مبنى علم الشرائع والأحكام وأساس قواعد عقائد الإسلام هو علم التوحيد والصفات
الموسوم بالكلام المنجي عن غياهب الشكوك وظلمات الأوهام.
foundation of Science of Shara’i [plural of Shariat] and Ahkam [judgments] and
the basis of rules [qawaid] related to Beliefs [aqaid] of Islam is the Science
of oneness [tauheed] and attributes [sifat] entitled al-Kalam which rescues
[the believers] from darkness of doubts and obscurities of illusions.
“Ilm al kalam” literally means the “science/knowledge of
discourse/argumentation and was learnt/developed to debate with people of other
faiths on theological matters. It has never really been a science but an art of
one up-manship. People of other faiths claimed their scriptures to be “uncreated”
and therefore, not be left behind, the Muslims also claimed the Quran to be
uncreated ignoring all evidence to the contrary including a verse that says
that the Quran is produced by Allah. Based on the assertion of the Muslims that
the Quran is the word of Allah, and that the word of Allah is uncreated, the
Christians easily proved the “divinity” of Jesus (pbuh) by arguing that
according to the Quran, Jesus is Allah’s word and since the Muslims claim that
to be uncreated, Jesus is also uncreated and therefore god/divine.
4:171 “Messiah Jesus
the son of Mary was (no more than) a messenger of Allah, and His Word
(Kalimatuhu), which He bestowed on Mary, and a Rūḥun proceeding from Him.
Did the Muslims give up on their claim that the Quran/word
of Allah is uncreated? No.
Did they accept the result of the correct conclusion
(although based on the false premise of uncreated word of Allah) that Jesus is
Logically, there is no difference between saying that Allah’s
word is uncreated and the position of the atheists that there is no God. If Allah’s
word is uncreated, He has nothing further to say and everything is as it should
be. If everything was and is as it should be, where does God fit in? He is
unnecessary even as a logical construct.
ilm al kalam has not produced anything of value and is
mostly used to support taking up of false positions. The Quran is a Book that
makes things clear and it does not require ilm al kalam to understand its
simple direct message. However, a sound knowledge of logic gives us the confidence
and conviction to defend the simple direct meaning of the Quran, faced as we
are with the distortions that have crept in. It was in this context, that I
exhorted pursing a study of logic rather than the art of one-upmanship and
supporting of false positions which ilm
al kalam has become through misuse.
There are a
number of Quranic aayaat which imply that Allah Almighty is ‘the Creator of everything”
(13:16, 39:62, 40:62). The word ‘thing’ includes every substance, accident,
cause and effect that exists in each moment.
If a human
being is engaged in spiritual and empirical observation of every perceived cause
and effect with the fact mentioned in the Quran that real Creator is none but Allah,
he will be more beloved to Allah, provided it is for remembrance and
Hope you have got
your answer. Regards!
(normative judgment) implies confirmation of correlating one thing with another
in existence or non-existence; which is empirically substantiated by way of observing
repetition of their correlation and without any influence of one of them into other,
such as the satiation of food and burning with fire, so their real actor [i.e. creator
of satiation and burning] is the Creator Who creates one of them in presence of
Let us observe the
proposition that ‘fire burns’. The act of ‘burning’ is affirmed of ‘fire’ as a
normative judgment; which implies that the two are merely correlated or bound
together. Every time one lights a fire, one can observe the perceived effect of
burning; which is to say, a repeatedly observed phenomenon. Here we observe nothing
but correlation between the two. We repeatedly find the phenomenon of ‘burning’
as conjoined to the phenomenon of ‘fire’ on the basis of empirical observation,
yet we do not believe fire creates burning. The creator of all that comes into
existence is none but Allah Almighty. In other words, Allah creates the fire,
the burning and the correlation between the two.
The holy Quran
says, “This is the creation of Allah. So show Me what those other than Him have
created. Rather, the wrongdoers are in clear error” (31:11)
Aqli: when aql confirms or denies any
matter without depending upon repetition [takrar] and ruling of the creator
[wad-e-wadi’] [i.e. without depending upon al-hukm al-a’adi and al-hukm
al-shari], it is called hukm aqli.
is classical definition propounded by mutakallimun [experts of ilm al-kalam]. For
further details, you can go through the books,
المعتقد المنتقد مع المستند المعتمد بناء نجاة الأبد
حاشية الشرقاوي الشافعي على الهدهدي على أم البراهين
حاشية الدسوقي على أم البراهين
عمدة المريد لجوهر التوحيد المسمى (الشرح الكبير)
الفرائد السنية في شرح المقدمة السنوسية المسماة أم البراهين
شرح نظم عقيدة أهل السنة
تنوير القلوب في معاملة علام الغيوب
Arabic books are full of dozens of examples of a ruling being Aqli. However I
am giving a short description. Anything that our intellect or faculty of
reasoning confirms or denies is called Hukm –e-Aqli or al-hukm al-aqli [logical
ruling or law]. For the time being, such logical ruling is deemed to be purely
logical [aqli] in the sense that it is not al-hukm al-a’adi (natural law) or
al-hukm al-shari’ (the divine law).
are cases when our faculty of reasoning conforms to the fact upheld by Quran
and Sunnah. We then say this ruling of the Quran ans Sunnah is also supported
by our faculty of reasoning or rational approach.
While checking the
proof I went through Imam Suyuti’s ‘Al-Itqan’ and then those books which were
quoted by him. I wrote some of the proofs in the previous comments to you. But you
should also know that knowledge of Makki or Madani verses comes from the
reports of Sahaba and Tabiyeen.
Qazi Abu Bakr
al-Baqilani Al-Maliki (403 A.H) said in his book, “Al-Intisar Li al-Quran vol.
1 p. 247)”, that, for knowledge of the Makki and Madani [ayaat], one is
required to turn to the memory of the holy Companions [Sahaba] and Tabiyeen, as
no statement or hadith is reported to have come from the Prophet (peace be upon
him) in this regard because he was not commanded [by Allah Almighty] to make a statement
[that this ayat is Makki or Madani]. Nor did Allah make it among the Faraiz
[obligatory acts] for the Ummah to learn this knowledge. If it is necessary for
the people of knowledge to know the history of Nasikh and mansukh concerning some
ayaat of the Quran, this can also be learnt by other than the nass of the Prophet
[peace be upon him]. End of quote [translated from Arabic] [See Suyuti’s Itqan
/ Baqilani’s Intisar li al-Quran]
quotes from Imam Bukhari a report from Ibn Masud who said, “By Allah other than
Whom none has the right to be worshipped! There is no Sura revealed in Allah's
Book but I know at what place it was revealed; and there is no verse revealed
in Allah's Book but I know about whom it was revealed......” (Sahih al-Bukhari,
Vol. 6, p.488)
quotes a number of reports to tell us as to which ayat is Makki and which ayat
is Madani. This is very interesting to study the complete discussion as it
might need at any time. But I think this much discussion is enough for your
According to the UN Refugee Agency’s annual Global
Trends study, 68.5 million people had been driven from their homes across the
world at the end of 2017, more people than the population of Thailand.
