Books and Documents

Radical Islamism and Jihad

Madrassas are jealously guarded by Pakistan's countless politico-religious extremists.

Government edicts on curriculum reform are ignored with impunity. Free meals and an "education" are the principal attraction for the overwhelming majority of Muslim Pakistan's 175 million people, who subsist on $2 or $3 a day. The government cannot afford a modern public school system for the poor as the military absorbs most of the budget. And Pakistan cannot return to the ranks of strong, peace-loving nations until madrassas are replaced by normal high schools. Those are still a decade or two away.

The miserable conditions under which a majority of Pakistan's poor eke out subsistence living (electricity frequently is unavailable for 12 hours a day, shutting down fans and naked bulbs in 100-degree heat) are likely to continue for the foreseeable future. The game-changer is the Pakistani army, whose volunteers came principally from the ranks of the poor. But the officers, if not the rank and file, now understand that religious extremists are no longer their allies.

With 3,500 killed by terrorists in a year and more than 10,000 injured and many small businesses closed, coupled with the government's neglect of their plight for lack of funds, and U.S. aid spread thin over a multitude of unrelated projects, those who cherry-pick suicide targets to make matters worse are faced with an embarrassment of riches. -- Arnaud de Borchgrave


The suicide blast in Peshawar on April 19 that claimed 23 lives was a little different, in the sense that instead of targeting the ANP, as usual, the suicide bomber chose a Jamaat-e-Islami demonstration to detonate himself.

The Naib Amir of the Jamaat, Sirajul Haq, was quick to blame the government that had failed to protect people's lives while another leader of the Jamaat, Hafiz Hashmat, accused Blackwater. Not a word was uttered by any of the Jamaat's leaders about the Taliban, who are usually blamed for such incidents. Last year, when the Swat videos shook the entire country, the Jamaat's did not condemn the Taliban. -- Farooq Sulehria


Recently religious programming on TV channels has come under scrutiny for various reasons. One of the biggest concerns is how some of these programmes have gone on to advocate violence against so-called minority sects and religions, and the way they use obscure traditions and biased interpretations of the scriptures to deride certain events and personalities. 
Though both sides of the main sectarian divide (the ‘Barelvi’ and the Salafi/Deobandi) are given equal space on the channels, unfortunately, the preachers and TV hosts of both the sides have usually taken extreme positions on various issues. This includes exhibiting animated armchair radicalism by indirectly siding with monsters such as the Taliban and scoffing at the concept of democracy and liberal Islam, attacking them as misguided constructs worthy only of ridicule. -- Nadeem F Pracha

Ibn Taymiyya, undoubtedly a great scholar and eminent jurist, had issued a set of four fatwas known as Mardin fatwas. Mardin was a Turkish fortress in South East Turkey with mixed population. And Osama had quoted this Mardin fatwa repeatedly in his calls for Muslims to overthrow the Saudi monarchy and wage jihad against the United States. Some prominent Ulama from the Islam world decided to meet in Mardin to discuss Ibn Taymiyya’s fatwa towards the end of March 2010

 This historic document was referred to by these Islamic scholars and took decisive stand against it. They said, “Anyone who seeks support from this fatwa for killing Muslims or non-Muslims has erred in his interpretation.” They further said, “It is not for a Muslim individual or a group to announce and declare war or engage in combative jihad…on their own.” ...

The Ulama opposing terrorism are repeatedly emphasizing this fact of religious plurality of world today and no medieval opinions expressed by jurists can be valid. Any fatwa, like the Mardin one, can be issued without taking concrete conditions into account and there is unanimity among Islamic scholars that if Muslims are allowed to leave in peace and have guaranteed religious freedom such a region cannot be but dar al-saqlam i.e. abode of peace, in Taymiyya’s own words. No violence can be justified in such region. Thus terrorism has no place for modern world. -- Asghar Ali Engineer

Ibn Taymiyyah's unmarked grave in Damascus

Fifteen years ago, a young man named Sarfaraz Nawaz left Pallikera on a journey that would lead, step by step, to the serial bombings in Bangalore in June, 2008. From his story, and that of his associates in south India's Islamist networks, investigators have pieced together a fascinating account of how multiple jihadist cells formed across the region; linked to each other only loosely through leaders, who in turn were connected to Islamist groups in the Gulf and the Lashkar-e-Taiba's commanders in Pakistan.

