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Books and Documents

Islamic History

There is a considerate need for revisiting Shah-e-Hamadan’s religious philosophy for he not only followed Islam by letter and spirit but also openly advocated moral values of Islam and its principles. Philosophy is an inquiry for truth conducted by philosophers to know the right way and attitude of life. It is a witness to the fact that the rise and fall of civilizations is a matter of how they consider their religious philosophy together with social, cultural, political, and economic factors.,,,

 

Many of us are unfortunately completely unaware of the events which occurred from 1914 onwards, and the lasting drastic impact these have had in shaping the Muslim world as we know it today. From the dismantling of the Ottoman Caliphate, to the occupation of Palestine and all the way up to today; it is important to be aware of certain key moments in history in order to understand why the Ummah finds itself in its current position....

Read Part One Here

Read Part Two Here

 

Before Sufism and before Islamisation, variants of Buddhism had a significant presence in early medieval Central Asia. When Sufis adopted popular practices of Islam, they appropriated many Buddhist beliefs and practices as well, besides replicating monasteries with simpler khanqahs of their own. Shared beliefs included aspects such as notions of God and truth, bodily practices,commonality between yoga and Sufism, belief in the unity of existence, and respect for diversity. The key terms include tauhid, wahdat-ul-wujud, wahdat-us-shuhud, ekeshwarwad and Advaita philosophy.....

 
Islamic reformer: Ali Suavi a theologian
Ali Suavi
Islamic reformer: Ali Suavi a theologian
By Hakan Arslanbenzer

Though he had no official madrasah diploma, Suavi had raised himself as a Muslim scholar. His preaching touched people and he managed to collect a popular audience at the mosque. Namik Kemal approached him after listening to his preaching. The famous Fuat Pasha is also said to have attended. As his popularity and his influence over people grew rapidly, the government showed close interest in Suavi....

 

Emirati sites like Awd Al Tawbah, Jumeirah and Kush were undoubtedly provincial by comparison with Baghdad, Damascus or Cairo. Yet as Al Muqaddasi reminds us: “Although the towns of the Arabian Peninsula are small, they have the full reputation of towns.” Provincial they may have been but isolated they were not. The Emirates can be shown to have fully participated in and actively contributed to the golden age of Islam....

 

Maududi was more ‘enlightened’ for having no formal qualification, being related to Sir Syed and due to lateral influences (including that from his wife). All of them were practitioners of what I have earlier described as Ajami Islam after having studied the centuries old Dars-i-Nizami, a curriculum devised by Nizam Uddin As-Sihaalwi (16th century) based on its forerunners by al-Ghazali and al-Toosi. ...

The Quran often uses key words (eg Salaat, Zakat, Mlaika, Jannah, Deen) in its verses to define and communicate a pertinent message. If authentic meanings of these words could be independently determined, we do not need to rely on Ahadith or Shan-e-Nazool to understand the actual meanings of the Quranic verses. But if these words are in Arabic (which they are), one could argue as to what the fuss is about understanding Quran if someone understands the Arabic language and/or uses an authentic Arabic dictionary for assistance....


Palmyra:  A Changing Townscape
Emanuele E. Intagliata
Palmyra: A Changing Townscape
Emanuele E. Intagliata

Based on a reassessment of published reports and unpublished archival data from past archaeological excavations and surveys, along with a large corpus of Latin, ancient Greek, Syrian, and Arabic written sources, the project has so far managed to shed new light on the fate of Palmyra. It appears that the events of 272/273 CE marked an important watershed for the history of the city....

 

But analysts have noted that the initiative involves political risk, as the project could very well rankle the kingdom’s Wahhabi establishment that has long dominated the nation. Wahhabism is a rigid strain of Sunni Islam that emerged in Saudi Arabia some 250 years ago. Adherents of this creed regard the veneration of objects—especially those that predate the emergence of the Prophet Mohammed—as idolatry. As such, they advocate neglecting these sites or destroying them altogether....

Many of the earliest Muslims in Canada were immigrants from the Ottoman Empire, but the two states are not known have any significant diplomatic relations between them. The Ottoman dynasty had already ruled for more than 500 years before Canada was created in 1867, and they preferred to deal directly with Britain, Canada’s “mother country”. This continued through the First World War—but with an interesting plot twist at the end....

 

Critics call this Islamic Maoism. Out went the city’s heterogeneous mix of Maliki, Shafii and Zaydi rites; in came homogenisation under the Wahhabi creed. Alongside the black and white dress they forced on women and men respectively, the new tribal rulers reshaped the urban environment, stripping away the past. They replaced the four pulpits at the foot of the Kaaba, one for each of Sunni Islam’s schools, with a single one, exclusively for Wahhabi preachers. ....

 

In Spain especially, Islam and al-Andalus have maintained an ambivalent relationship to national identity as a simultaneous source of disdain and pride. Spanish historians and politicians of a variety of ideological stripes have faced a vexing question: How to incorporate, and even celebrate, the accomplishments of a long era of Iberian history against which “Spain” itself has achieved definition? How to honour the Battle of Covadonga while also admiring the Alhambra?...