“Refugees who have fled their countries to escape
conflict and persecution accounted for 25.4 million. This is 2.9 million more
than in 2016, also the biggest increase UNHCR has ever seen in a single year.
“New displacement is also growing, with 16.2 million
people displaced during 2017 itself, either for the first time or repeatedly.
That is an average of one person displaced every two seconds. And
overwhelmingly, it is developing countries that are most affected.”
Source: The UNHCR Refugee Agency
This is a matter of the greatest concern.
@Ms Kaniz Fatma
the suggested books related to Ahadith, you can also consider that some people rush into presenting Ahadith and do not
hesitate to attribute words or speech to the Prophet (peace and peace be upon
him) without doing any research. On the other hand there are people who
consider that the whole corpus of Ahadith other than a few is “fabricated [mauzu]”.
It is therefore better to keep away from both the poles of waywardness- ifrat
[extremism] and tafreet [negligence] and take a middle path instead.
Science and Religion
@Ms Kaniz Fatma,
You can go through the
following books written on Ilm al-Kalam.
‘Aqaid Nasafiyya’ by Sheikh Abu Hafs Amr bin Mahmood Nasafi,
‘Sharh Aqaid’ by Allama Saaduddin Masuood bin Umar Taftazani,
‘Khayali’ by Allama Ahmad bin Musa Shamsuddin Khayali
‘Umoor Aamma’ by Allama Meer Sayyid Sharif Jurjani
‘Hashiya al al-Khayali’ by Allama Abdul Hakim Fazil Siyalkoti
‘Sharh Meezanul Aqaaid’ by Shah Abdul Aziz Muhaddis Dehlvi
‘Takmeelul Imaan’ by Sheikh Abdul Haq Muhaddis Dehlvi
‘Al-Mawaqif’ by Qazi Ad’duddin Abd Al-Rahman bin Ahmad
‘Sharh Mawaqif’ by Allama Zainuddin Sharif Jurjani
‘Sharh Maqasid’ by Allam Saaduddin Taftazanni
‘Sharh Mulla Jalal’ by Allama Jalaluddin Muhammad Dawani
‘Iqtisad Al al-Itiqad’ by Imam Ghazali
‘Al-Tamheed’ by Allama Abd al-Shakur Saalimi
‘Al-Tabras’ by Allama Abdul Aziz Parharwi
‘Fiqh Akbar’ by Imam Azam Abu Hanifa Numan bin Thabit
‘Sharh Fiqh Akbar’ by Imam
Allama Mulla Ali Qari
‘Ramzan Afandi’ by Maulana Muhammad Ramzan Afandi
‘Al-Mu’tamad al-Mustanad by Ala Hazrat Imam Ahmad Raza Barelvi
‘Al-Mu’taqad Al-Muntaqad by Shah Fazle Rasool Badayuni
‘Al-Aqaid’ by Allama Sayyid Muahammad Naeemuddin Muradabadi
‘Bahare Shariat’ (vol. 1) by Allama Amjad Ali Qadri
‘Al-Musamarah’ by Allama Kamal bin Abi Sharf
‘Aqida al-Tahawiya’ (Arabic)
by Allam Abu Jafar Ahmad bin Muhammad Tahawi Misri Hanafi
‘Sharh Aqida al-Tahawiya’ (Urdu) by Ghulam Husain Asim Maturidi
‘Aqaid w Nazariyat’(Urdu) by Allama Abdul Hakeem Sharf Qadri
You asked me to present evidences for the three views that
I mentioned in my previous comment, though I had given the source name. Anyway I
gave you translation of the actual quoting of the first view. Now i am giving
you the proof of the second view about Makki and Madani concept.
According to the second view that I mentioned earlier,
Makki verses are those that were sent down at Makka, even though after the
Hijrat [at Makka]. The Madani verses are those that were sent down at Madina.
The basis of classification here is the city of revelation. Thus as per this
second view what was revealed during travelling is neither called Makki nor
This second view, though not as popular as the first one
discussed in the last comment, was spoken of with reference to Zarkashi’s and
Suyuti’s books. One report in this regard is given below;
Tabarani quoted in his al-Kabir from the chain of Walid bin
Muslim from Ufair bin Ma’dan from Sulaym bin ‘Amir from Abu Umamah who reported
that the Prophet (peace be upon him) said, “The Quran was revealed in three
places: Makkah, Madinah and al-Sham.” (Tabarani) Walid said, “(al-Sham) here
refers to Baytul Maqdis. Sheikh Imaduddin bin Kathir said, “but its [al-Sham]
referring to Tabuk is better” I [Imam Suyuti] would say, Makkah here refers to all
its precincts like the revelation at Mina, Arafat and Hudaybia, and Madinah
refers to all its precincts like the revelation at Badr, Uhud and Sal’a [one of
the mountains of Madinah Munawwarah, as detailed in the book Marasid al-Ittela
2/727) [Suyuti, al-Itqan new Arabic ed. P.45)
The most popular one of the three views about Makki and
Madani verses is that the Makki verses or ayaat are those that were revealed
before Hijrah [migration]. The Madani verses are those that were sent down
after Hijrat, whether at Madina or Makka, in the year of victory of Makka [Aam
al-Fath] or the year of Hajjatul Wada or during travelling. The basis of
classification, as per this popular view, is not the city of revelation but
rather the time before or after Hijrah.
So you asked for its proof. Please take it here.
Imam Suyuti quotes a report that “Usman bin Saeed
Al-Daarmi, with his chain of narration that reaches Yahya bin Sallam, said: “[the
ayat or verse or Surah] what was revealed at Makka and what was revealed on the
way to Madina before the Prophet (peace be upon him) reached Madina is Makki,
and what was revealed to the Prophet [peace be upon him] during his tours and travelling
after his reaching Madina is Madani” [Suyuti, al-Itqan new Arabic ed. P.45)
This was the most popular view among the early scholars
The Quran is a divine book of Allah, that was revealed to the last Prophet (peace be upon him),
recorded [musbat] in masahif and copied with tawatur that there is no doubt in
are a number of ahadith which apparently contradict other ahadith but if they
are studied with proper methodological approach there will not be
contradiction. We are dominantly missing scholars who would bother to work at
that. In the second and third century this work occupied deep attention of the
scholars and they wrote a number of books.
can go through these books that explain a number of apprarenlty contradicting ahadith
in a manner that you will not find any contradiction.