But the story also demonstrates disturbing gaps in intelligence; gaps that allowed jihadists to mobilise and recruit members, and prepare for attacks. Following last week's bombings at the M. Chinnaswamy stadium in Bangalore, the police in Karnataka have renewed the search for over a dozen individuals linked to Nawaz's networks who eluded arrest after the June 2008 serial bombings in India's information-technology capital. -- Praveen Swami



With the Indonesian police providing the mug shots, Dulmatin's pictures were splashed all over Indonesia's large media. The balding man with a small beard and moustache was believed to be around 40 years old. Unlike in Pakistan where the authorities in most cases are unable to provide evidence, due to a host of reasons, that the targeted militants have indeed been slain, the Indonesians did a good job by providing proof to the media that Dulmatin along with Ridwan and Hasan Noer, believed to be his bodyguards, had been killed. The police also said the DNA test conducted on Dulmatin matched the DNA of his mother. The efficient cops were lucky that no bystander was killed in the high-risk, coordinated public raids, including the internet café in suburban Jakarta where Dulmatin was trapped. -- Rahimullah Yusufzai


Basayev's writings show that the Chechen jihadist movement, like others across the world, was a product of modernity — not traditionalist Islam. His iconic 2004 book, The Book of the Mujahid, was derived bizarrely from the Brazilian pop novelist Paulo Coelho. “In late March of last year,” Basayev wrote in the preface, “I had two weeks of spare time when I got a hold of Warrior of the Light: A Manual. I wanted to derive benefits for the mujahideen from this book and this is why I rewrote most of it, removing some of the excesses and strengthened all of it with Quranic verses, Hadiths and stories from the lives of the disciples [of the Prophet].”

India has lessons to learn from Russia's experience. Its jihadists, like those of the north Caucasus, are intimately entwined with Islamist groups in Pakistan —but, increasingly, are acquiring the capabilities needed to stage major operations independently. Facing up to the new challenges of a globalised jihadist movement will need unprecedented levels of international cooperation. -- Praveen Swami


While the identification of the bombers will no doubt help Russian intelligence agencies to get to the network of terror that operates in the name of Islam, it is of importance for others, too. Three points have emerged from the investigations that are of direct relevance to all nations threatened by the monster of jihadi terror. First, various fatwas issued by theologists of Islam condemning terrorism, particularly suicide bombings, that claim innocent lives, and insisting that Islam does not sanction such violence have failed to convince Islamists of the folly of their fanaticism. At the ground level, such edicts have had no impact and are unlikely to serve any purpose as ‘deterrents’. Second, there is no gender distinction between men and women who have vowed to unleash terror: The terrorist as a rage boy is a myth created by those who have a poor understanding of what motivates the mass murderers. Third, global jihad remains untamed and uncurbed despite the much-publicised US-led war on terror. If anything, US President Barack Obama’s line of least resistance vis-a-vis the Taliban has served to embolden Islamists who see nothing wrong with shedding the blood of innocent people in their pursuit of the chalice of poison. -- An Editorial in The Pioneer, New Delhi

Photo: Dzhennet Abdurakhmanova, who is believed to have carried out one of the Moscow metro bombings, poses with her late husband Umalat Magomedov. Courtesy:  Newsteam/AFP/Getty Images


One of the basic tenets of STRATFOR’s analytical model is that place matters. A country’s physical and cultural geography will force the government of that country to confront certain strategic imperatives no matter what form the government takes. For example, Imperial Russia, the Soviet Union and post-Soviet Russia all have faced the same set of strategic imperatives. Similarly, place can also have a dramatic impact on the formation and operation of a militant group, though obviously not in quite the same way that it affects a government, since militant groups, especially transnational ones, tend to be itinerant and can move from place to place.

