Books and Documents

Islamic History

My Visit to Bibi Zainab’s (AS) Shrine: Memories Cannot Be Destroyed
Zain Gardezi

Bibi Zainab (AS) will always remain an inspiration to everyone fighting against tyranny and oppression. As for the place at which she was buried, it will always remain in the hearts of those who cherish it and remember it. If only those who attacked it had a heart of their own, they would understand the transcendental value of what they destroyed....


The surprising thing is that those who played an important role in the establishment of the Islamic civilisation were not Muslims in the first place, according to the standards of the Wahhabi Islam that has wielded a severe blow to the religion of Muslims. They were Kafirs and Satans. The rulers who led this phase of the Islamic development, such as Al Amin, Al Mamun, Al Mu’tasim and others were Mutazillah and preferred intellect to imitation. They had the belief in the status of the Quran as something created. The movement of translation that is considered as the foundation stone of this civilisation was initiated by the Christians who were experts in Greek and Siryani languages. As for the roles of other characters of this movement such as Farabi, Ibn-e-Sina, Razi, Hafiz, Ibn-e-Rushd, Abul Nawas, Ibn-e-Rumi, Al Muri and others, they were unanimously declared Kafirs by many big religious scholars of the nation such as Ghazali, Ibn Al Salah, Ibn-e-Taimiyyah, Ibn al Qayyim and the kings following their path and all the extremist jurists of the Hanbali school who even today roam about with the dagger of Takfir in their hands....

Tipu Sultan - India's Brave King against the Mighty British Empire
Mike Ghouse

Tipu was a secular King in the times when it was not a common thing. Dr. Gowda's research is an eye opener. Unfortunately, a few right wingers in India have maligned him for the excesses’ done by his fanatic deputies in Kerala and Mangalore, where they forced Hindus and Christians to convert to Islam. On the contrary, Tipu granted lands to build temples, and he defended the Sringeri Matt (Hindu Sanctuary) from attacks from Marathas, and has protected the Ranganatha Temple in Srirangapatna....

Causes For The Rise And Fall Of The Muslims
Naseer Ahmed, New Age Islam

The major reason for the fall was that democracy did not last beyond the fourth Caliph and the Caliphate became a dynasty from the fifth Caliph. This did not pose a serious problem as long as the Caliphate was in good hands. In dynasties however, one bad ruler can in the space of a generation or over two decades, undo the good work of several centuries. This invariably proves to be the undoing of all dynasties. Prodigal luxury and boundless wealth soon corrupt those with absolute power. The competition that is inherent in a democracy is absent in dynastic rules....

“Give him alms, woman, for nothing in this life is sadder than being blind in Granada,” said Mexican poet Francisco de Icaza. Famous worldwide for the Alhambra, the city has much more to offer, especially for those with a passion for Islamic history.  Over five hundred and twenty years have passed since that time (and one thousand years since Granada was founded), but the city’s main attractions remain the Nasrid and Zirid monuments in the Alhambra and Albayzín,....


History of Muslims in Britain: Queen Elizabeth I to George I
Nabil Matar
The first English Qur’an was published in 1649, and although it was prefaced by a hostile diatribe, the edition proved so popular that there was a quick re-issue, which worried the Interregnum authorities. As the collection of Islamic manuscripts grew at the Bodleian, having been started under the auspices of Archbishop William Laud in the 1620s and 30s, numerous scholars approached the study of Islam, for the first time in British history, through Islam’s own sources. The result was an impressive and detailed range of information about Islam that challenged traditional views.


 The mention of Saudi Arabia often leads people to envision an oil-rich, nearly-empty desert where Islam originated. For some extreme Islamists, pagan antiquities are sinful. Before the Washington exhibit opened, an Egyptian fundamentalist threatened to destroy pre-Islamic monuments, like the ancient Sphinx and the Pyramids, if he's able to....

Myth and Mythology of Events
Rashid Samnakay, New Age Islam

Myth and Mythology of Events
Rashid Samnakay, New Age Islam

One such historic event for Muslims is the momentous event of Karbala and Imam Hussein bin Ali’s death, accompanied by about seventy of his supporters and family members, including an infant child at the hands of the army of Yazeed; considered a villain, the son of Muawiyah. This occurred only about fifty years after Rasulluah’s death around sixty one Hijri. Prior to this tragic event a similar situation had emerged, when Imam Hassan bin Ali confronted Muawiyah to challenge his grab for power. Imam Ali the fourth Khalifa had appointed his son Hassan to take over after his death. That occurred at the hands of an assassin!...