Shafi, (204 A.H) (1) al-Risala (2) Ikhtilaful Hadees
Qutaibah (276 A.H) ‘Taaweel Mukhtaliful Ahadees’
(321 A.H) ‘Mushkilul Aathar’
(911 A.H) ‘Miftahul Jannat fi al-tamassuk bi al-sunnah’
are many others written by modern scholars like Sheikh Muhammad Abu Shahba’s ‘difa
not wrong to say what you quoted in Urdu text. This Urdu text is taken from
Maktoobat-e-Mujaddid Alif Thani, vol 2, maktoob 120, p. 123.
in trouble today because of the new movement called ‘Islamist’ movement which
has innovated unique methodology and non-traditional approach creating a rigid
and non pragmatic approach and giving no way to humaneness, sanity, moderation
‘Islamist’ movement is categorically against Islam.
You should know that the Muslim scholars, specially the experts of usul
al-tafsir, present three views of the early people about the Makki and the Madani
verses. Imam Badruddin Muhammad bin Abdullah al-Zarkashi in his Arabic book “Al-Burhan
Fi Ulum al-Quran vol. 1, p. 187, and
Imam Jalaluddin Abdur Rahman bin Abi Bakr Suyuti (911 A.H) in his Arabic book “Al-Itqan
Fi Ulum al-Quran” vol.1, p.45-47 mention these three views at one place, after exploring
and studying these three views scattered in various books of the past. I am
presenting the summary of these three views, with reference to Zarkashi’s
Al-Burhan and Suyuti’s Al-Itqan.
most popular view is that the Makki verses or ayaat are those that were
revealed before Hijrah [migration]. The Madani verses are those that were sent
down after Hijrat, whether at Madina or Makka, in the year of victory of Makka
[Aam al-Fath] or the year of Hajjatul Wada or during travelling. The basis of
classification, as per this popular view, is not the city of revelation but
rather the time before or after Hijrah.
second view is that Makki verses are those that were sent down at Makka, even
though after the Hijrat [at Makka]. The Madani verses are those that were sent
down at Madina. The basis of classification here is the city of revelation. Thus
as per this second view what was revealed during travelling is neither called
Makki nor Madani.
third view is that the Makki verses or Surahs are those that were sent down to address
the people of Makka are Makki and those that were sent down to address the
people of Madina are Madani. This view is not supported by many.
The most popular view as mentioned above is the most preferred view
among the scholars. But a mufassir should be cautious when exploring the early
narrations regarding the ayaat or verses being Makki or Madani, as it might be
the point of caution what out of three views was actually meant by the
narrators when they said ‘Makki’ or ‘Madani’.
Birth of the Afghan Mujahideen
The US led the Soviet Union into the Afghan trap by
aiding the Islamic fundamentalist Mujahideen six months before the Russians made
their move, knowing that "this aid was going to induce a Soviet military
Interview with Zbigniew
Brzezinski, President Jimmy Carter's National Security Adviser, Le Nouvel
Observateur, Paris, 15-21 January 1998
Question: The former director
of the CIA, Robert Gates, stated in his memoirs ["From the Shadows"],
that American intelligence services began to aid the Mujahadeen in Afghanistan
6 months before the Soviet intervention. In this period you were the national
security adviser to President Carter. You therefore played a role in this
affair. Is that correct?
Brzezinski: Yes. According to the
official version of history, CIA aid to the Mujahadeen began during 1980, that
is to say, after the Soviet army invaded Afghanistan, 24 Dec 1979. But the
reality, secretly guarded until now, is completely otherwise Indeed, it was
July 3, 1979 that President Carter signed the first directive for secret aid to
the opponents of the pro-Soviet regime in Kabul. And that very day, I wrote a
note to the president in which I explained to him that in my opinion this aid
was going to induce a Soviet military intervention.
Q: Despite this risk, you were
an advocate of this covert action. But perhaps you yourself desired this Soviet
entry into war and looked to provoke it?
B: It isn't quite that. We didn't push
the Russians to intervene, but we knowingly increased the probability that they
Q: When the Soviets justified
their intervention by asserting that they intended to fight against a secret
involvement of the United States in Afghanistan, people didn't believe them.
However, there was a basis of truth. You don't regret anything today?
B: Regret what? That secret operation
was an excellent idea. It had the effect of drawing the Russians into the
Afghan trap and you want me to regret it? The day that the Soviets officially
crossed the border, I wrote to President Carter. We now have the opportunity of
giving to the USSR its Vietnam war. Indeed, for almost 10 years, Moscow had to
carry on a war unsupportable by the government, a conflict that brought about
the demoralization and finally the breakup of the Soviet empire.
Q: And neither do you regret
having supported the Islamic fundamentalism, having given arms and advice to
B: What is most important to the
history of the world? The Taliban or the collapse of the Soviet empire? Some
stirred-up Moslems or the liberation of Central Europe and the end of the cold
Q: Some stirred-up Moslems? But
it has been said and repeated Islamic fundamentalism represents a world menace
B: Nonsense! It is said that the West
had a global policy in regard to Islam. That is stupid. There isn't a global
Islam. Look at Islam in a rational manner and without demagoguery or emotion.
It is the leading religion of the world with 1.5 billion followers. But what is
there in common among Saudi Arabian fundamentalism, moderate Morocco, Pakistan
militarism, Egyptian pro-Western or Central Asian secularism? Nothing more than
what unites the Christian countries.
It is conceivable that without the activism of the
US, the Russians may never have occupied Afghanistan and there may never have
been a war.
The Problem inherent in a ‘Solution’ involving
Wars are fought by countries under the direction
and control of their government. The “Mujahideen” who fought the war to drive
out the Russians were drawn from 35 countries and numbered around three hundred
thousand. There was no government (in Afghanistan or in exile) to manage and
control them and therefore none to take care of them after the war. They were
left to fend for themselves. The US and Pakistan simply washed their hands
off the problem once the war was over.
If the US were to
disband their army in Afghanistan and leave the soldiers with their arms to
fend for themselves, we can expect them to behave just like the Taliban or
(Secretary of State) understood the nature of the problem very well and said
while answering a question during an interview with Fox News's Greta Van
Susteren: “To be fair we had helped to create the problem we are now fighting.
