Books and Documents

Islam and Spiritualism

Hazrat Nizamuddin Auliya: People’s Saint
Dhritiabrata Bhattacharjya Tato

Hazrat Nizamuddin Auliya was qualified to become a qazi or judge and his oratory skills were as refined as his follower-poet Amir Khusrau’s. But he never bothered to pen his profound thoughts. Perhaps, because, as he used to say, “The works of great souls are discussed at large, but no one knows how they lived their life.” For a Sufi of his stature, leading a life with meaningful social and spiritual engagement was in itself an inexplicable divine path. He chose to remain a fellow human being to lessen the struggles of other children of God. Nizamuddin’s enlightenment happened in his early 20s at the behest of Baba Farid. Among the Sufis, the human existence switches between the nafs or the material ego and the qalb, the soul. In the sphere of nafs, we tend to get insecure and hence it triggers mischief, animosity and strife. In the arena of qalb lies the source of eternal joy, peace and happiness. -- Dhritiabrata Bhattacharjya Tato


Islam is indeed about freedom of conscience, justice and liberty. The Pledge of Allegiance is one of the most cherished statements for Muslims, “One Nation under God, indivisible, with liberty and justice for all.” There are several verses in Quraan that assert those values; it’s like coming home for Muslims. Prophet Muhammad delivered the following words in his last sermon, “All mankind is from Adam and Eve, an Arab has no superiority over a non-Arab nor a non-Arab has any superiority over an Arab; also a white has no superiority over black nor does a black have any superiority over white except by piety and good action.” Muslims hold this declaration close to their hearts and as American Muslims, “We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.” -- Mike Ghouse

Whirling is not a trance, but an exercise in mindful presence where the dervish is conscious of several things at once. The whirling dervish’s thought is uncluttered and he is in harmony with the other participating dervishes. He establishes a connection with the shaykh who leaads the ceremony and takes the conscious step of opening his heart to the Divine. While whirling, the right foot is lifted up to the knee while the left foot becomes the axis on which the whole body revolves, anti-clockwise. With each revolution “Allah” is pronounced inwardly. The arms are extended, the right palm turned upwards to receive Divine Grace and the left palm turned downwards, bestowing on the earth the Divine energy that passes through the heart. The dance is divided into four sessions of whirling, each around 10 minutes long, called salaams. The last salaam represents union with the Divine, which is when the shaykh steps forward and recites a prayer, silently. Sufi whirling presents an example of a spiritual tradition where music and movement are the basis of a deeply contemplative practice. It is designed to maximise Divine remembrance which in Islam is the highest of all human activities. The dervishes who meditate in the tradition of their Sufi master Rumi begin their dance with a naat, poetry in honour of Allah’s Messenger: Ya habib Allah Rasul Allah ki akta tui! -- Sadia Dehlvi



Benefits of Prayer
Muhammad Younus

THE daily prayers are the easiest way to achieving happiness and fitness. There are abundant benefits of Salat narrated in the Quran. There is a Hadith, ‘Inna fissalati shifa’, verily there is cure in Salat. Prior to offering prayers, a Muslim has to perform ablution. If Wudu is accomplished as per the instructions, optimum vigour could be acquired; this means brushing the teeth, washing the oral and nasal cavities, the face, the hands up to the elbows and feet up to the ankles. Wudu done five times a day not only cleans vital parts of the body but also refreshes them. The Prophet (PBUH) recommended ablution before going to bed. Yoga experts also encourage washing of hands, arms, eyes, legs, mouth and genitals before sleep with cool water for a deep sleep. Ablution stimulates biological rhythms of the body and specifically Biological Active Sports (BASes) which are akin to the idea behind Chinese reflexo-therapy. -- Muhammad Younus

