Thank you Hamid Sb for
your listing of the types of Kufr. Another listing that may be useful is as
They are kafir who:
1. despair of the mercy of Allah
2. are tight fisted
3. consume usury
4. who practice oppression and religious persecution
5. drive people out from their place of worship
6. sow discord and make mischief on the earth
7. deliberately spread falsehood
8. lie and slander against virtuous persons and indulge in calumny
9. reject the Truth after the Truth has been made clear to them.
10. are perennially engaged in extinguishing the Light of Allah.
11. are open enemy to Allah, His Messengers and His Scriptures. Allah is an
enemy to such Kafirin
12. Reject belief in God without associating partners with God
13. Reject belief in the hereafter.
14. Reject belief in the Scriptures as the Word of God.
15. Reject one, several or all the Messengers of God
Items 12 to 15 have to
do with affirmation of the faith and the rest are faith neutral. Only those who
reject are kafir. Mere non-acceptance for lack of knowledge or understanding is
Likewise for the
attitudes or dispositions of the Kafir. They are kafir who:
1. Are steeped in self-glory and separatism (including
2. Are Perverse
3. Are Delusional.
4. Have their own theories of the meaning of life and of creation which they
hold above the revelations or in other words reject revealed knowledge.
5. Detest the mention of God, reading/discussion of the Quran and hinder people
from all such activities
6. Reject on account of envy
These attitudes are
found among people of all faiths and have nothing to do with the faith a person
professes. He could call himself a Muslim and yet display the attitudes or
dispositions of a Kafir.
As far as behavioral
characteristics are concerned. They are kafir who
1. Resort to ridicule
2. Oppose, obstruct, create confusion and disorder
4. Argue obstinately instead of focusing on what is being said, they ask
disruptive questions such as "Why is not a sign sent down to him from his
5. Indulging in all kinds of vain arguments
6. Doubt perennially.
7. Indulge in Personal attacks.
The behavioral Characteristics are also faith
neutral and are found among people of all faiths.
are several types of Al-Kufr al-Akbar:
Disbelief out of stubbornness. This applies to someone who knows the Truth and
admits to knowing the Truth, and knowing it with his tongue, but refuses to
accept it and refrains from making a declaration. Allah says: “Throw into Hell
every stubborn disbeliever”
Disbelief out of denial. This applies to someone who denies with both heart and
tongue. Allah says: “They recognize the favors of Allah, yet they deny them. Most
of them are disbelievers”
Disbelief out of arrogance and pride. An example of this type of Kufr is the
disbelief by the devils (Iblees).
Disbelief out of rejection.This applies to someone who acknowledges the truth
in his heart, but rejects it with his tongue. This type of kufr is applicable
to those who calls themselves Muslims but who reject any necessary and accepted
norms of Islam such as Salaat and Zakat. Allah says: “They denied them (OUR
SIGNS) even though their hearts believed in them, out of spite and arrogance”
Disbelief out of hypocrisy.This applies to someone who pretends to be a
believer but conceals his disbelief. Such a person is called a munafiq or
hypocrite. Allah says: “Verily the hypocrites will be in the lowest depths of
Hell. You will find no one to help them”
Disbelief out of trying to make haraam into halal. This applies to someone who
accepts as lawful Halal that which Allah has made unlawful Haram like alcohol
or adultery. Only Allah has the prerogative to make things Halal and Haram and
those who seek to interfere with His right are like rivals to Him and therefore
fall outside the boundaries of faith.
Disbelief out of detesting any of Allah's commands. Allah says: “Perdition
(destruction) has been consigned to those who disbelieve and He will render
their actions void. This is because they are averse to that which Allah has
revealed so He has made their actions fruitless”
Disbelief due to mockery and derision. Allah says: “Say: Was it at Allah, His
signs and His apostles that you were mocking? Make no excuses. You have
disbelieved after you have believed.”