Because when the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan, we had this brilliant idea,
that we were gonna come to Pakistan and create a force of Mujahideen, equip
them with stinger missiles and everything else to go after the Soviets inside
Afghanistan…. and we were successful. The Soviets left Afghanistan and then we
said great! good bye! and washed our hands off, leaving these trained people
who were fanatical in Afghanistan and Pakistan, leaving them well-armed,
creating a mess frankly, that at the time we really didn't recognize, we were
just so happy to see the Soviet Union fall, and we thought ok fine, we're ok
now, everything's going to be so much better. Now you look back, the people
we're fighting today, we were supporting in the fight against the
The US army applies
several filters in their recruitment process and a candidate who inclines to
the religious right is not selected. Such people have been found to be the ones
more likely to remain maladjusted after a war and indulge in senseless violence
such as shooting sprees.
In the case of the
"mujahideen", normal boys were put through a process of
indoctrination in religious extremism using experts from Palestine in specially
set up madrassas!
The US understood the
risks very well based on their well-documented research which has become the
basis of their selection policies, but didn't care and I doubt if Pakistan
and Saudi Arabia anticipated the problems these fighters would create after the
The Afghan Mujahideen heroes morph into “terrorists”
The US fought a proxy war with the Soviet Union
arming/training the Mujahideen. The war broke the might of the Soviet Union who
suffered an ignominious defeat, leaving the US the only superpower. The US pre
occupation with the communist world ended, allowing it to focus on the
strategic oil rich Middle East.
Saddam obliged by occupying Kuwait giving Bush the opportunity to enter the ME.
When Saddam looked ready to withdraw from Kuwait, Bush unleashed a volley of
abuses, making it impossible for Saddam to withdraw and save face, forcing a
war. This was in 1991.
The Afghan Mujahideen had offered to liberate
Kuwait just as they had liberated Afghanistan from the Soviets but the Saudi
monarch was afraid of the growing influence of Osama and felt insecure. He
therefore invited the US to help liberate Kuwait. It would have been much cheaper
and safer for the US to use the Mujahideen to drive out the Iraqis. This
however did not meet their objectives for a larger role in the ME. This was the
beginning of the rift between the US and the Afghan Mujahideen who now morphed
into Al Qaeda.
All the so called Islamic terrorist incidents are
after the first Gulf war and the first of these incidents was on February 26, 1993 – World Trade Center bombing, in
New York City. 6 killed.
The Magnitude of the
While it should have
been absolutely clear to all that it was a blunder to have used civilians to
fight wars and thereafter leave them to fend for themselves, nothing has
· These “Mujahideens” or
“terrorists” continue to be used by the US, Saudi Arabia and Pakistan. They have
been used in Libya to overthrow Gaddafi and they are being used in Syria to
oust Bashar al- Assad.
Pakistan has used them against India in the past and is likely
to use them again once the US leaves Afghanistan and the drone attacks stop.
Right now the terrorists are incensed with the army and the government of
Pakistan for allowing the drone attacks and are waging a war against their own
army and government.
The approximately 1000 Madrasas set up in Pakistan to
indoctrinate the “Mujahideen” to wage “Jihad” continue to function with local
and foreign students ensuring a steady supply of fresh “jihadis”.
The Problem however is confined mostly for the Muslim countries alone
or in the country where these people reside. These people make very little
impact on the rest of the World.
· The Individual “Jihadis”
who can strike anywhere are a different people who are more likely to be
University graduates and whose motives are purely political and directly
correlated with specific incidents that aggravate the grievances. A Department
of Defense study in 1997 concluded that: "Historical data show a strong
correlation between US involvement in international situations and an increase
in terrorist attacks against the United States." Former president Jimmy
Carter, some years after he left the White House, was unambiguous in his
agreement with this: “We sent Marines into Lebanon and you only have to go to
Lebanon, to Syria or to Jordan to witness first-hand the intense hatred among
many people for the United States because we bombed and shelled and
unmercifully killed totally innocent villagers—women and children and farmers
and housewives—in those villages around Beirut...As a result of that...we
became kind of a Satan in the minds of those who are deeply resentful. That is
what precipitated the taking of our hostages [in Iran] and that is what has
precipitated some of the terrorist attacks.” However, attacks by individual
“jihadis” are extremely rare and in terms of actual loss caused, they have
caused little damage. In the 13 years since 9/11 only 33 deaths in the US are
attributed to such people.
The World gets a shock
According to the
Soufan group, a very small number of 3000 westerners from Europe and North
America have joined the war in Syria/Iraq. The highest number is from France
numbering around 700 followed by UK numbering around 400, Belgium and Australia
250 each, Germany 270, US 70 etc. These countries are worried about what these
small numbers will do after they return and are planning several measures to
deal with the problem.
If such small numbers
can cause so much worry requiring elaborate measures to deal with the
situation, why do these countries not worry about the thousands from Muslim
countries who got involved in Afghanistan and now in Syria? If they are worried
about the small number of what their own nationals may do after the war, why is
it so difficult for the world to understand what half a million of such people
spread across 35 countries have been doing which goes in the name of “Islamic
terrorism”? These people are doing what they have been taught to do in state
sponsored and supported Madrasas and it is normal behavior for them. To expect
anything else from them is insanity.
Is it not hypocrisy
that while the US, UK, etc. continue to back the foreign civilian fighters in
Syria and elsewhere, they are worried about the very small numbers from their
own country who have got involved?
It is a huge problem that
must be tackled. Blaming does not help. Understanding what the problem is and
how it came about is necessary to prevent more of the same and to reverse the
· The first step is to
close down those 1000 madrasas which were set up specially for the purpose of
churning out “jihadis”. Although the Russians have left, not a single madrassa
has been shut down or changed into a normal madrassa. Yes, the US cannot be
blamed for this but only Pakistan, except that the US is aware of what is going
on but will not do anything to put an end to the nonsense. Pakistan obviously
intends using these people against India.
· Saudi Arabia, Pakistan
and other countries which have the problem of terrorism from their own
citizens, should absorb those who can be retrained for Army discipline into
their armies. The rest should also be accounted for by imprisonment if
We should raise awareness among the general public of what has
caused the problem in the first place and what needs to be done to put an end
to it and count on public pressure on their governments to effectively deal
with the situation and bring the problem to an end.
As described, not even
a single step has been taken to put an end to the menace of terrorism while
reams have been written and lip service paid.
I am not an expert but surely there are others who are experts and
they can give you better answers. However I am trying to answer your question, “What
will happen if the ISIS is successful?”
If ISIS succeeds, it will definitely kill those who do not agree
with its ideologies. This is a plain answer, but insha Allah it will not
succeed with its agenda of unjust killing of civilians including Muslims and
Muslims have defeated ISIS in many ways. Non Muslims have known
that ISIS has nothing to do with the religion it claims to follow. However, unfortunately
there are some Muslims and non-Muslims including Islamophobes who might be
following or considering ISIS to be in full agreement with Islam.
