in terms of state policies vis-à-vis the Hindus. This period saw increasing interaction between Hindus and Muslims at various levels. Following in the footsteps of the Abbasid Caliph al-Mamoon (786-833), Akbar arranged for the translation of numerous books on the religion, culture and history of the Hindus. This proved to be a major milestone in promoting a more objective understanding of the Hindus among Muslims, and a significant step in facilitating dialogue between the two.

The Revolt of 1857 that marked the formal end of the Mughal Empire witnessed impressive efforts to unite Hindus and Muslims to combat the encroaching British. Were it not for the tragic Partition of India, it is possible that major progress could have been made to improve Hindu-Muslim relations through dialogue. It should have been among the topmost priorities of our leaders after Independence to bring Hindus and Muslims closer together, but this did not happen. On the contrary, the gulf between them only further widened and the conflicts between them are becoming ever more deadly. -- Maulana Waris Mazhari

 

Exclusive to NewAgeIslam.com

Editor, www.NewAgeIslam.com Sultan Shahin participated in a discussion on Islamophobia in Geneva where Mr. Elam made this presentation and debated with Mr Hani Ramadan, among other intellectuals and experts on Islam.

The huge wave of Islamophobia rolling over Switzerland should be compared to other forms of racism prevailing in this country especially with Judeophobia, with its long history. It would be wrong to speak in this context about an equation, although there are crucial similarities and common roots and traits.

Xenophobia in Switzerland was and still is an essential part of the dominating rural sub-cultures according to which even the inhabitants of the next village were and sometimes still are considered to be foreigners. Not to speak about recent strong animosities between the various language regions and between Protestants and Catholics. On the other hand, there were and are strong cosmopolitain tendencies even in the countryside. Accordingly, many students in Zurich at the beginning of the last century were Jewish Russian women, and radical leftist Russian politicians like Vladimir Lenin and Mikhail Bakunin found refuge in the Helvetic Confederation. And my catholic spouse comes from a village and not only she but all her 7 siblings married foreigners. -- Shraga Elam

It is no one’s business to question the taboo on the idea of representation in Islam, but Husain’s appropriation and celebration of the freedom to represent within the Hindu traditions, classical and folk, is a way also of intervening and questioning the hijacking of Islam by those who represent the al- Qaeda’s brand of intolerant Islam, which prohibits all forms of creativity, whether it is art, music or cinema. Questioning Husain’s right to interpret and represent Hindu gods and goddesses is symptomatic of the confusion that has existed within Hindu nationalism since the nineteenth century.

The Hindu nationalist attempt to paint the entity called Hinduism in monochromatic colours and to compel compliance on the basis of a distorted version of a unified faith makes its family resemblance to more fanatical versions of Islam more evident than it realises or is ready to admit. Husain on the other hand has the best of both worlds.

State

He remains a Muslim in the sense that would make every civilised and reasonable Muslim proud, and he has fashioned himself also as an illustrious pauranik in the best sense that can be conveyed by that term. The sangh parivar, on the other hand, lives in this vast sea of confusion, mouthing platitudes that are foreign, colonial and, worst still, Victorian. – Jyotirmaya Sharma

Photo: Husain’s work is rooted in the pauranik tradition which celebrates interpretation and improvisation

But here's the thing: young Muslims understand the piquant situation they are in. After all, there is truth to the charge that an earlier generation of Muslims asked for a separate homeland and got it. They know they belong to a proselytising religion; they are aware of the flourishing myth that Islam gives no quarter to 'kafirs'. They know that Islam is misunderstood by non-Muslims and often misinterpreted by their co-religionists. They're self-conscious about the controversy regarding Muslim polygamy, the stereotypes about jihad, the promised hooris in heaven, the hideous penal practices of certain 'Muslim' states, the barbaric instances of inhuman behaviour by the likes of Mullah Omar in Afghanistan, the blasphemous justification of such behaviour by invoking the Nizam-i-Mustafa.

He knows that the violence practised by extremists makes the task of explaining Muslim belief and practice hard. With suicide bombers in the headlines, who cares to know that suicide is forbidden in Islam? Verse 195, The Cow, and verses 29-30,the Women, clearly state: "And spend of your substance in the cause of Allah, and make not your own hands contribute to your destruction; But do good." Every Muslim theologian will tell you that suicides are haram. Who wants to know that in practice having more than one wife is impossible because the conditions laid down for marrying again are so exacting, when people see manifestly imperfect Muslim men marrying again. Which non-Muslim will feel the resonance of Islam's assertion that all men are equal, when he or she can see Muslim states where Muslims are more equal than others, and Muslim men more equal than women? ...

