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Radical Islamism and Jihad

The Khilafah, the only choice, not a utopian dream

With NWFP, Balochistan and Karachi all teetering at the edge, the US has a once in a generation opportunity to turn Pakistan into a balkanised hell hole....

Only the tried and trusted Islamic system of the Khilafah (Caliphate) can succeed in the Muslim world. A coherent effort at re-establishing the Khilafah is now the urgent requirement and is gaining momentum. According to an opinion poll carried out by the University of Maryland, 74% of Pakistanis support the establishment of a unified Khilafah in the Muslim world, the establishment of such an entity is therefore not a question of if, but when....

Many cite the Khilafah as a utopian dream, yet those in the know are not so sure. A US government intelligence study by the National Intelligence Council in 2004 called “Mapping the Global Future” presented as one future scenario the rise of a new pan-national Caliphate. Thomas Ricks the Washington Post’s senior Pentagon correspondent in his book “Fiasco” says there is precedent for the emergence of a unifying figure in the Muslim world, a modern day Saladin, someone who can revive the region through combining popular support with huge oil revenues. A real “nightmare scenario” for the western world as Richard Nixon once described it in his book 1999.

One can understand a post-Iraq America's reluctance towards wars that seem straight out of Kipling. But we in the region have to live with the political consequences of superpower intervention, and the casual legitimacy that Obama is offering to a destructive ideology will create blowback that spreads far beyond the geography of "Afpak". -- MJ Akbar

...it is necessary first to appreciate the imagined Islam of the Taliban as an act of construction rather than reversion. Doing away with hundreds of years of jurisprudence of Classical Islamic law, of administrative procedures and methods of reasoning, of sources of law and juristic analysis, the Taliban has redefined Sharia as a performative tableau rather than a jurisprudential exercise. An entire judicial system thus is reduced to the application of hadd punishments, floggings, beatings and amputations. Thus the Qazi, arguably the most integral of those involved in justice provision, is nearly always invisible, while the crowd, the victim and those meting out a punishment play a central role. Justice is redefined as a means to subjugate and punish, with the entire collective crowd partaking in its pornographic enactment. There is no mention of the basis of the Islamic law applied, the deliberations which led to the application of the punishment, or any form of legitimacy that would associate the punishment with being Islamic. It is instead the anti-modernity of the whole spectacle, the absence of institutional safeguards, that makes the scene Islamic. The calculation is simple and persuasive: the more visibly different from the epithets of modernity that the Taliban can be, the more automatically Islamic it becomes. -- Rafia Zakaria

The jihadists have longer-range goals. A couple of years ago, a Karachi-based monthly magazine ran a cover story on the terrorism in Kashmir. One fighter was asked what he would do if a political resolution were found for the disputed valley. Revealingly, he replied that he would not lay down his gun but turn it on the Pakistani leadership, with the aim of installing an Islamic government there.

Over the next year or two, we are likely to see more short-lived 'peace accords', as in Malakand, Swat and, earlier on, in Shakai. In my opinion, these are exercises in futility. Until the Pakistan Army finally realises that Mr. Frankenstein needs to be eliminated rather than be engaged in negotiations, it will continue to soft-pedal on counter-insurgency. It will also continue to develop and demand from the U.S. high-tech weapons that are not the slightest use against insurgents. There are some indications that some realisation of the internal threat is dawning, but the speed is as yet glacial. -- Pervez Hoodbhoy

Time Sana’a reined in fundamentalists

What is more dangerous is that tribes legislate for the culture of violence both directly and indirectly. They target state interests and behave outside of the legitimacy of law. These tribes are assisted by some who use religion for their own twisted purposes. This is what happened when a man in the Ministry of Youth and Sports issued a fatwa stipulating that celebrating Mother’s Day is illicit because it imitates Jews and Christians, as he said.

In addition, a preacher at a mosque considered the Parliament members to be unbelievers (Kafirs) after they passed a law that determines the legal marriage age to be 17 years. He said that this act is blasphemy, as legislation comes only from God and not from human beings. Fatwas such as these prompt youths – particularly frustrated youths – to resort to violence and suicide.

