Books and Documents

Islamic Ideology (28 Aug 2019 NewAgeIslam.Com)


  • As is his long-standing habit, Naseer sb. begins a vicious personal attack whenever he loses an argument, thus demolishing his own credentials as a serious scholar.

    He says, "the Quran speaks of the existence of human beings for an unspecified but very long period of time before the creation of Adam and Eve." The Quran does not say that.  As I said before, Naseer sb. extracts meanings from Quranic verses which are his own inventions. So let me ask him once again: When are you going to stop lying, Naseer sb.?

    By Ghulam Mohiyuddin - 9/14/2019 1:31:39 PM

  • GM sb is reduced to blubbering nonsense. He contradicts himself in his comment. On the one hand he berates me for saying that the Quran speaks of the existence of human beings for an unspecified but very long period of time before the creation of Adam and Eve. He also indulges in the straw man argument as if I have also said the very opposite - that Adam and Eve were the very first human beings!

    He has lost the argument and is now trying confuse everyone as he always does. A man without honour and without integrity. Shameless as he is, he will continue to argue and waste everyone's time.

    By Naseer Ahmed - 9/14/2019 3:27:33 AM

  • Naseer sb. does not seem to understand that Mitochondrial Eve  and the Y-chromosomal Adam are hypotheses that have nothing to do with the evolution vs. creationism controversy. As with "Mitochondrial Eve", the title of "Y-chromosomal Adam" is not permanently fixed to a single individual, but can advance over the course of human history as paternal lineages become extinct. We must emphasize  the fact that the position of mt-MRCA is neither fixed in time (as the position of mt-MRCA moves forward in time as mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) lineages become extinct), nor does it refer to a "first woman", nor the only living female of her time, nor the first member of a "new species".

    How much more clear do you want me to make it? Do you understand anything at all?

    But your worst transgression is your taking meanings from Quranic verses which clearly those verses do not convey. This has been your pattern through the long string of articles that you have posted in NAI. As I said before, "Trying to derive your own meaning from them in order to reconcile them with scientific theories is a deception and an abuse of the Holy Book."

    This discussion started with my pointing out that Naseer sb. was misquoting Harari, a Darwinist. Now I must state that his taking unintended and unimplied meaning from Quranic verses make him an unreliable guide for us.

    By Ghulam Mohiyuddin - 9/12/2019 1:41:23 PM

  • GM sb now rejects Science, which has established that all of us living today, have  descended from one woman and one man going back an estimated 50,000 to 200,000 years, whom they have called the "Mitochondrial Eve"  and the "Y-chromosomal Adam" !
    The man is full of nonsense and the one indulging in self-deception and trying to deceive everyone
    By Naseer Ahmed - 9/12/2019 3:29:00 AM

  • Naseer sb.,

    Refering to your earlier article that you cited, neither 76:1, nor 2:30, nor 2:31 say what you think they say. Your claim that they are referring to earlier humans is a bogus claim. Trying to derive your own meaning from them in order to reconcile them with scientific theories is a deception and an abuse of the Holy Book.

    You are right in saying the Quran does not tell us how long ago Adam existed. According to a Sahih Hadith,  there are 10 qarn or generation or centuries between Adam and Noah... This would mean that humanity started on earth around a couple of thousand of years ago! According to a revelation received by Mirza Ghulam Ahmad, the founder of the Ahmadiya community, the Adam mentioned in the Quran was born 4,598 years before Muhammad. But, as you said, this datum is not important as far as the Quran is concerned.

    You said, "If one insists on only sticking with the Theory of Evolution, then it supports evolution of a new species in quantum leaps that begins with one pair and propagates downwards."

    That is wrong.  DNA evidence indicates that humans descended from a large population because we, as a species, are so genetically diverse in the present day that a large ancestral population is needed to transmit that diversity to us. To date, every genetic analysis estimating ancestral population sizes has agreed that we descend from a population of thousands, not a single ancestral couple.

    If we descended from a population of thousands, then your whole argument about Mitochondrial Eve become moot.

    If by "new species" you mean  man did not descend from earlier species, you are just talking nonsense. You are talking the language of the Old Testament.