The major reason for the defeat of ISIS is that Islam itself
rejects ISIS on many grounds. Newageislam.com has published hundreds of
articles related to the dangerous situations in case of ISIS becoming
successful, in addition to the articles with regard to refuting ideologies of
ISIS. Some of them are mine as follows. For the articles of other authors and
scholars on the same topic, one can see the Author section of newageislam.com.
Newageislam.com also welcomes those people who do not agree with its authors, scholars
and articles published on this site. So here is a chance for everyone to agree
or disagree with any view. If the readers have any questions and doubts, they
can ask them in the comment section right down the articles.
ISIS, Taliban, Al-Qaeda and Other
Islamist Terrorists are Kharijites? An Analysis of 40 Major Characteristics of
Radical ‘Salafi’ Ideology Of Zarqawi
That Created ‘ISIS’: Muslims Must Reclaim Real, Spiritual Islam And Eliminate
ISIL Militants Killing Muslims in
Iraq will Taste the Hellfire
The Terrorist Acts of ISIS Are
Categorically Forbidden—Evidences from the Quran and Hadith
Refutation Of Raymond Ibrahim’s
Article Entitled ‘Islamic State Beheads, Mutilates, As The Quran Instructs’ -
Part 1: Don't Ignore The Context Of Quran's Verses Or The Asbab Al-Nuzul
Refutation of Raymond Ibrahim’s
Article Entitled ‘Islamic State Beheads, Mutilates, As the Quran Instructs’ -
Part 2: The Dreadful Story of Abu Jahl’s Torture of Early Muslims
Refutation of Raymond Ibrahim’s
Article ‘Islamic State Beheads, Mutilates, As the Quran Instructs’ - Part 3:
Associating Terrorism With Islam Is Complete Distortion Of The Religion;
Evidence from Qur’an
The Self-Proclaimed ‘Caliphate’ of
Daesh or ‘ISIS’: A Gross Distortion of the Rightly Guided Caliphate and Thus a
ISIS: The Knife That Slaughters
Islam And Muslims
Unmasking Ideological Origins of
ISIS; Refutation of Its Deviant Theology Alone Can Defeat This Evil
Suicide Attacks By ISIS or Any Other
Muslim Militants Are Brazenly Un-Islamic and Categorically Forbidden [Haram]
Under All Circumstances: Evidence from the Quran and Hadith
Refuting ISIS’ Magazine ‘Rumiyah’
That Ignores the Context of Quran's Verses To Forcefully Justify its Atrocities
Had The Hadith Already Asked Muslims
1400 Years Ago Not To Join ISIS?
The Sixteen Quranic Verses That
Counter Violent-Extremism and Terrorism
The following three articles also refute ISIS
Did War-related Madani Verses
Abrogate Makki Verses in the Sense of Not Allowing Peaceful Coexistence between
Muslims and Non-Muslims?
Has the Ayat, La Ikraha fid Deen
(There is No Compulsion in Religion), been Abrogated?
The Misunderstood Hadith - 'I Have
Been Commanded To Fight the People Until They Say There Is No God but Allah’ -
misused by terrorist ideologues and Islamophobes
respect Sufis. But today sufis are not like the sufis hazrat nizamuddin, hazrat
qutubuddin, hazrat abdul qadir jilani etc.
at many shrines as we experience Sufis are not as much expert as they should be.
Whenever they are asked questions about current issues, they show their
inability of addressing the problems. I also believe there might be some good
and expert sufis but they do not desire fame or publicity like some Sufis who
ignore Islam and speak of their opportunist will.
studying an article in which one point made by Mr. Sultan Shahin looked good to
me. This point addresses the modern Sufis that focusing only on positive
features of Islam will not address the problem. They will have to focus on those questions
which are used by the current terror groups.
Appeal to Sufi Divines: Please Go Beyond Clichés Like Islam Is a Religion of Peace,
Refute the Generally Accepted Core Theology Which Is Helping Jihadis Lure Our
Youths to Terrorism
Sultan Shahin, Founding Editor, New Age Islam
ibn abdul wahhab said Sufism or something like that is shirk he also tried to
support it from hadith and he thought his understanding of hadith is in agreement
with the quran.
other muslims say Sufism is supported by the hadith they also say this hadith
in agreement with the quran.
conclusion should be that there is much more to think!!
is said that only scholars can make good understanding of Islamic sources. But what
about Muhammad ibn Abdul Wahhab who was also a scholar of Islam. He justified
killing of Sufi muslims on the basis of same claims of following quran and
hadith. Sufi muslims also follow quran and hadith and think they are as per
quran or hadith in their issues.
Sultan Shahin has asked a very good question in his article. He first quotes
Maulana Asghar Ali Imam Mehdi Salafi who condemned suicide attack. Was this condemnation
free from hypocrisy because his leader Ibn Abdul Wahhab as quoted by Shahin sb
ibn Abdul Wahhab (1703–1792), the founder of Saudi Arabia’s Wahhabi-Salafi
creed declared all rationalist and mystic Muslims as mushrik or polytheists and
thus “wajibul qatl”
(deserving death). In a long discourse in Kashaful Shubhat, he explained why
all Muslims despite their claim to believe in one God are polytheists whose
lives and property are halal (permitted) for Wahhabi Muslims. He concluded his
discourse: “… You now understand that these people's (non-Wahhabi Muslims’)
accepting tauheed (oneness
of God) does not make them Muslim; the fact that they expect intercession from
others than God (Sufi saints) makes them liable to be killed and their property
to be looted." ----- Kashaful Shubhat, p.9, Maktaba al-salafia bil Madina
Munawwara, 1969 CE)”
Murderous Sectarianism in Islam: Salafi Ulema
Should Not Only Condemn the Massacre at Lal Shahbaz Qalandar Shrine but Also
the Ideology behind It
Miss KF, The real purpose of knowledge or Science of Usul
al-Fiqh is to make Mujtahid qualify for applying qawaid of the usul in order to
deduce practical Ahkam of Sharia from its adilla tafsiliya. Whoever gets
ability of ijtihad can, through the application of the qawaid of usul,
understands nusus shari [which is roughly translated as injunctions of the
Quran and Sunnah] with its various types such as jali [manifest] and khafi
[concealed], in addition to gaining capacity for utilizing qiyas, istihsan,
istislah, istishab and other sources for learning rulings of the new-occurring
As for those who do not have ability of ijtihad, they
benefit from knowledge usul to know the methods of deducing the rulings [ahkam]
and takhrij of new ahkam related to the changing circumstances, depending upon
the qawaid of jurists and their fatawas similar to them, comparative analysis
of apparently conflicting or contradicting opinions, their evidences in several
ijtihadi issues and then adopting the preponderant opinion or using the method
of preferring [tarjih] the most authentic evidence in full agreement with nusus
sharia [Quran and Sunnah]
There is technical difference between the one who has
ability of ijtihad and the one who does not have, as the ususl al-Fiqh benefits
both of them, nevertheless the former applies the methods and deduces the
rulings while the latter knows the methods, checks all arguments related to the
issues and derive the best which can conform to the nusus sharia.