Each one of them is aware of the numerous handicaps he faces, the hurdles, the prejudices he is likely to encounter, the shortcomings in his own community, its inherent backwardness, poverty, lack of modern education, lack of a youthful leadership. And yet he wants to overcome all this and be part of this great nation that his parents chose to stay behind in, to be share in the promise Nehru held out on the midnight of 15 August 1947: he wants to be part of this nation's tryst with destiny. What we owe him is trust, due process and the benefit of the doubt: so that when the horror of something like Pune happens, he can spontaneously share the revulsion of his fellow citizens without the insidious taint of guilt by association. -- Najeeb Jung

Photo: The writer, who is vice chancellor of Jamia Millia Islamia University, with his students.

What is the motivation of those carrying out the uprising, what is their ultimate goal, and from whom do they receive support? Party Secretary Wang believes that the separatists are “religious reactionaries” that want to establish an “Islamic kingdom.” However, there is ample evidence that the leaders of the rebel movement are not simply religious fanatics, but Pan Turkic nationalists.

The support for the movement comes from neighbouring Turkic-speaking countries. Despite the pledge by the governments of Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan to not support the Xinjiang separatist movement, supporters of the movement openly operate from these countries. Uygurs living in Turkey also support the movement. In March 1998, a demonstration in front of the Chinese embassy in Istanbul called for “freedom for East Turkistan” (SCMP March 10, 1998). During the many demonstrations over the past few years in Xinjiang, slogans calling for the CCP and the PLA to get out of Xinjiang, and the establishment of “Xinjiangstan” are common. The common denominator is not Islam, but Pan-Turkic nationalism. One common slogan was “sha han mie hui” (kill the Chinese and destroy the Hui [a Muslim Chinese minority]). Murat Auezov, the former Kazakh ambassador to Beijing, said the Uygurs are “struggling to preserve their cultural identity against an officially sanctioned mall influx of Han Chinese into their region.” Auezov underlined the international dimensions of the anti-Chinese uprising when he said the “Central Asian region is an organic whole. If the Uygurs lose their traditions this is a terrible loss for all the Turkic-speaking peoples” (Jones 1997).

Given the deep cultural, linguistic, and historical roots of Pal Turkic nationalism, once the Central Asian became independent, we should not be surprised that ethnic nationalism in Xinjiang was invigorated. Historically Xinjiang was a central battle ground in the “great game” of nation-states. Now again in the Twenty-first Century, Xinjiang may be a battle ground on which an ethnic nationalist movement seeking to exercise its right national self-determination will wage war against a Chinese regime that no longer recognizes such a right.  – Eric Hyer

Photo: Uygur Muslim girl, Xinjiang.

In many countries with multi-religious structure the right wing among religious majority community has been suppressing voice of reason successfully. The moderates are being silenced through creating mass hysteria. There is great need for civil society to play its role and support enlightened policies. Most of the moderate intellectuals have no time or interest to study the issue in depth and become victims of high pitched propaganda.

 We need what we call public intellectuals who raise voice of reason and take public stand even risking their own reputation, or even career. Most of our moderate intellectuals argue why we should bother about such things and give way to such extremist forces. We should always be ready like Bertrand Russell, Jean Paul Sartre or Noam Chomsky to fearlessly criticize the powers that be in keeping with their conviction. What is the use of conviction which does not inspire you to speak out irrespective of consequences? Be it controversy about Allah or burqa or crime of Zionists or rigidity of orthodoxy. They alone can save democracy -- Asghar Ali Engineer

Dr. Naik – the western media exaggerates news of a 60 year old Arab marrying a 16 year old girl but plays it down when a 60 year old man in America rapes a 10 year old girl.

Reply – What exactly are you trying to compare here Dr. Naik? Rape is a crime and rape of a minor is a crime that is unpardonable and unacceptable in any civilized society. It is punishable under the law. But marriages like the one mentioned by our “scholar” is nothing but legally sanctioned rape of a minor. And this type of rape has the blessings of the Sharia in all Islamic countries. 

Dr. Naik – People in the west eat pork and hence behave like pigs. Pigs are the only animals in the world that invite their friends to have sex with their partners. Westerners also do the same.