Islam and public morality
Asghar Ali Engineer

Arrogance (what Qur’an calls istikbar) is the worst trait of one’s character and its worst example is Pharaoh and Nimrod. It was their arrogance which led to their downfall. Qur’an also strongly denounces accumulation of wealth and we see in our own society that those who accumulate beyond all limits, they wield influence out of all proportions and transfer their money to Swiss banks whereas our financial institutions are starved of funds. This also leads to inflation and pushes prices up which cause great suffering to masses of people in our society. Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) also had great and onerous task of liberating this world from ignorance, superstitions and amoral or even immoral life, he also found time for continuously enriching his inner life. One can say he was in the world and yet not of it. While liberating the world he also undertook to liberate people from lust and greed and enriched their spiritual life. It is very difficult to achieve this balance but great people ensure it and become great role model -- Asghar Ali Engineer

Imam Ali has a pivotal role in Sufi philosophy for the Prophet had proclaimed, “Man kunto Maula va Ali un Maula”, (I am the Master of those of whom Ali is the Master). These words of the Prophet are known as Qaul and inscribed on the walls of numerous dargahs. Sama mehfils, Sufi musical assemblies, traditionally begin with a rendition of the prophetic saying.  Ali said, “When you spat in my face, my ego was hurt and I would be killing you for myself and not for the sake of fighting oppression for the Truth. Taking your life now will make me a murderer”. Moved by Ali’s integrity, the enemy warrior embraced Islam. -- Sadia Dehlvi

Emperor Jahangir was one of the grandest Mughal emperors of India. His army conquered kingdoms and he gave endless riches to hundreds and thousands of men. He held one of the most dazzling courts in the world. Data Sahib was a penniless fakir who wore patchy clothes and remained always short of his next meal. He could give no riches, nothing when alive, let alone provide anything to anybody after death. People still flock to him hundreds of years after his death. They revere him so much even when a mighty emperor lies buried in his grand abode only a mile away as the crow flies. There is no throng of devotees nor does anyone cry there out of emotion. Inevitably, like the king and the fakir, everyone with their riches and rags will descend into oblivion. However, in the final analysis, only goodness and care for fellow beings last, not the awe and majesty of power, imperial courts and treasures. -- Mehboob Qadir


(Felicitation to thee for this blessed majestic assembly, O wine pourer, felicitations on your goblet of sacred wine. Oh God, may this threshold of the beloved exist for ever, may this refuge of the poor remain forever…) The Chishti Sufi order derives its name from Chisht, a small town near Herat, Afghanistan. Khwaja Abu Ishaq Shami of Damascus established the Sufi order in Chisht where many of his spiritual successors lie buried. These include Shaykh Abu Ahmad Abdal Chishti, Shaykh Abu Muhammad Chishti, Khwaja Abu Yusuf Chishti and Khwaja Maudud Chishti whose spiritual mantle fell on Khwaja Haji Sharif Zindani. He mentored Khwaja Usman who came from Herwan, a town in Iran. On initiating him as a disciple, Hajji Sharif Zindani placed a four-edged cap on Khwaja Usman’s head explaining, “First is the renunciation of the world, second the renunciation of the Hereafter. Third, renunciation of the self and lastly, the renunciation of all else other than God”. -- Sadia Dehlvi

Throughout Islamic history, this realm of ihsan was most emphatically pursued by the mystics of Islam, the Sufis. Historically, this mystical realm of Islam formed a powerful companion to the legal dimension of Islam (sharia). Indeed, many of the mystics of Islam were also masters of legal and theological realms. The cultivation of inward beauty and outward righteous action were linked in many of important Islamic institutions. In comparing Islam with Judaism, the mystical dimension of Islam was much more prominently widespread than Kabbalah. And unlike the Christian tradition, the mysticism of Islam was not cloistered in monasteries. Sufis were -- and remain -- social and political agents who went about seeking the Divine in the very midst of humanity. -- Omid Safi

….in an answer to the question that if a father jokingly says to father of a son that I give my daughter in nikah to your son, will nikah take place? The answer given by Darul Ulum Deoband was yes, nikah shall take place (quoting (Durrul Mukhtar – Bab al-Nikah). This fatwa was issued in 20th century. Thus one can understand what kind of fatwas is issued by such important centres of learning. Here we want to discuss a fatwa recently issued by some Muftis of Saudi Arabia in view of rebellion taking place in the Arab world. These muftis have said that the rebellion is haram as it is taking place against a properly constituted authority and it is western conspiracy. Obviously, the rebellion is against the Saudi monarchy and hence the official muftis obliged the Saudi Monarch without caring how ridiculous the fatwa is even from Islamic point of view. -- Asghar Ali Engineer