Martyrdom of Hussain: A Symbol for Oppressed People All Over the World
Aamir Raza Husain

Husain also died that afternoon, but there was no lap for him to rest his wounded head. His body was desecrated, his head was cut off and his lifeless body was crushed under hooves of horses and left in the desert of Karbala. But his message lived, carried to the world by his sister Zainab. In the last fourteen hundred years, the sacrifice of Husain has become a symbol for oppressed people all over the world....

The Saudis Are Bulldozing Islam's Heritage. Why the Silence from the Muslim World?
Damian Thompson

As for Islam’s second holiest place, the city of Medina, a recent article by Jerome Taylor in the Independent revealed a megalomaniac plan to pull down three 7th-century mosques. Taylor added: “Ten years ago, a mosque which belonged to the Prophet’s grandson was dynamited. Pictures of the demolition that were secretly taken and smuggled out of the kingdom showed the religious police celebrating.”...

Medina: Saudis Take a Bulldozer to Islam's History
Jerome Taylor

Three of the world’s oldest mosques are about to be destroyed as Saudi Arabia embarks on a multi-billion-pound expansion of Islam’s second holiest site. Anger is already growing at the kingdom’s apparent disdain for preserving the historical and archaeological heritage of the country’s holiest city, Mecca.  Most of the expansion of Masjid an-Nabawi will take place to the west of the existing mosque, which holds the tombs of Islam’s founder and two of his closest companions, Abu Bakr and Umar....


Muslim World Stunned By S. Arabia`s Plan To Destroy Prophet`s Mosque

Fars News Agency


Makkah to Have 100 New Towers

UAE Government News


Article Accuses Saudi regime of Politicizing Pilgrimage

Al-Quds al-Arabi Online

Chapter 54 of the Quran was revealed eight years before hijrah (The Bounteous Koran, M.M. Khatib, 1985), indicating that it was revealed in 614 CE. If Ayesha started living with the Prophet at the age of nine in 623 CE or 624 CE, she was a newborn infant (sibyah in Arabic) at the time that Surah Al-Qamar (The Moon) was revealed. According to the above tradition, Ayesha was actually a young girl, not an infant in the year of revelation of Al-Qamar. Jariyah means young playful girl (Lane’s Arabic English Lexicon). So, Ayesha, being a jariyah not a sibyah (infant), must be somewhere between 6-13 years old at the time of revelation of Al-Qamar, and therefore must have been 14-21 years at the time she married the Prophet.

Ahadith and Politics in Early Muslim Community
Dr. Adis Duderija is a research associate at the University of Melbourne, Islamic Studies

It seems that the large bulk of the rules and regulations pertaining to hadith methodology was formed by the proliferating ahadith material whose content (matn) was neither systematically criticised nor disturbed as long as its isnad (chain of narrators) was sound as defined by traditional scholars of ahadith science. Young Muslim community, after the Messenger's death went through very tumultuous times. Schisms rooted in differing political, theological and legal understandings of what Islam is supposed to represent emerged. …

A Region at War with Its History
Fareed Zakaria is editor of Newsweek International

There are less medieval factors. It has long been apparent that the dictatorships of the Middle East form close alliances with religious leaders to crowd out other leaders and groups. Coupled with a historically weak civil society, this has created a one-sided political system in which religious parties enjoy powerful advantages in ideology, organization and, perhaps most of all, lack of competition. …

A Brief History of Modernity
Aakar Patel is a director with Hill Road Media

The history of modernity reads approximately like this. Around the time of Buddha, 500 years before Christ, the world was an ignorant place. It had little science. Reason was subordinate to power. As easterners, as Hindus and Muslims, should we accept this sequence as pure? Are we mere recipients of modern culture or participants? Did we have any contribution to make? …

Kemal Ataturk and the Punjab Government
Yasser Latif Hamdani is a practicing lawyer

It is clear that Jinnah’s admiration for Ataturk went beyond mere tribute. To him Ataturk and his secular Turkey were examples for all Muslims, and indeed all people to follow. Under Jinnah’s presidency, Muslim League celebrated the Kemal Day on Ataturk’s birthday. The Muslims of South Asia have had a long and emotional relationship with the Turks and especially Kemal Ataturk… 

Vatican 'wants to see' 1,500-year-old ancient script Has been hidden by Turkish state for 12 years Handwritten in gold-lettered Aramaic The 1,500-year-old tome was is said to contain Jesus' early teachings and his prediction of the Prophet's coming. In line with Islamic belief, the Gospel treats Jesus as a human being and not a God….