Reply – Dr. Naik should know that barring a few species that mate for life all animals are promiscuous for the simple reason that their sole purpose is to procreate and not propagate Islam. And to think that this man claims the Koran to be scientific!  -- Sanjay Khanna

 (A couple of sentences from Mr. Khanna’s last reply quoted above have been deleted, as they appeared to be unnecessarily provocative. Mr. Khanna claims to be making “unbiased attempt to dissect” Dr. Naik’s scholarship. But anyone who has learnt about Islam only from one source – the well-known anti-Islamic website faithfreedom.org  - can hardly remain unbiased. So his observations should be taken with a pinch of salt.

However, he raises some valid and disturbing questions about Dr. Naik’s scholarship and many Muslims’ unquestioning acceptance of him as a messiah. It is imperative that Muslims start questioning what Dr. Naik is all about and what he is actually trying to do behind the façade of “moderate” Islam. Indeed, the fundamental question that arises in this context is: Can Saudi, Wahhabi, Ahl-e-Hadees brand of Islam be allowed to be called moderate? Editor)

So horrendous is the discrimination that Indians are arrested without cause and released only when no charges can be framed against them; over 90 per cent deaths in police custody are of Hindus. Every week, 1.3 persons on average are shot by the police; 95 per cent are Hindus. A staggering 70 per cent of Indian Malaysians have been reduced to hardcore poor, poor or working class, with 90 per cent being in the daily or monthly wage-earning category. As the racism and religious persecution is all state-sponsored — ordinary Hindus have no problems with ordinary Malay Muslims — there is a strong case for the Government of India to take up the human rights violations and religious freedoms of these besieged Hindus.

One of the worst problems is forced conversions to Islam, which has become particularly acute since 2001, despite the provision for freedom of religion entrenched in Article 11 in the Malaysian Constitution. A recent case that has shaken the country involves a 27-year-old Tamil Hindu, Bangaramma, who was converted as a minor in a Government orphanage and registered as a Muslim without her knowledge. She continued to regard herself as a Hindu, worshipping and marrying a Hindu in a temple, according to Vedic rites. -- Sandhya Jain

Describing the fourth century Hindu deities found in the Bujang Valley, Malaysia’s richest architectural site, Anthony Spaeth wrote in Time that “the official literature does its best to downplay, even denigrate, the Indian impact on the region”. Spaeth thought “an Indian Malaysian visiting the Bujang Valley might come away feeling demeaned rather than proud — and that would be no accident”.

About 40 per cent of Malay words, including the all-important ‘bumiputera’ (son of the soil), the political concept that sustains Malaysian nationalism, are borrowed from Sanskrit. The nine Malay sultans who take turns to be king are descended from Indian royalty. Their rituals are recognizably Brahmanic.

It could explain why Hindu temples and Indian Malaysians are targeted for attack. Malaysia is trying to erase its past.--Sunanda K Datta-Ray

Prime Minister Najib Razak condemned the attacks on the churches, but he supports the ban on Christians using the word ‘Allah’ in Malay and is appealing the High Court decision. “We...have the right to use the word ‘Allah’,” said Rev Lawrence Andrew, the editor of the Herald, the newspaper of the Catholic Church in Malaysia, whose use of the word in its Malay-language edition triggered the crisis. … Of course it was. Arabic-speaking Christians predate the rise of Islam by 300 years, and what else were they going to call god? The word ‘Allah’ is a contraction of the Arabic definite article al- and the noun ‘ilah, which means god. In parts of ancient Arabia it once referred to the creator-god (who was not the only god), but for a very long time it has meant the one god.

This Arabic word was imported into the Malay language by converts to Islam, which arrived in the region several centuries before Christianity. All ethnic Malays are considered to be Muslim under Malaysian law, but there are numerous Malay-speakers, especially in northern Borneo, who are Christian and not ethnically Malay. They also use the word Allah for god. What’s the harm in that? Why are Malaysia’s Muslims so paranoid? The real paranoia, alas, is ethnic. -- Gwynne Dyer

Jesus in the Koran

In fact, this Islamo-Christian connection is not too surprising. You just need to read the Koran to see why. The Muslim scripture is full of praises to Jesus, who is defined as a prophet, and his mother, Mary. The “Chapter of Mary” speaks in detail about the virgin birth and other miracles of Jesus. In another chapter, Muslims are told to take his disciples as examples to follow. In one verse of the Koran, Jesus is even referred to as "the Word of God," a term which has a curious resemblance to the introduction of the Fourth Gospel.

To be sure, the Koran rejects that Jesus is God, and denounces the doctrine of the Trinity. This is the deepest theological gap between Islam and mainstream Christianity. Yet still, the fact remains that Muslims are the only faith community on Earth who, besides the Christians, revere Christ.