    The idea of reconciling scriptures with science may sound good but such a reconciliation would require a lot of self-deception and stretching of the truth.

    By Ghulam Mohiyuddin - 9/11/2019 2:41:48 PM

  • This is my last comment.

     So far, it is GM sb who has made a fool of himself with his stray man arguments. He neither understands "The Theory of Evolution", its strengths and weaknesses nor the Scriptures. He does not know the difference between the Biblical version of the story and the Quranic. He uses weak arguments of others that have been answered (for example the weak version of creation from the Bible), while ignoring what I have said. Examine closely and you will find that he has not answered even one of my questions although pretending to do so, because he cannot, while I have addressed all his questions and comments comprehensively.

     Let us discuss below why the mere existence of “Mitochondrial Eve” and the “Y-Chromosome Adam” supports the story of creation in the Quran. If one insists on only sticking with the Theory of Evolution, then it supports evolution of a new species in quantum leaps that begins with one pair and propagates downwards.

     How can/cannot the “Mitochondrial Eve” move forward in time?

    Let us call the woman who occupies the position of the present day “Mitochondrial Eve" Martha, and the "Y-chromosomal Adam”, Jonas. Let us also assume that Martha had only one daughter who in turn had only one daughter and who in turn had two daughters. Then all of the 7 billion people today, trace their ancestry to one of these two great, great, granddaughters of Martha. Now if one of these two great great granddaughters is to become the “Mitochondrial Eve", then the lineage of the second great great granddaughter must become extinct. What chance that a lineage that is nearly as old as the age of the "Mitochondrial Eve" estimated to be between 50 thousand to 500,00 years old becomes extinct? Although theoretically, this is possible, it is extremely improbable. Lineages that run deep also spread wide and have the least probability of going extinct. There is therefore little chance based on probability that the position of the "Mitochondrial Eve" and "Y-chromosomal Adam" will move forward.

    Why is it more likely that the Mitochondrial Eve and the Y-Chromosome Adam were a new species?

    Studies of the nuclear DNA indicate that the size of the ancient human population never dropped below tens of thousands.  Martha and Jonas therefore had at least 10,000 brothers and 10,000 sisters. Then what explains that the lineage represented by the approximately 10,000 or more sisters/female cousins of Martha,  have gone extinct but the lineage of Martha has grown to 7 billion? The only explanation is that Martha enjoyed some great genetic superiority not shared by her remaining sisters/cousins, or to speak plainly, the fact that Martha, the "Mitochondrial Eve" was a different species. The more probable explanation is that every other lineage (species) has become extinct because this lineage (superior species) of Martha and Jonas, wiped out every other lineage (species) just like they wiped out many of their own species also. This is true even if inter breeding produced fertile children. In such a case, it means that only children from the lineage of both Martha and Jonas had superior survival skills and not other lineages including the mixed ones.

    Why the Mitochondrial Eve and the Y-Chromosome Adam can move forward in time only with the creation of a new species starting with a single pair and propagating downward and not through gradual and widespread evolution.

    Let us imagine that today, one couple produce a male and a female that is genetically superior to all other humans and a new species. This new species cannot produce offspring with other humans except between themselves although they are alike physically and in many other ways. The siblings who we call Beth and John mate and multiply and their progeny co-exist with other humans for say 30,000 years, after which their population grows large enough to control the entire population of humans. At this point, they carry out a systematic genocide over the next 10,000 years to completely wipe out every lineage except their own. Beth and John now become the "Mitochondrial Eve" and  "Y-chromosomal Adam" of the entire population displacing the earlier one over a short period of 10,000 years of genocide.

    However, if we assume a slow, uniform and spread out process of evolution, then every lineage of Martha and Jonas evolve simultaneously and therefore Martha and Jonas remain the "Mitochondrial Eve"  and "Y-chromosomal Adam" of every human being even after this new phase of evolution that makes every human being much superior to any man that exists today.