…. world, has a negative connotation in Islam. The real meaning of this Arabic word is to reach out for something you can never grasp. Despite the negative connotation, Muslims are prohibited from decrying this world. The Prophet said, “Do not curse the world for God created it and it is a means of reaching Him.” -- Sadia Dehlvi


The death and resurrection of Jesus Christ was but fulfillment of a prophesy that a Messiah would arrive to intercede for the sins of the human race and would rescue them from the power of darkness and bring them into the Kingdom of Light. Had the Roman soldiers known that they were crucifying the 'Lord of Glory' they would have averted it. Jesus provided a new way - the way of Grace - that whoever believes in His atoning sacrifice on the Cross would receive forgiveness and salvation. -- M P K Kutty

Born in Samara to a family of high public officials, Shibli became the governor of Demavend, Iran. A dispatch arrived and he set out with the governor of Rayy, also in Iran, with a retinue of soldiers and slaves to present himself before the Caliph who honoured them with robes. On the way back to Demavend, the governor sneezed and wiped his face with the robe. Some soldiers saw this as an insult and reported it to the Caliph who handcuffed the governor and dismissed him from the post. This incident had a profound effect on Shibli. He addressed the Caliph, “Prince, you are a human being and do not approve that your robe should be treated disrespectfully.-- Sadia Dehlvi

Imam Al Sudais's India visit to lecture at the Deoband seminary is sending some sections of the Muslim community into overdrive. I received a card from the India Islamic Cultural Centre (IICC) in Delhi to attend an address by 'His Holiness', Imam-e-Haram, Dr Sheikh Abdul Rahman Al Sudais, presently imam of the mosque in Mecca. The accompanying letter details the imam's achievements including his educational degrees in sharia law. In 2005, he received 'The Islamic Personality of the Year' award and stood nominated for the Dubai International Quran Award, which he accepted.  The 'His Holiness' came as a jolt, for no such prefixes have ever been added to Prophet Muhammad's name or that of his companions, who rank the highest in Muslim piety. As one devoted to Islam, i believe using the Quran to name an award belittles the sanctity of God's word and borders on blasphemy. Legitimising such an award by its acceptance seems a worse action. The early history of Islam contains no examples of spiritual or religious leaders accepting state or private awards. On the contrary, sharia and prophetic traditions frown upon those who seek or allow public adulation, for all righteous deeds are for God alone. -- Sadia Dehlvi

The Islamic concept of God became universally understandable and acceptable only after the Prophet made it philosophically valid following his struggle against the idol worshippers among Arab tribes. The Prophet dismantled the structures of idol worship and instituted the practice of praying to an abstract God among the Arabic tribes that were warring against one another over their idols. For them, a God creating all human beings equal was unthinkable. That was the primary democratic principle — in the eyes of God all human beings are absolutely equal — that the Prophet established among those warring tribes. This established the notion of spiritual democracy among backward and self-destructive tribes. By doing so the Prophet changed the route of social change in the Arabic world, which otherwise would have slipped into caste brutalism as it happened in India. Or it would have followed the African path. -- Kancha Ilaiah

There are many anecdotes about Rabia and the essence of all of them is her acceptance of life as it was. She believed in poverty and self-denial. A follower once made a house for her and offered it to her. She, liked the house, but a moment later said she would not stay there lest she forget her devotion to God in that comfort. Many of her followers sought to alleviate her poverty but she firmly refused, gently asking them if they thought the Lord's memory was something that needed to be invoked. -- Sudhamahi Regunathan 