Disbelief due to avoidance. This applies to those who turn away and avoid the
truth. Allah says: “And who is more unjust than he who is reminded of his
Lord's signs but then turns away from them. Then he forgets what he has sent
forward (for the Day of Judgement)”
Disbelief because of trying to substitute Allah's Laws. This could take the
of Allah's law, Shari'ah without denying it
of Allah's law and therefore rejecting it, or
Allah's laws with man-made laws. Allah says: “Or have they partners with Allah
who have instituted for them a religion that Allah has not allowed”. Allah
says: “Say not concerning that which your tongues put forth falsely (that) is
lawful and this is forbidden so as to invent a lie against Allah. Verily, those
who invent a lie against Allah will never prosper”
Maududi died in 1979. Had he been alive today, he would have realized how wrong he was.
"There is a Hadith collected in the Two Sahihs that testifies to this explanation. The Messenger of Allah said,
(I was commanded to fight against the people until they proclaim, `There is no deity worthy of worship except Allah.' If and when they say it, they will preserve their blood and wealth from me, except for its right (Islamic penal code), and their reckoning is with Allah, the Exalted and Most Honored.)"
Interestingly Hazrat Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) held a different view.
The man said, "Allah, the Exalted, said,
(And fight them until there is no more Fitnah...).'' Ibn `Umar said, "We did that during the time of the Messenger of Allah, when Islam was weak and the man would be tried in religion, either tormented to death or being imprisoned. When Islam became stronger and widespread, there was no more Fitnah.'' When the man realized that Ibn `Umar would not agree to what he is saying, he asked him, "What do you say about `Ali and `Uthman'' Ibn `Umar replied, "What do I say about `Ali and `Uthman! As for `Uthman, Allah has forgiven him, but you hate that Allah forgives him. As for `Ali, he is the cousin of the Messenger of Allah and his son-in-law,'' and he pointed with his hand saying, "And this is his house over there.'' Sa`id bin Jubayr said, "Ibn `Umar came to us and was asked, "What do you say about fighting during Fitnah'' Ibn `Umar said, "Do you know what Fitnah refers to Muhammad was fighting against the idolators, and at that time, attending (or residing with) the idolators was a Fitnah (trial in religion). It is nothing like what you are doing, fighting to gain leadership!'' All these narrations were collected by Al-Bukhari, may Allah the Exalted grant him His mercy.
Hazrat Umar was right in interpreting Fitnah as religious persecution and also right in concluding that when Islam gained political domination, this fitnah ended and there was no more reason to fight and those who continued fighting were doing so for self aggrandizement.
Those who however interpret fitnah to mean "shirk" continue to fight "shirk" and have in turn become the persecutors.
If what the Quran meant was to fight "shirk" why would it not use "shirk" but "fitnah"?
The interpretationists are the problem and not the literalists.
The hadith attributed to the Prophet could never have been said by the Prophet since it contradicts many verses of the Quran such as 109:6, 2:256 and even all the verses related to fighting which explicitly mention the cause of fighting. Not a single of these verses mention disbelief as the cause of fighting.
Will the gentlemen who swear by the ahadith speak up or be counted among those who believe that it is jihad to fight against disbelief?
Is A Kafir In The Quran? (Part 1): 'Kafir,' 'Mushrik' and 'Idolater' are not
This part provides the evidence that `Kufr' and
Kafir are faith neutral terms in the Quran and 'kufr' is used for
specific behaviour/deeds of Muslims, Jews, Christians, polytheists etc
and even Moses is referred to as Kafir by Pharaoh!
Going by the Quran, a faith neutral rendering is appropriate since kafaru as a matter of fact is a faith neutral term unless the context implies that it specifically means "those who deny the truth of Islam". This is not the case in 8:36 to 8:38 where it simply means the 'religious persecutors '. The verses can therefore be understood in their historical context as the battle between the Muslims lead by the Prophet (pbuh) and the Meccan persecutors of the Prophet and his followers who incidentally were polytheists.
As a verse with a universal message, it can be read as a message to all religious persecutors and those who fight against such persecution that Allah will aid those who fight against religious persecution and humiliate the persecutors no matter whether the persecutor calls himself Muslim and the persecuted declares himself as a polytheist.