This theological connection is leading some Muslims to take fresh perspectives on the birthday of Christ as well. One such figure, the Sufi-minded Niyazi Öktem, a Turkish professor of law, has been arguing that Muslims can well celebrate Christmas in a spirit similar to the “mevlid kandili,” or, the celebration of the birth of Prophet Muhammad. -- Mustafa Akyol

The peace pilgrimage was planned from Ayodhya and was to end in Ajmer for symbolic reasons. Ayodhya is, on one hand, a Hindu holy city as well as a city of composite culture. In Ayodhya there are religious places of Hindus, Muslims, Buddhists and Jains. It is as much city of temples as city of Sufi mausoleums and mosques. Historically it has had large Muslim population. Some Muslims believe two prophets Hazrat Shish and Hazrat Nuh are buried there. The Naugazi qabar (a very long shaped grave) is said to be of Hazrat Nuh, the 2nd major prophet in Qur’an.

 Ajmer is a Muslim holy city where there is mausoleum of famous sufi saint of Indian subcontinent Hazrat Moinuddin Chishti. But Ajmer is also a city of composite culture as there are holy places belonging to Sikhs, Hindus (Pushkar) and Parsis. Even otherwise the Dargah of Hazrat Moinuddin Chishti is visited by members of all religious communities, not only Muslims.

The way peace marchers were received throughout the root made it obvious that common people are for peace and harmony and not for conflict and blood shedding in the name of religion, it is only unscrupulous politicians who grossly misuse religion to make us fight for grabbing our votes and coming to power. I strongly feel such yatras for direct contact to people should be more frequently organized. Rath yatras are not the monopoly of communal forces alone.  -- Dr. Asghar Ali Engineer

The situation for Baha'i in Iran has been deteriorating ever since the "Islamic Revolution" thirty years ago. Yet persecution has intensified under President Ahmadinejad's rule. -- Katajun Amirpur

 

Imagine Islam’s appeal to one who is constantly told he is too "impure" to be allowed entry inside a temple. Imagine the doors of a mosque being flung open to him with an invite — Come, stand shoulder-to-shoulder with the rest of us. No hierarchy here, no caste, no class, no race: Sab ka maalik ek! Who says you are too impure to enter a holy space or hold a holy text? Here’s the Quran, it’s yours as much as anyone else’s: Touch it, hold it, read it, kiss it, hug it, store it in your heart and mind. -- Javed Anand

Nathan Gardels: For those of us who have not had the opportunity to read your book "Right of Return," which imagines Israel in 2024, what is the picture you paint?

I describe an Israel that is basically the area of larger Tel Aviv, with the northern part of the Negev, including Dimona. The North is gone, the South is gone, Jerusalem is gone. The country fell apart because of external pressure -- continuous rocket bombardments -- that caused families to leave, and because of internal erosion: The Israeli Arabs and the ultra-Orthodox Jews moved away from the secular Jewish heart of the nation. Those with a criminal record, those who are old, and another group fascinated to be part of an apocalypse, and those who just want to stay and defend the country no matter what happens, were left behind. -- Dutch Novelist and Filmmaker Leon de Winter

 

Religious Intolerance in Africa

Islamic-Christian antagonism

The North-South religious divide in Africa is the offshoot of the Islamic-Christian antagonism that dates back to the Crusades. Africa was the staging ground for Arab-European rivalry for centuries. The religious map of Africa today is testimony to this fact, with northern Africa being largely “the spoils” of Arab conquest and Africa south of the Sahara populated largely by Christian “converts.” The introduction of Islam and Christianity into Africa has been described as the beginning of the “cultural genocide” of Africa: the best way to conquer a people is to control their “cultural mind.” Thus Africa’s colonization, partition and neo-colonization were accomplished first through religious and cultural enslavement. -- Dr. Charles Quist-Adade

 

Muslims Believe in All Previous Scriptures, Messengers and Prophets: It is part of articles of faith of a Muslims to believe in all the previous messengers of God and the scriptures; in the form they were revealed upon them. (Qur’an; 2:136, 3:3-4, 57:26, 4:163, 2:79). Although Muslims believe in all the previous messengers and scriptures, the Jews and Christians don’t believe in Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) as messenger of God, although he was prophesied in Bible at; Deuteronomy; 18:18 & 19, John; 16:12-14, 14:16, 16:7, 15:26, 16:7 and Song of Solomon; 5:16. All the divine revelations (scriptures) except Qur’an are extinct. The Bible; which besides Torah, Psalm and Gospel also contain other scriptures, books and commentaries by mostly unknown scribes attributing to known messengers and personalities. The Torah, Psalm and Gospel as available in the Bible may contain the original revelations in some form which pass the test of Qur’an; the criterion to distinguish right from wrong: (Qur’an; 25:1, 17:81).