From the perspective of a militant group, geography is important but there are other critical factors involved in establishing the suitability of a place. While it is useful to have access to wide swaths of rugged terrain that can provide sanctuary such as mountains, jungles or swamps, for a militant group to conduct large-scale operations, the country in which it is based must have a weak central government — or a government that is cooperative or at least willing to turn a blind eye to the group. A sympathetic population is also a critical factor in whether an area can serve as a sanctuary for a militant group. In places without a favorable mixture of these elements, militants tend to operate more like terrorists, in small urban-based cells. -- Scott Stewart


October 2009 arrest in Chicago of two men charged with plotting attacks in Denmark illustrates Lashkar’s transnational capabilities and the nuanced role they can play in terms of terrorism against India and the West. One of the men arrested was David Headley, (aka Daood Gilani), a Pakistani American who trained with Lashkar during the early part of the decade and changed his name in order to perform surveillance in India. He made multiple extended trips to Mumbai in advance of the 2008 attacks that took place there. During each trip he took pictures and video of various targets, including all of those struck by Lashkar’s fidayeen in November 2008. -- Stephen Tankel

Photo: Headley-Rana

Include zero tolerance towards any and all subversive activities especially in J&K which is inalienable from the idea of India. Threatening jihad and claiming divine interpretation from the holy book, Hafiz Saeed like the al Qaida is in reality the heinous wilful political misrepresentation aimed at usurping power and starting a new religion which can never be the Islam as preached 1400 years ago. …

Please spare us this devilish demagoguery since it insults our basic intelligence.

We live in the 21st century and our democratic structure is our way of life. The Indian Muslims have suffered twice over, first from the terror strikes aimed randomly at all citizens and then from the accusations afterwards. The opinion makers and the religious clergy should declare Hafiz and company as enemies of the nation and deviant heretics. These ideological recruiters and handlers should be dealt severely and that can only happen by working with marginalized sections of society. The potential and hope for a better life is the first line of defence in our war against terror. -- Aijaz Ilmi

Islam does not preach extremism but peace and harmony for a balanced life. The radicalization of Islam stems from ignorance and arrogance. Islam is peace and peace represents logic of reason and understanding of normal human values and respect for life. Those who call themselves Taliban must learn that Islam does not allow public scolding and beating of the females/males as a staged show and part of the law and justice system approach but instead focuses on education and reformation of the individual and collective well being of the Muslim society to be obedient to God. If they resort to force as means to introduce “shariah”, it is ignorance (jahalliya) not Islamic ways of life. …

Zardaris, Bhuttos, Gilani and Sharifs are not the hope for the future but dark forces of the dead past. Nation-building is not the child play that few military Generals or corrupt politicians could deliver. The onus is on the educated and conscientious Pakistanis scattered around the globe to come to terms and realize that they owe lot more to Pakistan for what they are, their happiness and success and should take initiatives to help free the besieged nation at a difficult juncture of its survival. --Mahboob A. Khawaja


LeT's philosophy is similar to other Pan-Islamic jihadi groups, including Al Qaeda, but with a uniquely Pakistani twist. It wants to establish a Muslim caliphate across South Asia, re-creating the dominance of the 17th-century Mughal empire. In addition to being virulently anti-Jewish, LeT is rabidly anti-Hindu. It blames British imperialism and the West for what it perceives as the weakness of Pakistan, and Muslims in South Asia generally. In its official literature, the group has called for the "reconquest" of Europe, which it claims was once in Muslim hands but was stolen away by Christian Crusaders. Hafiz Muhammad Saeed, one of LeT's founders and its top spiritual leader, has repeatedly proclaimed that the Western world "is terrorizing Muslims." "We are being invaded, humiliated, manipulated, and looted," he told a Pakistani newspaper in 2003. "How else can we respond but through jihad?" He has urged his fellow Muslims to "fight against the evil trio: America, Israel, and India." As recently as this past spring, his son, Hafiz Talha Saeed, had publicly preached that it is the duty of every Muslim to wage jihad against Jews and Christians wherever they are. -- Jeremy Kahn