In fact, the government’s remissness with such people makes us suffer from a backward mentality that doesn’t believe in reason. Rather, such a mentality believes in killing and destroying the laws, principles, and values that are the basis of solidarity in society. Security forces are aware of what is going on, yet they believe that such groups don’t constitute a true security threat. However, many groups were weak in the past, but because they were left alone they turned into strong fanatics. -- Adel Al-Shuj’a

Don’t blame US drones for suicide bombers: they are the product of Pakistani policy of “strategic depth”

Baitullah is not the product of drones neither his suicide bombers nor the rest of his entourage……they are the products of the policy of “strategic depth” achieved under the successive reigns of the moguls of GHQ. While Pakistan Army is going low on testosterone Pushtoons are left to mend for themselves.  The supply lines for NATO didn’t create Taliban; supply lines were established with agreement of the so called representative government of Pakistan to fight against the Taliban. Those of you, who believe it’s only an American imperialist war, let me remind you that war in Afghanistan was sanctioned by the UN. Equating it to any other war is unreasonable.

In Pashto there is a saying “ Che Marg raashi no Sarey Tabaey Ta Ghara Kegdi”  “when faced with death and fever one ought to choose fever”  In the current context I would like to accept the “fever” of drones against an imminent  annihilation by the Taliban! -- Arshad Haroon

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There is something sinister at work here. There is an unacceptable cruelty disguised as spirituality that is eating away at the fabric of our country and society. There has been a slow, steady, sustained hijacking of concepts of nobility in our religion to use them as tools of repression, oppression and fear. It is the logic and hypocrisy of the Taliban when they punish only girls and not boys for the same act of "immorality,” under the guise of Islam. It is the logic which says that televisions and videos should be banned, except when their spokesman has to give an interview, or the immoral women have to be given a dose of their version of Islam. It is the logic which prohibits vulgarity and obscenity to protect our morality, but circulates videos of beheadings and shootings to young children to show them the world in its complete and total horror.

The Taliban have fed off the United States’ unpopularity in Pakistan and the globe. They have fed off the hypocrisy in foreign policy that permits and endorses the massacre of Palestinian lives to protect Israeli ones. They have fed off the lies that were told blatantly to the United Nations Security Council as a pretext to invade a country inhabited by Muslims. They have fed off the swagger and arrogance of a president who tortured and drove pri

Unfortunately we in Pakistan are on the defensive as far as Islam is concerned. Why does such a brutal miscarriage of justice become a platform for discussion on Islam? It has been very rightly argued in our press statement that US brutalities in Afghanistan and Iraq for the cause of freedom and democracy did not focus world attention into condemning democracy because the world believes it was a miscarriage of democracy by Bush and his first world cronies.

There is a genuine fear particularly among secular elements that the Swat deal would hand over Swat to the Taliban who would carry out similar brutal punishments in the garb of Islam. In my opinion this can only be curbed after peace is restored, some stake in society is offered to the people and the reasons for their revolt against the Khawaneen is also understood. -- Dr. Arif Alvi, Secretary General Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaf

One of the major problems is that the Americans, in search of quick policy options, are considering opening negotiations with a section of the Taliban described, for the sake of expediency, as ‘moderate’ Taliban or ‘good’ Taliban. Should this happen, this would amount to a strategic defeat for the US, as it would be negotiating with weaker adversaries from a position of weakness, having failed to militarily defeat them. Pakistan, by being truculent and duplicitous with its main benefactor, will have achieved its strategic ambitions. If that were to happen, India would be the biggest geo-strategic loser in the Hindu Kush region. -- Vikram Sood

Taliban flogs teen girl for alleged affair

Islamabad: A 17-year-old married girl was publicly whipped by the Taliban in Pakistan's restive Swat valley for allegedly having an affair, an incident which sent shock waves across the country with the rights groups slamming Government for its recent peace deal with militants in the region. -- Agencies

 

Referring to the peculiar situation in Swat, could one expect any better from Sufi Mohammad and his son-in-law Fazlullah than to implement the Sharia law in a way that suited their interests? The law of Qisas is also problematic because the conditions for a witness cannot be met by most including Sufi Mohammad, Fazlullah and the rest of their crew. It seems quite likely that those people whose loved ones have been murdered by the militants will be forced to accept a compromise in the name of the Sharia.