 
Marvelling At Egypt's Historic Civilization, Man-Made Structures
Anand and Madhura Katti
Marvelling At Egypt's Historic Civilization, Man-Made Structures
Anand and Madhura Katti

Egyptian Museum with repositories of more than 120,000 artefacts seemed like an essential prerequisite to learn about the country’s historic civilization before heading to its popular monuments. Precious exhibits like the Mummies, Sarcophagi, the famous Tutankhamun’s treasure and the boy king’s golden death mask, ancient JEWELERY and pottery made it easier to connect to the land. ...

Far from being just an exercise in historical pedantry, an accurate portrayal of this historical period has real ramifications for the Islamic world today. Actual recommendations are made by educationists and policymakers based on the now-rejected myth of post-13th century decline. If we are to learn from history, as the old adage goes, we need to first get it right....

"A common story has developed throughout history that Muslims have not played a pivotal role in shaping European culture. The exhibition strives to re-orientate that misconception. It's not about a triumph of one religion over another. Instead, it's about seeking parity - that Islam like its Jewish and Christian counterparts, has contributed to European culture."...

 

Bulleh Shah of course had pre-modern notions of sexuality and religion. For him the rigid categories between religion, gender and sexuality did not exist. For example in the following verses he has no scruples in incorporating a Hindu deity into his Muslim ethos, blurring the distinction between Muslim and Hindu concept of God.

 

It is high time we discarded the pernicious myth of India’s medieval Muslim villains. This poisonous notion imperils the tolerant foundations of modern India by erroneously positing religious-based conflict and Islamic extremism as constant features of life on the subcontinent. Moreover, it is simply bad history. India has a complicated and messy past,...

The ‘crown jewels’ have been handed to a country with one of the worst human rights records in the world. Saudi Arabia will head a Consultative Group of five Ambassadors empowered to select applicants globally for more than seventy-seven positions to deal with human rights violations and mandates.

 

While the discovery of the Birmingham Mushaf has been misrepresented as potentially indicating that the Qur’anic text had existed even before the Prophet (Sallā Allah ‘Alaihi wa Sallām) was born, the more popular, though no less absurd, claim against the preservation of the Qur’an has so far been that it continued to be developed many decades after the Prophet died! This bizarre claim has been embraced only by a minority of scholars, not least because there is not a shred of evidence to support it and there is plenty of evidence, including old manuscripts, that refutes it. So this older, baseless claim has now been joined by the exact opposite claim that the Qur’an existed before the Prophet Muhammad (Sallā Allah ‘Alaihi wa Sallām) was born! They both share the same objective, however, of discrediting the Qur’an and the Prophet Muhammad......

The Future of Ancient Sites in the Middle East
George Richards
The Future of Ancient Sites in the Middle East
George Richards

As a necessarily speculative case-study, ISIL's stated policy not to destroy Palmyra - the spectacularly preserved Roman oasis-town in eastern Syria that it captured in May - may be driven by a reluctance to alienate the local population in one of the most strategically important Syrian cities under ­­ISIL control. ...

 

Not only the Arab secularists and leftists saw the 1967 as more than a military debacle, but something that reflects deeper cultural and even moral maladies, this was also the view of some of the Islamist critics, who agreed with the leftists that the defeat was an indictment of Arab nationalism in both of its incarnations, Ba’athisim in Syria and Nasserism in Egypt. It was in the aftermath of 1967, that the Islamists, who were suppressed in Egypt and Syria during the heydays of Arab nationalism....

 
The Empire Must Not Strike Back
Khaled Diab
The Empire Must Not Strike Back
Khaled Diab

When it comes to the Middle East, nostalgia politics is in vogue. While ISIL is busy "restoring" an a-historical caliphate, others are pining for the apparently lost innocence of empire. The Tanzimat of the mid-19th century, among other things, created a common citizenship, erased ethnic and religious inequality and even decriminalised homosexuality, though they marked the beginning of more direct rule....

 
Art, History and Artefact
Rafia Zakaria
Art, History and Artefact
Rafia Zakaria

Over half a century after its culmination, however, its ideas are being replicated in equally grotesque ways. Whether it is the Taliban in Bamiyan or Daesh in Palmyra, the wilful destruction of history has become a stunted and self-destructive form of anti-colonial resistance....

 

Islamist terror groups in West Asia have not only destablised entire nations but have also threatened to snap mankind's civilisational linkages with its ancient past. Not satisfied with having laid waste to modern-day Iraq and Syria, the savages of the Islamic State are steadily obliterating the historical remnants of the ancient empires of Mesopotamia, Rome and Greece — one museum, statue, temple and tomb at a time.

 

The big question, of course, is why the antipathy between Sufis and Salafis is becoming a civil war in Islam. Indeed, the war itself is fairly one-sided, as the other side is the victim of the attack and has no strategy for a concerted counter-attack. But without romanticising either Sufism — any ‘ism’ is problematic — or the “good Muslim”, we only have to peruse early Sufi medieval texts to see how Sufi philosophies provide major sources of resistance to Salafist and other exclusionary ideologies....

 
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  • ہندستان ایک ایسا ملک ہے جہاں ہر قوم و مذہب کے لوگ بلا تفریق مذہب و ملت آباد ہیں، ہندستان میں ہندوؤں کے بعد مسلمان ...
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