Today, in Barking, Dr Tahir ul-Qadri is focusing on the problems of how many young British Pakistanis are being radicalised. Although the Government is working hard, says Dr Tahir ul-Qadri they are working on the wrong lines. In other words, he believes, that the Government has not kept abreast of the multi-culturalism of its own people. “England is the hub of the Western world. There is a big community here of around two million with a Pakistani background. The communities are in great numbers.” As Dr Tahir ul-Qadri sees it, no terrorists have emerged from a Sunni or Sufi background: instead, they have come from the Salafis (Wahhabis) or Deobandis. The Deobandis are a South Asian variant which is close to the Gulf-orientated Wahhabis. “Every Salafi and Deobandi is not a terrorist but I have no hesitation in saying that everyone is a well-wisher of terrorists and this has not been appreciated by the Western governments,” he said.

Dr Tahir ul-Qadri who has the authority of a Sheikh–ul-Islam, a title given to those who have superior knowledge of the principles of the faith, is coming out with his statement now because the Wahhabis and Deobandis have been silent in condemning the killings in Pakistan and abroad. They dominate much of the apparatus of state in Pakistan — as well as most of the mosques in London — which is why in the West we receive mixed messages: the military launches vast offensives while the religious and education ministries say nothing. As a result, many in the West believe that the church in Pakistan is not doing enough to counter the violence. -- Allegra Mostyn-Owen

Photo: Speaking against extremism: Allegra Mostyn-Owen meets Dr Tahir ul-Qadri

The news of beheading of two Sikh youth in the Peshawar region of Pakistan has not come as a surprise to the world. What more can we expect from a rabid race of Talibanis, born and brought up on the fodder of hate and violence. The news in fact brings to light the hollow rhetoric of the Pakistani establishment when they claim to have contained the menace of Taliban.

What surprises me is the eerie silence of the Muslim ulema in the subcontinent (particularly in India) in their condemnation of this cowardly act of appalling brutality. Where are those who leave no opportunity to condemn what is inconvenient to them, no matter how comfortable it might be to Islam in general and Muslims in particular? What happens to all those voices which grow louder at times of trivial issues which they think place Islam in danger? What more danger can await a religion than accusation of the kind which we see after such heinous atrocities? When can the Islamic ulema realize that acts such as these are the ones which actually put Islam in danger? ...

I am sure that day, it wasn’t Jaspal Singh who was beheaded, it was Islam that was beheaded in Peshawar and we all should mourn this death.  -- Dr. Shah Alam Khan

Since 9/11, Western commentators have been calling on moderate Muslim leaders to condemn jihadist ideology, issue fatwas against suicide bombing, and denounce al-Qaeda. Since about 2006, they’ve begun to do so in significant numbers. In 2007 one of bin Laden’s most prominent Saudi mentors, the preacher and scholar Salman al-Odah, wrote an open letter criticising him for “fostering a culture of suicide bombings that has caused bloodshed and suffering, and brought ruin to entire Muslim communities and families”. That same year Abdulaziz al ash-Sheikh, the grand mufti of Saudi Arabia, issued a fatwa prohibiting Saudis from engaging in jihad abroad and accused both bin Laden and Arab regimes of “transforming our youth into walking bombs to accomplish their own political and military aims.” Al-Azhar University in Cairo, the oldest and most prestigious school of Islamic learning, now routinely condemns jihadism. The Darul Uloom Deoband movement in India, home to the original radicalism that influenced al-Qaeda, has inveighed against suicide bombing since 2008. None of these groups or people have become pro-American or liberal, but they have become anti-jihadist...

This shift does not reflect a turn away from religiosity or even from a backward conception of Islam. That ideological struggle persists and will take decades, not years, to resolve itself. But the battle against jihadism has fared much better, much sooner, than anyone could have imagined.