In fact, the Swati people have little choice in the matter because the state has abdicated the right to administer justice. This is certainly not in line with the instructions of the Quran and Sunnah, which, were these to be implemented in their true spirit, would require a fundamental re-negotiation of the legal regime in Pakistan and all over the Muslim world. Other Muslim countries including Saudi Arabia are not any safer even with the implementation of religious laws by the most powerful. Ultimately, any law has to have the inherent capability to protect the individual and society at large. It is a question of debate whether religious laws in the Muslim world have been able to achieve this. -- Ayesha Siddiqa

 It was only a few years ago that Laura Bush, who normally shied from causes that could be considered controversial, took up their banner. “The brutal oppression of women is a central goal of the terrorists,” the first lady said in a radio address shortly after President Bush launched the U.S-led invasion to overthrow the Taliban following the attacks of Sept. 11, 2001. “The plight of women and children in Afghanistan is a matter of deliberate human cruelty, carried out by those who seek to intimidate and control.”

That was then. This is now: Afghan President Hamid Karzai has just signed a law that forces women to obey their husbands’ sexual demands, keeps women from leaving the house—even for work or school—without a husband’s permission, automatically grants child custody rights to fathers and grandfathers before mothers, and favors men in inheritance disputes and other legal matters. In short, the law again consigns Afghan women to lives of brutal repression. -- Marie Cocco

 

My personal theory is that their (Pakistanis’) lack of grounding in politics, economics and current affairs is a direct result of the poor education they have received. Without wishing to be lofty or patronising, I can safely point to the poisonous brainwashing an entire generation has been subjected to during the Zia era. Already reeling from Bhutto’s nationalisation of education, millions of Pakistani children then had years of religious studies rammed down their throats by Zia. This was supplemented by reactionary propaganda aired by state television and radio. In those days, there were no private channels to break this monopoly of the airwaves.

The current generation of Pakistanis reaching positions of authority and influence is the product of this brainwashing. Of course many have escaped its worst effects, but unquestionably, public discourse in Pakistan has moved to the right, and we now wear religion on our sleeves to a greater extent than ever before. Secularism is now a label few are willing to accept, even though many privately agree that it’s the only way Pakistan can rejoin the rest of the world.

When private channels first began operating in Pakistan’s stultified environment, I had hoped it would be a liberating force, opening a window to the world for millions of Pakistanis. In reality, it has worked to serve the opposite end by reinforcing existing prejudices, rather than challenging them. Owners of channels have their own concealed agendas, and poorly educated producers and hosts do little to separate opinions from facts. -- Irfan Husain

Professor Yahya Michot, who is a lecturer at Oxford University and prominent authority on Ibn Taymiyyah, argues both the Western scholars and the Islamists have advertently or inadvertently emphasised his political thought at the expense of his moral and ethical teachings. This has led to the increasing politicisation of his complex and sophisticated writings on Islamic moral, ethical and legal thought. This raises an interesting question, namely, were there two different Ibn Taymiyyahs, an “Islamic reactionary and jihadist” or Islamic thinker and pragmatist?

... his Islamic moral, ethical, legal and economic thoughts are much more polished and restrained in their tone than, for instance, his refutation of the Sufis, falasifah, mantiq’in, qadariyyah, the Christians, etc. Thus, as a polemicist, he was not only uncompromising but also very dogmatic. This naturally led to his incarceration on more than one occasion, but Michot is right to say Ibn Taymiyyah bore all his trials and tribulations with great patience and dignity. He eventually died in prison in 1328. -- Emdad Rahman

 

It is difficult to understand how a single rough Bedouin from Nejd, one of the most impoverished areas of central Arabia, could turn a great religion like Islam on its head. …Mohammed Abd Al Wahhab, born about 1703, not only redefined Islam in a puritanically narrow and intolerant way but injected into it such a virulent hatred for its perceived enemies that this vicious creed could revive again and again after being repeatedly wiped out to rise like a phoenix and become the single greatest threat to world peace today.