As for the real purpose of ilm al-Fiqh, it applies
ahkam sharia to the practices of mukallifin from among the people/believers, informing
them of halal and haram. For this reason, Fiqh is the competent authority of ‘Alim,
Qazi, Mufti, with the expertise of which they inform the people of hukm shari
related to their actions, speeches, events and conflicts.
All this difference does not confuse us provided we
focus on understanding ilm of usul al-fiqh and ilm of fiqh.
Muqallid is the one who does not have required
ability to deduce Ahkam from the adilla tafsiliya. It was therefore Mutaqaddemin
[the early scholars] used to use the word Faqih only for the Mujtahid. However this
established notion of Faqih is no longer used in our days. Unlike the
mutaqaddemin, the word Faqih is now used even for the one who is expert in
understanding Fiqhi Juzyiaat, that is, this is used even for the muqallid who
is lesser than the mujtahid. As for mujtahid, not only does he understand Fiqhi
Juzyiaat but also deduces, as said earlier, the ahkam from the adilla
Allama (lit. the biggest scholar) is the most
misused word today. Mullaji is called Allama. Mullaji was once used for the
great scholars such as Mulla Jami, Mulla Hasan but now among the ordinary
people this Mullaji is used for the one who, even without having expertise in
Islamic teachings, just starts acting according to a Sunnah, that is, he grows
his beard, wears kurta pyjama and thereby becoming our lovely Mullaji. Such mullaji
feels like being a boss in front of non-mullaji but starts showing his
humbleness in front of the one who is more knowledgeable than him. I have
experienced that most mullaji has good intention who when being told that he
has done something wrong accepts his mistake.
you for your answer. But who is Faqih? How is he different from mujtahid? It is
often seen in Urdu media the use of the terms like Allama, Faqih, Mujtahid but
is it adequate to use these terms for muqallid?
read the missing words in the previous comment,
to their will.
can ignore at the primary stage their doubts concerning these laws and start
trusting again the basic rules related to Aqaid which is solely the matter of
heart and belief. This spiritual way will help understand the wisdom behind all
other criminal laws.
Ghulam Mohiyuddin sir,
for your good words. Humbly speaking, I am not the "Alim" of that kind who for
the reason of condemnation made in limelight or media circles succumb to their.
As a servant of God Almighty and student of Islam, I am still researching for the causes of
punishment of apostasy; one of which is possibly treason.
I believe spiritually for the apostates that they should come back to observe the
blessings of Din of Allah. If their leaving this religion took place for the
doubts concerning criminal laws of Islam, they can ignore at the primary state
these laws and trust the basic Rules related to Aqaid which is solely the
matter of heart and belief. They can focus on the blessings that Allah has
given to His creations who believe Him after all problems and persecutions and
who seek forgiveness for whatever wrong they ever did. Tauba in all cases,
spiritual connection with remembrance of God, humbleness, special love towards
God – all should be the focus of His slaves. Whatever worries them much should
be ignored and replaced by the remembrance of God.
'Only In the Remembrance of God Is
the Solace of Hearts' (Quran13:28)
Adilla Tafsiliya and Adilla Ijmaliya/Adilla Kulliya
are terms used in Usul al-Fiqah. Both the terms cover a lengthy explanation;
however the difference between them can be shortly understood as follows.
Adilla [evidences] plural of dalil are of two
types; 1) Ijmaliya/Kulliya and 2) Tafsiliya/Juzyia. First is the field of
Usuliyeen and second is that of Faqih, while for the faqih it is compulsory to
be well acquainted with the field of usuliyeen.
In the experts of the first category known as
usuliyeen discuss the sources of Ahkam al-Sharia [Quran, Sunnah, Ijma and
Qiyas] and the Qawaid through which a mujtahid deduces practical rulings [amali
ahkam] of Sharia from the Adilla tafsiliya, for example, one of the Qawaid is
that Amr [command] denotes wujub [compulsory] and nahi denotes tahreem [forbiddance].
This sort of adilla is therefore the field of usuli. For example, the Quran
الصلوة وآتوا الزكوة so in this
verse the two Arabic verbs are of Amr which denote that Namaz [salat] and Zakat
are compulsory, on the basis of the rule set forth that amr denotes wujub/compulsory.
Adilla Tafsiliya are those adilla juzyia which
relate to an issue for which the verses of the Quran or Sunna have been
revealed or established. For instance, the verses of the Quran “فاجتنبوا الرجس من الأوثان
واجتنبوا قول الزور” denote
that wathaniyat [idol worshipping] and false witnessing are forbidden. This
verse is dalil tafsili for the ruling of forbidding wathaniyat and false
These two sorts of adilla have necessarily covered
major part of science of Usul al-Fiqh.
1. The Ahadith That Distort The Message Of The Quran - Part I
2. The Ahadith That Distort The Message Of The Quran – Part Two
3. Ibn-Arabi misinterprets verses 8:39, 2:193 and against their clear literal meaning as explained in my article: The Story of the Prophetic Mission of Muhammad (pbuh) in the Qu’ran (Concluding Part) Summary
The person obsessed with ‘this’
and ‘that’ is confined to what is known in Urdu as ‘tang nazari’ (and God knows
best why such a person is unable to come out of that zeal) while unfortunately he
himself thinks that others are ‘tang nazr’. That man might belong to any ‘maslak’
or ‘non-maslak’. If a person belongs to any particular maslak, he can be easily
identified but what about that problem which emanates from the person who is
never going to be identified as he walks on some or the other ‘maslak’
considering himself away from ‘maslak’.
Sorry it is too philosophical for
some but spiritual for others!
Unnecessary jealousy harms the
jealous itself and makes him ‘sick-minded’, and ‘ignoramuses. It never affects
the one who the jealousy is directed for, provided he is humbly sure of the
blessing of God and thankful to Him.
One should do at least riyadat w
mujahada and seek power from God to refrain from jealousy which is the disease
of heart and spirit. This short comment is meant for curing jealousy. Allah Almighty says,
ويضل به كثيرا ويهدي
we are paying taxes. Whatever we buy we pay taxes. Why do we pay? For security
or something else?
and scholars may have different opinion but I think Jizya was not an act of oppression.