But the nature of the enemy is now quite different. It is not a movement capable of winning over the Arab street. Its political appeal does not make rulers tremble. This is not an argument to relax our efforts to hunt down militants. Al-Qaeda remains a group of relentless, ruthless killers who are trying to recruit other fanatics to carry out hideous attacks that would do terrible damage to civilised society. But the group’s aura is gone, its political influence limited.

The enemy is not vast; the swamp is being drained. Al-Qaeda has already lost in the realm of ideology. What remains is the battle to defeat it in the nooks, crannies, and crevices of the real world. -- Fareed Zakaria

Those urging the government to negotiate with the Pakistani Taliban need to be clear whether they want their mothers, wives, sisters and daughters to lead the lives their Afghan counterparts had to not so long ago. To the Taliban, these are non-negotiable conditions to their stated desire to impose their version of the Sharia on the rest of us.

The first thing Fazlullah did when he was handed Swat was to shut down the schools that had not been blown up earlier. Barber shops and video shops were ordered to follow suit. All forms of entertainment were effectively banned. Is this the kind of life we wish to condemn our countrymen to?

Remember that we have a model of this kind of barbaric society: under the Afghan Taliban, our neighbour was rapidly pushed back to the dark ages. Women were flogged for the crime of showing an inch of their ankles as they walked wearing all-enveloping shrouds. Male doctors could not attend to them, even in life-threatening cases. They were not allowed to leave their homes to work, and girls were forbidden from going to school.

Largely due to the shrill voices that have crowded out reason from media debate, there is a lot of confusion and ambiguity about what the Taliban want, and how far the government should go in meeting their demands. Some argue that their excesses are the result of the Western presence in Afghanistan, and our government’s military anti-Taliban operations in the tribal areas. How the extremists hold school-going children responsible for these policies, and destroy schools is something their apologists in the media have failed to explain.

What sustains this mindset is the steady inroads madrasas have made in Pakistan during and since the Zia era. The decades since the 1980s have witnessed a rapid erosion of modern, secular values. The voices of reason have been muted, and we are caught in the grip of a mindless anti-West hysteria that pushes even moderates into the Taliban camp.

As the threat of the Taliban looms larger over Pakistan, schools in Karachi and Lahore have come to resemble armed camps. The fear of terrorist attacks unsettles children and parents alike. Ever the enemies of education, the Taliban will stop at nothing in their quest for power. -- Irfan Husain

… Of necessity, then, I have been thinking about Islamic extremism, one way or another, almost every day for the past 15 years. On occasions, those ruminations have taken on a highly personal edge, from instances both ludicrous and potentially lethal. I came to know the Islamic furies of the Taliban early on, first as an offender against their prohibition against trimmed beards, which caused me to be seized on the street in Kabul in 1996, my chin forced upwards by my heavily-bearded captors to allow a measuring of my grown-out stubble against a six-inch strip of metal that constituted one of the Taliban’s rough-and-ready measures of their fellow Afghans’ fealty to pre-medieval Islamic codes. That encounter saw me thrust into a rusty shipping container with other miscreants who were destined to spend weeks in the container while growing their own inadequate stubble, but an appeal to a friendly United Nations official with influence among the Taliban led to my early reprieve. Later, caught trying to disguise myself as an Afghan under a shoulder blanket in the crowd at the execution by a volley of Kalashnikov fire of alleged murderers and adulterers in a Kabul soccer stadium, I had to run for my life from an angry mob shouting “Kafir!”, meaning infidel, and throwing stones. …

As it happens, I am writing after a Cambridge University dinner in honour of David Puttnam, director of “Chariots of Fire” and “The Killing Fields,” who spoke at Trinity College on his vision of the vast educational potential inherent in the new tools of the digital age. A passionate believer in the benefits of the Internet, he nonetheless referred at one point to its downside potential, describing demagogic bloggers who exploit their access to the medium as “a digital lynch mob.”