Wahhab demanded total surrender to the Supreme Being Allah disallowing any ceremonies, including ceremonies for marriage or death, or worship of any saints, adorning of graves, tombs or other sacred objects, holding religious processions and wanted all Muslims to wear simple clothes without colours or ornamentation and demanded the total suppression of women. He denounced art, music and dance though he permitted obedience to spiritual guides or `pirs’. -- Murad A Baig

Maulana Maududi on Jihad in Islam
Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi
Maulana Maududi on Jihad in Islam
Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi

The nearest correct meaning for “Jihad” in English would be: To exert one’s utmost efforts in promoting a cause”.

Islam shuns the use of the word “war” altogether. Islam has no vested interest in promoting the cause of one nation or another; the rule of this state or that over the world is irrelevant. The sole interest of Islam is the welfare of mankind. Islam has its own ideological standpoint and practical programme to carry out reforms for the benefit of mankind. Islam wishes to do away with all states and governments which are opposed to the ideology and programme of lslam.

The purpose of Islam is to set up a state on the basis of this ideology and programme, regardless of which nation assumes the role of standard-bearer of Islam, and regardless of the rule of which nation is undermined in the process of the establishment of an ideological Islamic state. Islam requires the earth - not just a portion, but the entire planet - not because the sovereignty over the earth should be wrested from one nation or group of nations and vested in any one particular nation, but because the whole of mankind should benefit from Islam, and its ideology and welfare programme.

It is to serve this end that Islam seeks to press into service all the forces which can bring about such a revolution. The term which covers the use of all these forces is ‘Jihad’. To alter people’s outlook and spark a mental and intellectual revolution through the medium of speech (*) and the written word is a form of Jihad. To change the old tyrannical system and establish a just new order by the power of the sword is also Jihad, as is spending wealth and undergoing physical exertion for this cause.

Jihad can be declared only by an established government

Jihad in the sense of qital (involving killing) is not a private act in the same manner as prayers and fasting. Rather, it is an act that is entirely associated with a state or government. This is clearly indicated in the Quran and the Hadith [reports attributed to or about the Prophet Muhammad]. For instance, the Quran says that in the face of intimidation by the enemy, individuals should not take any action on their own, but, instead, should turn to those in charge of their affairs so that the latter can understand the matter in a proper perspective and take appropriate and necessary steps. This means that individual members of the public cannot decide issues of war on their own. This is something left to the government to handle.

…There is an almost unanimous opinion on this issue in the Islamic juridical tradition and almost no noted Islamic scholar has dissented from this. Hence, the [almost] unanimous opinion of the Islamic jurisprudents is that war can be declared only by an established government. Subjects or citizens of a state do not have the right to do so [...] Today, in various places Muslims are engaged in fighting with governments in the name of jihad. However, almost without exception, these are not really Islamic jihads, but, rather, are fasad or condemnable strife. None of these so-called jihads has been declared by any government.

Both Egypt and Saudi Arabia have implemented large-scale programs to re-educate the Islamic extremists they've imprisoned. In these programs, clergy engaged the prisoners in theological debates. The authorities reported great success in getting the dissidents to renounce extremism, one form of which was to accuse other Muslims of takfir, or apostasy, which then justified their murder. 

The ulema function in Saudi institutions as judges, lawyers, teachers, and advisers. They have a history of deferring to the king in matters of state policy. Several have issued fatwas declaring suicide bombings to be antithetical to Islamic teaching. A spectrum of opinions exists even among the Saudi ulema. Thus, it wouldn't be hard for Saudi or Egyptian authorities to find clergy willing to play a role in helping to re-educate the Taliban. However, a bigger question might be whether the Saudis would see a moderation of Taliban zealotry to be in their political interest, since they may well view the Taliban ideology as a bulwark against Shi'a revival.