One of the spouses believes in Oneness of the Almighty Allah Kareem, also that all creatures are created by Him only, and one cannot supplicate before anyone except the Almighty Allah Kareem. On the other hand, someone worships idols in the same house. One of the parents teaches Islamic tenets and principles to the children and the other parent forces them to worship idols and visit temples. In such a confusing situation, how can an atmosphere of mutual trust or confidence be built? The life of the children will be miserable, living in severe mental tension affecting their studies. It is seen in the inter-communal marriages, either one party converts to other’s religion or the matrimonial relation is snapped due to domestic tension and intense difference, depriving the children of the father’s affection and the mother’s love. -- Maulana Khalid Saifullah Rahmani

Translated from Urdu by Raihan Nezami

 

There is no scope for Taliban culture in this age of globalization. This is absolutely unbearable, totally insupportable.

What are the causes of Islamic decline? Most scholars and historians who have studied the tragedy seem to agree that this was caused mainly by the fact that Muslims went away from modern education during the British rule over India. The Muslim tragedy is generally attributed to their lack of modern education under the guidance of ulema. Madrasas under the management of Ulema completely ignored modern education. The important subjects in the syllabus of Deoband were Arabi, Sirf, Naho, Mantique, Riyadhi, Balaghat, Fiqqah, Usool Fiqqah, kalam and Tafseer etc. The religious madrasas had fully deprived their own and the future generations of the benefits of scholarly research, and modern learning. They considered it a grave danger for the Faith and Iman. -- Shaikh Abdul Majeed, Germany, Translated from Urdu by Syed Raihan Ahmad Nezami

 

MUMBAI: Salman Khan and Govinda on Monday joined several Mumbaikars in biding emotional adieu to Lord Ganesh on first day of Salman Khan 'visarjan' (immersion). Among the prominent personalities who visited Salman's residence at suburban Bandra for the Ganesh puja ahead of immersion were MNS chief Raj Thackeray, cricketer Yuvraj Singh and actress Katrina Kaif. Thousands of Ganpati idols, mostly household ones, were immersed at beaches and lakes like Girgaum Chowpatty, Juhu, Marve, Gorai and Dadar admist chants of `Ganpati Bappa Morya, Pudchya Varshi Lavkar Ya' (a popular slogan hailing the elephant-headed God and urging him to come early next year). -- PTI Report

 

According to estimates, the number of Zoroastrians in Iran has decreased from 60,000 in the late 1970s to 30,000 today. Most adherents now live in the Diaspora. Bombay, above all, has developed into a pivotal hub for the exiled Iranian community. Yet, says Mehraban Firouzgary, there are additional factors responsible for the loss of community members. "Many Zoroastrians have emigrated, but we are also a dwindling community because nowadays the younger generation in Iran marry later and have fewer children," he explains.

"Our resources are extremely limited – even when it comes to disseminating our faith." In addition, the problem is exacerbated by the fact that so many marriages are taking place outside of the Zoroastrian community, says Firouzgary. Today, a number of Zoroastrians have Muslim spouses or have themselves converted to Islam. -- Arian Fariborz

 

... history reveals that Islam – as preached in the Koran and exemplified by the life of the Prophet Muohammad and his companions – actually accepts, celebrates and even encourages diversity.... According to Islamic principles, everyone who lives in a Muslim state is entitled to enjoy the same rights of citizenship, despite the differences they may have in their religion or population size.

In 622, when the Prophet Mohammad migrated from Mecca to Medina in the Arabian Peninsula and started to build the first Muslim state, he ensured that its Muslim and non-Muslim inhabitants could coexist in harmony. There was a substantial Jewish community in Medina, and the Prophet proposed an agreement of cooperation – between Muslims and the 11 Jewish tribes – called the Constitution of Medina, which Muslim historians and scholars generally accept as the first written state constitution. -- Maher Y. Abu-Munshar

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  • @Sarajit Kumar Bairagi because both are victims of intolerance.
    ( By Bhabesh Mitra )
  • @Abu Basim Khan Why are you adding the question of Dalit to question of Muslim?'
    ( By Sarajit Kumar Bairagi )
  • Any comment about Indian democracy, follow up and implementation of constitutions, atrocities...
    ( By Abu Basim Khan )
  • By zehadi intolerance Muslims are harming themselves. See isis .'
    ( By Bhabesh Mitra )