When Paris and London were no more than a collection of timbre and mud dwellings, the city of Cordoba could boast of public parks and libraries. Knowledge was cherished and people of all faiths held positions of honour at Court. The Muslims of that so-called Golden Age of Islam showed that Islam can be both strong and sweet. The extent of the Islamic nation at this time was at its peak. Muslims were zealous in their faith and outstanding in their example. Any visit to the mosque, then, is a great reminder of the rich history of Islam. Faith, though, is not a journey into the past. It teaches us about our lives today. Another visit to the mosque of Abu Al-Abbas Al-Mursi might teach us something altogether different. -- Idris Tawfiq


The “Birth of Pakistan” was in the majestic Mohatta Palace, however the space we had for “State of Being So Divided” was more compact and the format of storytelling had to be adapted to a simplified, linear story to follow the clean lines of the architectural space. Every few years is a visual timeline with pictures, videos and audio interviews of people who experienced that particular phase in the timeline. Also, the 1947 Partition Archive, a non-profit based from the USA collaborated with CAP and provided 4 video interviews with the Indian perspective of partition. We want history to be made memorable, to be made into an intuitive subject, where you should know everything about the country you call your own and take pride in. One can only have far-sighted vision and goals to change the world they live in if they know everything about where they come from. It’s not about making history easy; it’s about making you fall in love it. -- Alia Chughtai 


More than 4000 years ago, in the then city of Ur, a young man by the name of Abram or Ibrahim stole in the temple of Nanna, when the high priests were away attending a town festival and broke all the idols, the false objects of worship and submission, as he thought to himself. This was perhaps, the first act of ideological revolution in a civilized settlement of humans and the first ever expression of the rejection of false gods. As we can see, this conflict between the truth and falsehood, monotheism and polytheism, Towheed and Shirk started right at the dawn of civilization and is with us ever since. The Qur’an says that Ibrahim (A) was the imam (the leader) of the mankind. A leader is the one, who sets out to articulate his message; in this case inviting people to believe in one god and to reject false gods. As the history has told us, Ibrahim (A) left Mesopotamia; went to Kan’an, Syria and Egypt (the so called Fertile Crescent), before settling in Kan’an, the present day Palestine. This was the whole world of civilization at that time. Wherever he went, he invited people to Towheed (belief in One God, the creator, the one who gives life and takes life, the one who makes the sun rise from the east, acts which no one else in the universe can emulate, nor have any share in such action. Thus the essence of the kalmia: La ilaha illa Allah, the first element of the Islamic faith was institutionalized and which permeated the consciousness of every human being for all times to come. -- Waheeduddin Ahmed Ph.D.

After losing its eastern wing in 1971, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto replaced General Yeah Yeah Khan as the country’s new premier. Bhutto’s socialist Bakistan Beoples Barty (BBB) had won the 1970 elections in West Bakistan before East Bakistan separated due to a civil war and became the independent republic of Pangladesh.

The hefty General Yeah Yeah blamed the defeat of the Bakistani army to nationalist Pengali forces backed by flying Hindu yogis on his new dietitian who had advised him to stop eating meat and stick to vegetables if he wanted to attract the attention of Elizabeth Taylor. -- NADEEM F. PARACHA

Pakistan came into being on the 14th of August 712 AD. Gallant Arab leader, conqueror, poet, and expert javelin thrower, Muhammad Bin Qasim, is believed to have founded the country. However, some modern-day Pakistani historians suggest that Pakistan was first established by Adam, eons ago (and that is why some areas of Pakistan produce such delicious apples). Qasim’s forces entered what is now the Sindh province of Pakistan in 712 AD. After defeating the infamous infidel playboy Raja of the area, Qasim proclaimed a pious republic, which he soon called the Islamic Republic of Pakistan. After Qasim’s success (for which he was thanked by the Caliph through torture), Muslim rulers of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan expanded the boundaries of the country. Some Pakistani historians believe that Pakistan’s boundaries once stretched from Bharat through China and all the way to Alaska. -- NADEEM F. PARACHA