The West is heavily invested in the emergence of a peaceful Afghanistan and Pakistan. The larger question of a fair distribution of power among the warring parties would be easier to deal with once diplomats and scholars find a way to neutralize the theological dimension of the whole conflict. This can only happen with a public debate, one in which the speakers have credibility among the public. Saudi Arabia can play this role, but it needs encouragement from the outside to do so. -- Usama Khalidi

So although the Shiite Islamists are far from being a non-problem – given the wilayat al-faqih's development of nuclear weapons, its control of the instruments of power of the Iranian state, its control of Hezbollah, and so on – I don't believe it has the long-term staying power that the Sunni Islamists do. If the members of the wilayat al-faqih look out on the horizon, I think they ought to be able to see the storm clouds gathering just as Reagan and Moynihan saw them gathering for the Soviet Union. And they ought to have the same attitude toward them that a reasonably perceptive inhabitant of the Kremlin in the mid-1980s or a perceptive inhabitant of Versailles in the mid-1780s would have had – namely, that the storm is not overhead yet, but they ought to be able to see it coming. But due to the combination of the oil wealth of the Gulf, the compatibility of the Sunni Islamists' support for the Caliphate and the history of the Caliphate in Sunni Islam, the long-term objectives of the Wahhabis – I believe the Sunni Islamists present an extraordinarily serious ideological threat. And the reason I always say "Islamist" is that I mean to connote precisely a totalitarian movement masquerading as a religion. We do not in retrospect need to accept Torquemada's claim that his life, which repudiated everything that the Sermon on the Mount preached, was emblematic of Christianity or that he represented Christianity, and we do not need to accept the Wahhabis' claim that their hatred is emblematic of or represents the great religion of Islam. -- James Woolsey

 

Confront the idea of Jihadism, while dismantling Jihadi infrastructure

 Pakistan needs to dismantle not only the infrastructure of terror but also the ideas that built it in the first place, says Praveen Swami in this must-read article from The Hindu. He tells how the Jihadi ideologues of Pakistan have now gone even beyond their original inspiration, the founder-ideologue of Jamaat-e-Islami, Maulana Abul Ala Maudoodi. The Maulana had clarified several times that Jihad cannot be fought by individuals or groups: it can only be fought by an Islamic state which will first have to sever all diplomatic, trade and other  ties with the country and declare that it was going to engage in Jihad. In Islamic tradition Jihad - in the sense of Qital that is the Jihad that involves killing - cannot be fought surreptitiously. He had specifically denounced the so-called Kashmir Jihad of 1948 as un-Islamic for this reason. As Praveen Swami details below in this study of the Jihadi literature of Pakistan, the Jamiat Ahl-e-Hadith traces its formation to the mountains in the NWFP from where Sayyid Ahmad of Rae Bareilly (b.1786 d.1831) waged an unsuccessful jihad against Maharaja Ranjit Singh’s empire. But they conveniently forget to tell their readers and the Muslim youth they brainwash with their lies and false interpretation of the Holy Quran that Sayyid Ahmad of Rae Bareilly had established a kingdom there for the specific purpose of bypassing or going round the Islamic condition that a jihad in the sense of Qital can only be waged by an Islamic state.