While unfolding the vibrant love story of Heer and Ranjha, the book also engages the reader in Dara Shikoh’s secular journey and his desire to understand and follow both Hinduism and the Islam faith. Besides this, there are articles on Guru Nanak and Beas. Waris Shah the famous Sufi poet who immortalises Heer Ranjha in verse displayed a lyrical quality that reached the masses. Desolate with the massacre of the partition Poet Amrita Pritam’s plaint to Waris Shah is recorded. While artist Manjit Bawa’s love for Sufism is reflected in his paintings, the universal love and light of Baba Farid is beautifully portrayed in the book. -- Divya Kapoor
Photo: Muzaffar Ali


Everyone seems to be jumping on the Sufi bandwagon, without any understanding of the issue whatsoever. Countries like Morocco and Algeria are said to be fighting militant Islamic insurgencies with Sufism because the latter is “devoid of any political ambitions”. A neat dichotomy is thereby fashioned, a dichotomy between the ‘Good Muslim’ who is modern, secular and supports US imperialist and interventionist policies versus the ‘Bad Muslim’ who is pre-modern and thereby resists such interventions. -- Sonia Qadir

Ganj-e-Marfat : A study – Part 2
By Prof. Md Asadullah Wani, Tr. New Age Islam

“Mysticism is emptiness of the heart from what is not difficult and meeting with what is more difficult. Mysticism is the sole means of the growth of the soul and the refreshment of the heart. Mysticism is the religion of the mystics; it means the state of being free from physical desires, to control and reign in physical urges and desires. It is the knowledge that helps purify the heart. Human beings can attain high standards of self purification through mysticism only. This is the way of the sufis based on the saying of the Holy Prophet (PBUH): man arafah nafsehi faqad arafah rabbehi which means he who knows himself, gets to know the secrets of the Supreme Being. Becoming conscious of one’s own being opens the window to the secrets of the Supreme Being which leads to the closeness with God. In this way he develops his ability to understand, explore and ponder on the universe created by God.” – Mir Hasan Hussain Sibla

Ganj-e-Maarfat: A Study - Part 1
By Prof. Md Asadullah Wani, Tr. New Age Islam

The tradition of the discipline of peeri-mureedi known as guru-shishya parampara was existent among the Hindus in the Kashmir valley before the arrival of Islam and still exists among them. After the arrival of Islam the system of beyat(allegiance) came into existence and the work of imparting spiritual guidance and training also began. With time, this system spread in the vicinity of the valley. This is the reason why the presence of peers, walis, dervishes and fakirs is known in every village in Kashmir whose abodes were the centres of attraction for the masses irrespective of religion, caste or creed and today their monasteries and mausoleums have become the cause of attraction to the common people. These places are promoters of brotherhood, unity and harmony that are great blessings rather unexpected gifts in this age of disbelief. -- Prof. Md Asadullah Wani

The shrine culture is despised by many puritan Muslims who equate it with idol-worship and thus against the teachings of Islam. However, there's a vast shrine-going majority; the number of such puritans is no more than 10 per cent, which is still alarming. The Deobandi and Wahhabi creed has registered a whopping increase since the Afghan jihad days when Gen Zia-ul Haq allowed petro-dollars from the Gulf sheikhdoms to come in to help set up puritan seminaries, whose number is now in thousands.

The Taliban and militants of their ilk have all come out from such seminaries; most still receive grants from the government as a hangover of the Zia dictatorship, and no government has dared to cut off the official monthly payouts they get. It is a measure of government's inability to rein in extremism that the Lal Masjid prayer leader in Islamabad, who raised a rebellion against Musharraf and necessitated a military action killing over a hundred people in 2007, is back in his sarkari job.

The vast majority of Pakistanis remain practitioners of the Barelvi creed, who are shrine-going, peaceful people. But the same cannot be said of those sitting in the bureaucracy and in the government. Punjab's law minister Rana Sanaullah is accused of having links with banned militant organisations; the Sharif brothers who hold sway in the province would find it very awkward to relieve him of his job, not least because they wouldn't want to rub their erstwhile Saudi benefactors the wrong way.