MUHARRAM is the month with which the Muslims begin their lunar Hijrah Calendar. It is one of the four sanctified months about which the Holy Qur an says, Indeed, the number of months with Allah is twelve [lunar] months [in a year], in the register of Allah [from] the day He created the heavens and the earth; of these, four are Sacred [i.e. the 1st, 7th, 11th and 12th] (Surah Al-Taubah 9:36) -- Mufti Taqi Usmani

Another feature of the Arab conquest of Sindh is that in spite of the occupation and remaining a part of the Caliphate for 150 years, the Arabic language could not become the lingua franca. This is quite contrary to the other regions which came under the Arab control such as North Africa where the local languages were eliminated and Arabic became the predominant language of the people. Why did this not happen in Sindh? -- Dr Mubarak Ali


Apart from their love for architecture, the Emperor Shahjahan and the Director General (DG) of the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) have another thing in common: their residence at the Red Fort.

Inside the colonial buildings at the 17th Century World Heritage Site, the ASI DG Gautam Sengupta and senior officials have found two-bedroom sets. The Mughal building of Naubat Khana has been turned into an office.

Besides the Red Fort, the ASI has guesthouses at Purana Quila, Safdarjung’s Tomb and even in Fatehpur Sikri — to name a few. -- Sweta Dutta

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  • "Scholars at Makkah conference warn against sectarianism"Sectarianism is our worst enemy but these scholars at the Makkah conference warning us about sectarianism are themselves very ...
    ( By Ghulam Mohiyuddin )
  • Naseer sb.,Instead of responding to my post you have  launched a barrage of hollow assertions. You seem to be under the delusion that you ...
    ( By Ghulam Mohiyuddin )
  • We should say, "There shall be no compulsion in   religion," and stop there. Quoting the rest of 2:256 and 2:257 dilutes the message. ...
    ( By Ghulam Mohiyuddin )
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  • It is very sad to know that civilians are mercilessly being killed in Yemen
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    ( By Kaniz Fatma )
  • آج ضرورت اس امر کی ہے کہ ہم ہر وقت صبر و تحمل کی سواری پر سوار رہیں، مصائب، تکالیف، پریشانیاں اور غم آتے رہیں گے ...
    ( By Kaniz Fatma )
  • This verse means that the teachings of Islam are very clear and the proof and evidence of its soundness are so clear and definitive that there ...
    ( By Kaniz Fatma )
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    ( By Naseer Ahmed )
  • A correction. I am not a hypocrite who can respect anything that is the anti-thesis of Islam.  However, when it comes to people, i ...
    ( By Naseer Ahmed )
  • A correction. I am not a hypocrite who can respect anything that is the anti-thesis of Islam.  However, when it comes to people, i ...
    ( By Naseer Ahmed )
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    ( By Naseer Ahmed )
  • Ms Kaniz Fatima,You have quoted Yunus now and Saeed earlier. What Yunus says is the opposite of what Saeed says and i agree with ...
    ( By Naseer Ahmed )
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  • علماء کی برائی مت کرنا 🤫حضرت شاہ عبدالعزیز محدث دہلوی رحمت اللہ علیہ فرمایا کرتے تھے کہ زندگی میں کبھی کسی عالم کی برائی ...
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  • https://yaleglobal.yale.edu/history-zero
    ( By hats off! )
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    ( By Ghulam Ghaus Siddiqi غلام غوث الصديقي )
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  • Ms Kaniz Fatima,How can I answer for Akbar? What I think however is that Akbar was a very genuine secularist and not a hypocrite. He ...
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  • Superb sir very good article it's eye opener
    ( By Nadim )
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    ( By Riaz Tanur )
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  • جناب عبد اللہ صاحب ! صرف اس بات پر اس پر بد عقیدگی کا حکم لگانا درست نہیں ہوگا ، خصوصا جبکہ اس کا یہ ...
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  • من لطيف إشارات ساداتنا الصوفية رضي الله عنهم في قوله تعالى : (( إِنَّ اللَّهَ اشْتَرَىٰ مِنَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ أَنفُسَهُمْ وَأَمْوَالَهُم)) أن الباري قد اشتراها ...
    ( By عبد القادر الحسيني )
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