It must be clarified here again, even if it is for the umpteenth time on this site and elsewhere, that the preferred Jihad, the Jihad-e-Aazam, the struggle to purify one’s soul and curb one’s ego (Tazkiya-e-Nafs) is a duty of every Muslim and it has to be performed consistently but the Jihad in the sense of Qital, the endeavour or struggle that involves killing, has some very stiff conditions and one of them is that it has to be defensive and another that it can only be waged by a state. -- Editor

Recent terror attack at Mumbai has reminded us once again that Pakistan Army, or one of its agencies Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) at any rate, is determined to change the very character of Islam, turning it into the pre-Islamic religion of the Jahiliya (Arabia in the Dark Ages). It had indeed given us ample evidence of its anti-Islamic character during the Kargil war by reminding us of the Battle of Uhud where a woman of Jahiliya, Hinda, had mutilated the dead body of Prophet Mohammad’s uncle, Hazrat Hamza. The Prophet [peace be upon him] had not only forgiven her but had made it a point to forbid the  practice in every Muslim gathering thereafter for fear that the Muslims, too, might do something similar in retaliation. Blood feud and vengeance was rampant in the Arab world of the Jahiliya.

One couldn’t help being reminded of that when reports came that one of the terrorists mentioned vendetta for Gujarat and demolition of Babri masjid by Hindutva forces as the justification for the killing of innocents at Mumbai.

 Pakistani “Islam” would indeed appear to be completely unrecognisable as Islam to a Muslim in any part of the world. Slowly but surely what appears to be a completely new religion seems to have caught the imagination of many people in Pakistan.  Its followers don’t, of course, consider it a new religion. Indeed this religion insists that it is Islam; in fact it calls itself true Islam or real Islam. But it can best be described as Jihadism, as its central belief system is based on a wilful misinterpretation of the Islamic concept of Jihad. It can also be called Talibanism, as the Taliban of Afghanistan, who studied in Pakistani madrasas run by the Jamiat-ul-Ulema-e-Pakistan are its most avid practitioners.

 By and large, the western-educated liberal Pakistani intelligentsia, as I found out during several visits, hates this religion and is frightened of it. But as one by one all institutions of governance are succumbing to its growing power and its capacity for evil, they are getting scared to death. Some of them are simply planning to migrate to some non-Muslim majority country. No one is really fighting this malignant force, though some journalists and human rights activists still have the courage at least to express their horror and outrage at grave personal risk.  -- SULTAN SHAHIN, Editor, NewAgeIslam.com

At the Shah Jamal shrine I couldn't feel further from puritanical Islam. The frenzied passion around me suggests that Pakistan's Sufi shrines won't be taken over by the Taleban any time soon. But whether Sufism can be used to actively resist the spread of extremist Islam, or even whether it should be, is another question. -- Barbara PlettSufi devotees in Lahore

Qawwali-listeners at the Shah Jamal shrine

Some believe that Pakistan's mystic, non-violent Islam can be used as a defence against extremism (Photo: Kamil Dayan Khan)

Political Islam draws its lifeblood from the ideology of fighting the oppressor, but has clearly become the oppressor itself. Though some Islamist groups have renounced violence, accepted the principles of democracy and marginally improved their stand on women and minority rights, they remain socially conservative. ... Muslims must stop blaming the problem of extremism on catastrophic policies of foreign countries. For, two wrongs simply do not make a right. It is primarily a Muslim problem, threatening both Muslim and non-Muslim societies. We need to acknowledge that there is a problem of theology when extremists talk of going straight to heaven after taking innocent lives.

The roots of all modern militant Islamic movements can be traced to one man, Abdul Wahab from Nejd in the Arabian Peninsula. He set out to 'purify' Islam, believing that Muslims had drifted away from true religion. Wahab's followers destroyed many sacred sites that he considered linked to idolatry.... The extremism now found in Mecca and Medina, the heartland of Islam, is the Wahhabi ideology that the Saudis have spent millions in promoting through their outreach programmes. There is no tolerance for Shias, Sunni Sufis or other Muslim traditions, leave alone non-Muslims. -- Sadia Dehlvi

FOR 20 years or more, a few of us in Pakistan have been desperately sending out SOS messages, warning of terrible times to come. Nevertheless, none anticipated how quickly and accurately our dire predictions would come true. It is a small matter that the flames of terrorism set Mumbai on fire and, more recently, destroyed Pakistan’s cricketing future. A much more important and brutal fight lies ahead as Pakistan, a nation of 175 million, struggles for its very survival. The implications for the future of South Asia are enormous. -- PERVEZ AMIRALI HOODBHOY