Jizya, if calculated, is less than what Muslims have to pay in Zakat or taxes. Another
thing to note is that Jizya was not imposed on every non-Muslim but only on those
who were able to pay.
And what makes you think they were not happy to do so? I am sure the
hypocrite among the Muslims would have been happy if they too were given the
choice of paying jizya and escaping from paying zakat and military duty.
“In fact, my ancestors who survived thirteen centuries under
Muslim rule saw clear advantages in not being Muslim: mostly in the avoidance
of military conscription. (Nassim Nicholas Taleb writing in his book “Skin in
The non-Muslims who
have experienced living under the Islamic rule, saw clear advantage in
retaining their religion to avoid conscription for which their men of military
age and ability had to pay Jizya. In later years, after the non-Muslim
population had got assimilated, and conscription was sought to be made
compulsory and jizya abolished, they resisted.
Negotiation of the Terms of Jiziya
There are several
verses in the Quran that give the Prophet the mandate within which he is free
to negotiate. Verse 9:29 is one such. We know from history that Jiziya was
implemented by the Prophet not in terms of 9:29 but quite differently. Although
no accounts are available of what transpired, it would appear that the “People
of the Book” were anxious to avoid Jiziya as a punitive tax for their lack of
good faith and bad behaviour during the period of the Prophet’s struggles
against the main enemy of Islam and the Muslims. They therefore negotiated the
terms to remove the stigma of a punitive tax for their lack of “good faith “and
succeeded. The final form that Jiziya took is therefore a negotiated settlement
between the two parties where both parties came out winners having achieved
Jiziya was to be levied only on males of military age for
their exemption from military service. In return the state granted all people
belonging to the community the status of “The Protected People” or Zimmi
meaning that the state undertook the responsibility of defending them and
protecting them. They also had the freedom to practice their religion
Jiziya was therefore never a one-sided imposition nor a punitive
tax but “value” for money and a result of a negotiated settlement between the
parties. The People of the Book came out winners and the Prophet also came out
a winner having established a relationship of willing taxpaying citizens with
Verse 9:29 also clearly applied only to the immediate
addressees of the Prophet’s mission or the People in Hejaz. It is their
behaviour that is described in the verse 9:29 and all other verses in the
Quran. It is not a command to fight “People of the Book” who were not the
immediate addressees of the Prophet just as verse 9:5 covers only the Mushrikin
who fought against the Muslims and not any other people elsewhere. Verse 9:29
therefore has nothing to do with people outside the Arabian Peninsula who were
not the immediate addressees of the Prophet’s mission. However, since Jiziya
had taken a secular and non-punitive form even for the people covered by 9:29,
the practice was continued for all conquered people subsequently. In this, it
was like the tax levied by all conquerors with the vital difference that it
came with a guarantee of freedom to practice their own religion, exempted their
males from conscription, and guaranteed protection. Jiziya was secular because
it was clearly applicable only on males of military age and for exemption from
military duty and exempted women, children, old men and even monks. Had it been
based on religion, there should have been no exemption for women, old men and
monks. It was non-punitive since it
clearly rendered value for money in the form of guarantees of protection,
freedom to practice one’s religion and exemption from military service. While
all conquerors levied taxes, none gave or guaranteed anything in return to the
Jizya therefore was to the advantage of the non-Muslim
population and seen as such by the people who willingly paid Jiziya to avoid
conscription and resisted its abolition.
“The only definition of rationality that is practically,
empirically, and mathematically rigorous is 'what is rational is that which
allows for survival'. Unlike modern theories by psychosophasters, it maps to
the classical way of thinking. Anything that hinders one's survival at an
individual, collective, tribal, or general level is, to me, irrational.”
(Nassim Nicholas Taleb writing in his book “Skin in the game”)
survival of other religious groups and cultures and was a rational structural
solution to the problem of forced conversion to the dominant religion. Look at
the travails of the Jews under Christendom or Buddhism in India to appreciate
how Jiziya ensured survival of all minority religions under Islamic rule.
Divine wisdom is however beyond GM sb.
not know exactly what is truly happening in Kashmir. I see and what you also
wrote that JM of Kashmir brainwashes the Muslim youth for stone pelting.
suggest Muslims that they should have patience and not agree with what JM of
Kashmir wants them to do. If something is going wrong, they should come out and
share it with other Indians, rather than succumbing to the will of JM or
very knowledgeable but with humble words I want to share with you that the
knowledge which connects our mind, heart and soul with the remembrance of God
It is disheartening
to see that people are getting knowledge to focus on disturbing others and
keeping them away from the remembrance of God.
This article says forced conversion is not
if forced conversion is not okay then why
we hear the news of forced conversion? Is it media policy or politics?
I too think so but may be with slight difference
that reports concerning the punishment of apostasy must have been meant for
treason, as this is historical fact that those who became apostates were at the
same time treasonous. The reporters might have meant punishment for ‘treason’
by calling them apostates.
it well. It is popular view that since the early days of Islam the Muslim ummah
have held the view that Muslims are not allowed to leave the blessed religion,
not be the case of more troubling issue in the early days of Islam than in our
days but since so many sects are there among Muslim community and you know well
that these sects call one another apostates. So this will not be an easy task
to categorically decide the fate of a Muslim by calling him apostate and the
result will be the fitna and mutual-killing all around the Muslim world, as we
already are seeing, let alone talking about the one who publicly leaves the
this age many have left this blessed religion for which they themselves will be
accountable to God.
problem is not one sided; those who have left the religion are not restricted
to their own life and work but rather they are abusing the religion and its
personalities and it seems they have vowed to destruct the religion. This method
is also justified under the guise of ‘freedom of speech’.
should be shocked at the time when they leave the religion they cry for freedom
of religion and at the same time they do not want others to remain with their own
religion under the same right of freedom of religion. Every time they can be
seen discussing the “shortcoming” of the religion under the slogan of freedom
of speech but when others discuss their shortcoming they start showing their
are leaving this blessed religion are deprived in my opinion and what can be
further said more than that. What can be more the matter of deprivation than
their leaving this blessed religion?
for the Muslim world is that Muslim scholars should solve the problem of such
muslims leaving the religion, rather than going for punishment.
Dear Ghulam Ghaus Saheb, you say "This
is the basic Islamic principle upon which the idea of non-compulsion is built,
guaranteeing religious freedom for all non-Muslims...."
Does this mean that while there may be
some freedom of religion for non-Muslims in Islam, there is none for Muslims?
Once someone is born as a Muslim, he doesn't have the freedom to choose his
religion, or change it or leave religion altogether as many Muslims are doing
in the present environment. Something like 20 per cent of youths in Turkey, for
instance, have chosen to become Desists; they believe in God but not in the
prophethood of Mohammad (saw). Are they free to do so, or will some Turkish
ulema start calling for them being killed as apostates are supposed to be killed?