While that’s a specter that always lurks at the edge of blogging, the more so when the topic is as emotive as Islamic radicalization, what has been striking about the blogs this topic has attracted – like so many others on the ‘At War’ site in recent months – is the sense I take from the flow of questions and comments of how well many of our readers have understood the multiple causes of radicalization in the Islamic world, and how widespread, judging from this sample, is the understanding that these causes seem unlikely to yield to greater tolerance among radicalized Muslims within a generation, and perhaps for far longer than that. In that sense, at least, those who have cast the confrontation between Islamic extremism and the West as “the long war” seem to have grasped an unpalatable but inescapable truth. If the West is to find an accommodation with this new enemy, we will have to work hard at addressing these causes, with military power only one of the many tools in our armory, and we will most surely have to draw on the one resource, patience, that is always in short supply when nations and creeds and ways of life find themselves under violent attack. -- JOHN F. BURNS

Photo: John F Burns, by Lars Klove for The New York


This does not mean that radical Islam is not a threat in-and-of-itself. Just as most American liberals are unaware that their purpose is to give legitimacy – "mainstream" if you will – the radical left's communist agenda, most Muslim Jihadists are unaware that they fight on behalf of the same ideology. Many of them believe the exhortations of their Imams. Some Imams may even believe it. Many truly believe they are working on Allah's behalf to create a worldwide Muslim caliphate. Because of this, they have to be considered a stand-alone threat. -- James Simpson

All too often, though, Arab and Muslim governments arrest their jihadis at home, denounce them privately to us, but say nothing in public. The global leadership of Islam — like the king of Saudi Arabia or the Organisation of the Islamic Conference — rarely take on jihadist actions and ideology openly with the kind of passion, consistency and mass protests that we have seen them do, for example, against Danish cartoons of the Prophet Mohammad.

Every faith has its violent extreme. The West is not immune. It’s all about how the centre deals with it. Does it tolerate it, isolate it or shame it? The jihadists are a security problem for our system. But they are a political and moral problem for the Arab-Muslim system. If they won’t address this problem for us, I truly hope they will do it for themselves. Eventually, we’ll find a way to keep most jihadists off our planes and out of our volleyball games — but they will have to live with them. -- Thomas L. Friedman

As I watched the footage later I was convinced, more than before, that Swati women are not just beautiful, they have it in them to turn Swat around. If only the government could understand this.

Ironically, Fazlullah, the Radio Mullah, did. When he began his FM broadcasts, his first target were women. He used them for funding as well as to motivate their men-folk. That was 2002. Six years and much bloodshed later, the people of Swat are waking up from that nightmare. This is the time for the government to use Fazlullah’s strategy to reverse that process.

The army realises this, to some extent, if not fully...

It is very difficult to counter the suicide bomber, an army officer told me. That’s where investing in the people, in the Faiza Khans, becomes so important. The only way to stop the suicide bomber is to ensure a society where he can’t be found, bred and trained. -- Ejaz Haider

In August 2008, I wrote in a column titled "Measuring the Jamaat's descent" that the Jamaat is the only "unsalvageable wreck" within Pakistan's broken politics, and that "the Jamaat's political savvy is outrageously overstated." I don't mind admitting a mistake. But in this case, I made no mistake. The Jamaat is an outrageously unsalvageable wreck. Its election of Munawwar Hasan, rather than that of a younger leader, and its consistent dependence on the US government and Pakistani elite for its talking points offer a limitless supply of proof that it is more an opportunistic clash-of-civilisations gang than it is a viable political force. Since the Jamaat is unsalvageable, the only control we can exert on the situation is through understanding the factors that are allowing it this undeserved relevance. -- Mosharraf Zaidi

Mainstream Islam could still survive in Pakistan

Today, Pakistani children are not safe praying in mosques. Lt. Gen. Masood Aslam, the army’s Peshawar corps commander and the man leading the assault against the Taliban in Swat and South Waziristan, should know this all too well. The general lost his only son, the 19-year-old Hashim Masood, when the Taliban struck a mosque frequented by senior officers and their relatives on December 4. At least 39 others were killed, including serving and retired officers and their children. The message was chilling: if you hit us in Waziristan, we will kill your children in Rawalpindi, the garh of the Pakistani army.