Dr. Zakir Naik sounds more sinned against than sinning

Quoting from Quran, Dr. Zakir Naik said that Allah has clearly ordained that killing of even one innocent person amounts to killing the entire humanity. How could then the attack carried out on World Trade Centre in New York have the sanction of Islam or be justified as a revengeful act against atrocities committed against Muslims elsewhere. He further said that killing is justified in self defense if one is attacked. He clarified that one should condemn those who participated in the attack and their perpetrators. He was however, not sure whether Osma bin Laden was behind the attack. He said that he was misquoted by the media that he supported Osama while the fact was that he only said that he cannot vouch for Osama being either Saint or Satan. He also pointed out that one could carry out a campaign of Jihad against corruption in the society. -- A.M. Jamsheed Basha

Husain stood for Islam and Islamic values and Yazid for power

The first casualty of transformation of khilafah into monarchy was battle of Karbala which is great tragedy of early history of Islam. It was greed for power on the part of Yazid, son of first Umayyad ruler Mu’awiyah that led to martyrdom of Imam Husain, the grandson of the Prophet (PBUH). Husain stood for Islam and Islamic values and Yazid for power. It was Umayyad greed for power which resulted in killing of members of Prophet’s family.

 It is unfortunate that these wars for power were often called ‘jihad’ and not only meaning of jihad which originally means struggle for truth was corrupted to mean war in the way of Allah. These wars were anything but war in the way of Allah. Qur’anic doctrine nowhere requires war with sword to spread Islam. So all conquests that took place had nothing to do with religion and were anything but jihad.

 In fact the series of conquests begin with the 2nd Caliph Umar and Sassanid and parts of Roman Empire were conquered…. It was certainly not for spread of Islam or spread of truth. The text of treaties … indicate that conquered people were not asked to convert to Islam but negotiated with them the terms of jizya, supply of military provisions, slaves etc. Nowhere are they invited to convert to Islam. If some people convert it was purely a voluntary act. -- Asghar Ali Engineer

Mumbai, Mawdudi and the Indian Mujahideen

India’s police and intelligence forces have an important role in preventing the Indian Mujahideen. from succeeding. But the real challenge involves politics, not policing: defeating Mawdudi’s ideas involves demonstrating that democratic struggles against communalism can succeed. Bar a few honourable exceptions, no politician appears either able or willing to take up this challenge. -- Praveen Swami

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  • When was the caliph ever elected with consensus and on merit? These are the preposterous....
    ( By SatishB )
  • Interpreting jihad as spiritual warfare amounts to deception. Allah himself is not a spirit.'
    ( By SatishB )
  • Unless detalibanization of mosques is promoted by the international community, such fake...
    ( By SatishB )
  • Secularism failed because it was half baked, coexistence of secularism and jihad will only lead....
    ( By SatishB )
  • Pakistan government must take back their own citizens who sneaked into India.It is no use quoting....
    ( By Dr.A.Anburaj )
  • America needs to leave Afghanistan and a few missile strikes from Iran could achieve that objective.' ...
    ( By SatishB )
  • " SWord" ruled the pre and pan Arabia. Arabs know no democracy. Islam does not ...
    ( By Dr.A.Anburaj )
  • It was a shia called Jinnah and Ahmediya called Zafarullah Khan who were at the forefront of creation of....
    ( By SatishB )
  • Yes Modi and Shah knows exactly, that Muslims favours only Muslims and land grab from Hindus....
    ( By Aayina )
  • Hats Off is not the least bit concerned about the current...
    ( By Ghulam Mohiyuddin )
  • "No Muslim state is a well-ruled democracy....
    ( By Ghulam Mohiyuddin )
  • "he was human and prone to error" this statement reflects wahaabi theology, while deobandis....
    ( By Raamiz )
  • that is neither here nor there. islamic demonization of the kuffar is the thing.....
    ( By hats off! )