Meanwhile, Data's Lahore and Jinnah's Pakistan remain in a muddled fix, created by military dictators and tolerated by the democratic leaders of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan.-- Murtaza Razvi

Most Moroccans, young or old, practice one form of Sufism or another. As a deep component of the Moroccan identity, Sufism absorbs all members of society, regardless of age, gender, social status or political orientation.

Moroccan youth are increasingly drawn to Sufism because of its tolerance, its fluid interpretation of the Qur’an, its rejection of fanaticism and its embrace of modernity. Young men and women find in the Sufi principles of “beauty” and “humanity” a balanced lifestyle that allows them to enjoy arts, music and love without having to abandon their spiritual and religious obligations.

Sufi orders exist throughout Morocco. They organise regular gatherings to pray, chant and debate timely topics of social and political importance, ranging from the protection of the environment and social charity, to the war on drugs and the threat of terrorism. -- Mokhtar Ghambou


The great Rafiq Zakaria, father of Fareed, pointed out that the Quranic injunction was against “prostrating“ (sajda, from whose root we get masjid) before anyone except Allah. There was no problem with Vande Mataram, Zakaria reasoned, because it only asked for “bowing“, through vandan.

South Indians reveal the lack of individualism in our culture when they surrender through prostration before other people.

They show they actually mean it by setting themselves alight in grief when their leaders die, a quite unique and disturbing example of Indian mindlessness.

In some ways it is a religious act, because it demonstrates the desire for union.

A lot is revealed in our architecture. Unlike the Muslim's mosque, the Sikh's gurudwara and the Christian's church, we notice that the Hindu's temple doesn't have a congregational space.

Why is this so? It is because Hinduism is a transactional faith and stresses our relationship with God, not with man. The very rich among us understand this, and their gift to Him at Tirupati is not cash (which might get squandered on things like feeding the poor), but baubles such as jewel-encrusted crowns, so that He will remember, and reimburse.

In India, God may be inattentive, or otherwise occupied, and so our presence must be brought to his notice with a clang of the bell.

God's attention is also drawn by putting ourselves through discomfort: walking barefoot, rolling on the ground, wearing black, denying ourselves food.

Catholics also put themselves through discomfort, wearing hair-shirts and flagellating themselves with cilices. Islam's mystics wore robes of rough wool, and that is where the name Sufi comes from. – Aakar Patel

One of the most misunderstood aspects of Sufism is its music and dance, where the word, “Sufi” is often robbed of its spirituality and exploited by market-driven agendas. “Sama” literally means “to hear” and sama mehfils, Sufi music assemblies, require certain conditions of physical and spiritual purity. Sama is not about the listener, but the addressee. Poetry is sung or recited for God, Prophets and Sufi masters to invoke blessings. Sama must be presided by a Sufi master, who controls both, the singers and the gathering. In these collective gathering of remembrance, a definite etiquette is required, where clapping from the audience is unacceptable. ...The ultimate goal of the mystic is to achieve fana, annihilate himself in God. The use of music to induce hal, a state of spiritual ecstasy, is practiced by most Sufi orders barring some sections of the conservative Naqshbandi order. In hal, the Sufi loses consciousness and reaches higher spiritual levels. The term for ecstasy is wajd, which literally means “finding”, that is to find God.-- Sadia Dehlvi

This story succinctly portrays Ibn Arabi as a sage who strove to seek harmony in diversity and defined “a true seeker as one who cannot stay died to one form of belief”. In his book Fusus, he warns, ‘Beware of becoming delimited by a specific knotting and disbelieving in everything else, lest great good escape you... Be open to the forms of all beliefs, for God is eider and more tremendous than that.

He should be constricted by one knotting rather than another. “Further, he said, “Men of knowledge know that God manifests in diverse forms”.

The universal humanism of Ibn Arabi, firmly rooted in the Quran, acknowledged that ‘each person has a unique path to the truth. This unites all paths in itself”. The impact of his writing has influenced both Sufism and the West’s philosophy and literature. His concept of “unity of existence or being “has much to offer in terms of creating religions harmony and a better and peaceful world. -- Arif M. Khan

Photo: Ibn Arabi

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