The militants want to turn it into the short-lived Islamic Emirate of Mullah Omar in Afghanistan, where women will live as second-class citizens and a brutal Islamist law would be imposed. The other is a vision of a moderate Pakistan, where political parties run the country and the army (eventually) takes a backseat; where people receive quality education and net good jobs; where religion is important but doesn’t dictate every sphere of personal life. -- Amit Baruah


The internet can be a highly effective channel to counter Jihadism

With a globally coordinated effort, however, the internet can be a highly effective channel to serve another important purpose. That is to activate Muslim intellectuals and moderate clerics across the world to produce and disseminate widely a counter-narrative to the violent ideology of jihadism. While some intellectuals and scholars, generally located in western societies, have written books and articles to counter the hate doctrine of the extremists, much more needs to be done within Muslim societies to counter narrow interpretations by radical clerics of Quranic texts and hadiths. This should now happen, much of it preferably in Arabic, Urdu and Pashto.

Importantly, Islam's compatibility with the ideas of democracy and the nation-state needs to be established in the minds of young Muslims. Major Nidal Hasan's case is a worrying one. Here was an American Muslim who had willingly sworn to defend his country by joining the army; yet, when it came to being actually deployed to fight he told himself, allegedly with guidance from a radical cleric on the internet, that his allegiance was to the Ummah and not to his country. He not only declined to fight other Muslims, he killed 13 soldiers who had similarly vowed to defend the nation. -- Gautam Adhikari


Post-Mumbai, then, the Pakistani security establishment and its terrorist proxies won the battle of ideas, although by default. Everybody protested and blamed the attackers. But neither India nor its actual or potential partners put up the kind of intellectual fight that was necessary to counter the pernicious arguments that turned the victim into a part-culprit. Ironically, though, Pakistan — which ultimately emerged from the process as a victim —fell victim to its own propaganda.

For one, the state’s embrace of the argument it made on Mumbai left the population in a state of total psychological denial, unable to understand the motivations of an attack which made no sense to the vast majority of citizens. The trauma of the attack was evaded through all sorts of conspiracy theories which represented Pakistan as the victim of a Hindu-Zionist plot backed by the U.S. Confused, too, were many Pakistani intellectuals who, deprived of any prospect of a real political alternative, preferred to choose radical nationalism as their last resort. They encouraged, if not fed, the popular paranoia which they often shared...

Terrorism is primarily a political struggle, and has to be fought as such. Refusing to do so will make political violence an acceptable means of solving political issues and lead to the erosion of the solidarity and determination of the international community. Sadly, the world’s failure to respond appropriately to Mumbai has given a victory, if by default, to the terrorists who attacked the city. -- Frédéric Grare

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    ( By Hari Krishan Wattal )
  • @Mahjabeen Tariq , yes, that is on expected line.
    ( By Maharaj Shah )
  • @Shariq Aman , The Quran clearly says it. Not my opinion.
    ( By Maharaj Shah )
  • @Maharaj Shah That's your opinion gentleman.
    ( By Shariq Aman )
  • Phys Er Saifuddin Shangloo whenu say humanity, it means ummah, now...
    ( By Manoj Kumar )
  • Quran clearly says prophet's message is for humanity....
    ( By Er Saifuddin Shangloo )
  • @Muneer Syed , I am not mistaken, I am sure Quran doesn't treat....
    ( By Maharaj Shah )
  • @Maharaj Shah you are mistaken quarn doesn't teach two nation.,.
    ( By Muneer Syed )
  • Unless Muslims treat Non Muslims as equals in letter and spirit, unless this....
    ( By Maharaj Shah )
  • @B Ch Marak not only force but also for money power illicit lust.
    ( By Swagata Kumar Das )