In short, does the la ikraha fid
Deen, if not abrogated, apply to Muslims too?
are clear now. The Arabic lines quoted in my previous comment imply that there
are conflicting reports about Ahkam Al-Quran being the book of Ibn Arabi Abu
Bakr Maliki or of others. Some validate attribution of this book to him while
others do not. Some say this is the work of Abdur Razzaq Al-Qashani but was mistakenly
attributed to Ibn Arabi Maliki as a result of his popularity. Sheikh Muhammad
Abduhu also holds the same view. It is this reason that some biographers do not
mention Ahkam al-Quran as the book of Ibn Arabi Maliki but some others
including the publishers do.
who is the actual author of this book, I will search for the original quote in
its Arabic version and I think it must have been under the subject of La Ikraha
Naseer Saheb, you are right, there are two ibn-e-Arabis. One Mohiyuddin
and another Abu Bakr. Mohiyuddin is the mystic Ibn-e-Arabi who is considered
But the quote you had given originally was from Abu Bakr ibn-al-Arabi
whose book is called Ahkam al-Quran. So there indeed was some misunderstanding,
when you said: "Ibn al-Arabi in his work Ahkam al-Qur'an, declares
dogmatically that to compel to the truth is part of the Faith, on the authority
of a hadith: "I have been commanded to fight people till they recite the
declaration of faith ...", which he considers to have been derived from
the Qur'anic verse: "And fight them until persecution is no more and
religion is for Allah alone." (8:39; 2:193).…" You obviously assumed that
this quote was from the famous mystic Sheikhul Akbar Mohiyuddin Ibn-e-Arabi,
though that's not the case.
Please have a
look at this which talks about reality of Tafsir attributed to Ibn Arabi Abu
Bakr. There are conflicting reports. Anyway, the tafsir of Ibn Arabi that I
have on my desktop is different from this one and can be downloaded through the
given link below:
التفسير المنسوب لابن عربي:
التفسير الذي ينسب إلى أبي بكر محي الدين محمد بن علي بن أحمد بن عبد الله الحاتمي
الطائي الأندلسي المعروف بابن عربي، وبعض الناس يصدق نسبته إليه ويعتقد أنه من عمل
ابن عربي نفسه وبعض آخر لا يصدق هذه النسبة ويرى أنه من عمل عبد الرازق القاشاني، وتنما
نسب إلى ابن عربي ترويجا له، نظرا لشهرة ابن عربي، وممن يرى هذا الرأي الأخير الأستاذ
الإمام الشيخ محمد عبده عليه رحمة الله، فقد نقل عنه تلميذه المرحوم الشيخ محمد رشيد
رضا في مقدمة تفسيره أنه قال بعد ما تكلم عن التفسير الإشاري: "وقد اشتبه على
الناس فيه كلام الباطنية بكلام الصوفية، ومن ذلك التفسير الذي ينسبونه للشيخ الأكبر
محي الدين بن عربي، وإنما هو القاشاني الباطني الشهير، وفيه من النزعات ما يتبرأ عنه
دين الله وكتابه العزيز، تفسير المنار ج1 ص 18.
by Ibn al-Arabi. Abu
have you come to know that I am “apparently mistaking one for the other”? From
where have you learnt that Ahkam al-Quran belongs to Ibn Arabi Maliki and not
to Mohiyuddin Ibn Arabi? May be from Wikipedia?
words, I request you to correct your information and accept that Ahkam al-Quran
is a book of Tafsir written by Mohiyuddin Ibn Arabi – A great Sufi Master as
well as theologian. I have read this tafsir and still have on my desktop in
Arabi Maliki was also a mystic and theologian did not write Ahkam al-Quran. He
is reported to have written hundreds of books but only some of them are considered
The Maliki scholar who wrote ahkam ul Quran
Abu Bakr Ibn al-'Arabi (born
468/1076, died 543/1148) was a "Andalusian Malikite qadi"
He was born in Seville
Al-Andalus, a region of Spain which became a center of great civilization,
particularly generated by non-Arab, non-Muslim influences.
Ibn ʿArabi (26 July 1165 – 16 November 1240), full name Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad ibn
ʿAlī ibn Muḥammad ibnʿArabī al-Ḥātimī aṭ-Ṭāʾī, was an Andalusian Muslim scholar, mystic, poet, and philosopher, whose works
have grown to be very influential beyond the Muslim world.
not quote the original text of Ibn Arabi from Ahkam Al-Quran.
have got wrong understanding from Ibn Arabi’s Ahkam al-Quran.
studied Ahkam al-Quran properly or simply copied its translation from anywhere?
Arabi was more a spiritual personality than a simply theologian.
remember his tafsir that I read some years ago – the very spiritual tafsir when
he explained the verse “fight in the cause of Allah” to mean fighting against
Satan [evils inspired by devils] and Nafs [baser self].
me the original quote from his Ahkam al-Quran.
From the title of the article, it is clear that the author believes in
abrogation of verses of the Quran but has reason to believe that verse 2:256 is
not abrogated. Citing other verses in support of 2:256 reinforces the message
of verse 2:256 but does not prove that it is not abrogated.
Those who believe in abrogation of verse 2:256, such as Ibn Arabi argue
Ibn al-Arabi in his work Ahkam al-Qur'an, declares dogmatically that to compel to the truth is part of the
Faith, on the authority of a hadith: "I have been commanded to fight
people till they recite the declaration of faith ...", which he considers
to have been derived from the Qur'anic verse: "And fight them until
persecution is no more and religion is for Allah alone." (8:39; 2:193)
Another construction ... confines the verse to the People of the
Scriptures who submitted to the Muslims and agreed to pay Jizyah (poll-tax)
but excludes the polytheists from its scope. In the case of the latter, only
two alternatives are said to be open - Islam or the sword - on the authority of
al-Shabi, al-Hasan, Qatadah and al-Dahhaq.
How does GGS reject/refute Ibn-Arabi and others who argue that 2:256 is
means that the teachings of Islam are very clear and the proof and evidence of
its soundness are so clear and definitive that there is no need for compulsion.
Ibn Juzayy (may Allah have mercy on him) said: “There is no compulsion in
religion” means: the religion of Islam is very clear and its proof of its
soundness is self-evident, so there is no need to compel anyone to enter this
religion. Rather anyone who has sound understanding will enter it of his own
accord, without compulsion. This is indicated by the words, “Verily, the Right
Path has become distinct from the wrong path” [al -Baqarah 2:256] (at-Tasheel,