    Weakness in the Theory of Evolution

    The very fact that the "Mitochondrial Eve" and the "Y-chromosomal Adam" do not go as far back as the first appearance of the species of the genus Homo or even to the first appearance of Homo Sapiens, is therefore proof of their being a new species and the story of slow, gradual, spread out evolution over thousands of years, simply hogwash. This is also the reason why apes still exist even if the first man and woman evolved from them. However, what is not explained is why did the apes escape the fate of other less evolved human beings and not get wiped out by the more evolved human beings? Our genetic memory also does not make us either more hostile or more compassionate towards the apes in comparison with other animals which also belie the theory of evolution from the ape. The very clear and categorical verses of the Quran which say that some rebellious people were transformed into apes and swine make more sense. The fact that apes and swine genetically resemble us the most may therefore not be either mere coincidence or because we evolved from either of these animals.

      Mutations within a species go on continuously without producing a new species. A new species is a quantum leap in genetic mutation which starts with just one couple. It does not matter whether you say this is as a result of the evolutionary process or creation by God. Even if the story of creation in the Quran is allegorical, it points to creation of a new species in quantum leaps and not as a result of continuous mutation, while continuous mutation to adapt with our changing environment and for survival is a fact. The very idea of just one pair starting a new species is anathema to the theory of evolution as it fails to explain why the remaining stock from which this pair evolved failed to evolve likewise or why there are apes even today while some evolved into human beings.

    Much to learn from both Science and the Scriptures

    There are many things to learn from the Theory of Evolution and from Noah Harari without subscribing to their blind spots as well. These blind spots exist only because they are ideologically and dogmatically opposed to the idea of creation and the Creator. For a person who is open to all knowledge from Science as well as the Scriptures, it is easy to reconcile the two. The Quran does command that we use Science to discover the truth of what the Quran says and I am doing exactly that. All the Prophets without exception were also ridiculed for what they said based on the revelations. GM sb is just another shallow disbeliever in the Scriptures.

    By Naseer Ahmed - 9/11/2019 1:51:05 AM

  • There is more than one verse that implies existence of other humans. The Quranic verses regarding creation are discussed in my article:

    Was Allah Unjust in Creating Adam and Favouring His Progeny Over All His Creation?

    GM sb says Quranic Adam existed 6000 years back. From where did he get this number 6000? The Quran scrupulously avoids mentioning any number - not even the number of people in the "People of the Cave" apart from pointing out the numbers that people speculate on.

     (18:22) (Some) say they were three, the dog being the fourth among them; (others) say they were five, the dog being the sixth,- doubtfully guessing at the unknown; (yet others) say they were seven, the dog being the eighth. Say thou: "My Lord knoweth best their number; It is but few that know their (real case)." Enter not, therefore, into controversies concerning them, except on a matter that is clear, nor consult any of them about (the affair of) the Sleepers.

     Why does the Quran not give the precise number? Because the precise number is irrelevant to the moral of the story and in any case, people will not cease to argue and differ even if the Quran were to give the correct number.

     The estimate of the age of the “Mitochondrial Eve” and the “Y-chromosome” Adam also differs widely from researcher to researcher and keeps getting revised based on further research. This will go on and on and therefore there will be many more revisions and never perhaps agreement on the final number.

     The Quran leaves to man what he can discover by himself and the subjects on which he is likely to speculate. This also includes the period it took for the Universe to come about. Although the Quran says 2 days to create the Universe and 4 days to make the earth habitable and support life, it also makes clear that this day is not our 24 hour day. There are three verses that hint at different numbers to what a cosmic day is like. In one context a day is like a thousand years and in another context it is 50,000 years. In the context of creation it could be a different number. So, 6 days means 6 phases of indeterminate number of years.

    By Naseer Ahmed - 9/11/2019 12:20:08 AM

  • Naseer sb. says, "As far as the Quran is concerned, before the creation of Adam, humans have lived for a very long time, and their existence is not even worthy of mention."
    This seems to be the belief mostly of Ahmadiyas based on 2:30, "Just think when your Lord said to the angels: “Lo! I am about to place a vicegerent on earth,” they said: “Will You place on it one who will spread mischief and shed blood."
    Instead of using the word "Vice-regent", other translators have used the words: "representative", or "khalif", or "I am about to establish upon earth one who shall inherit it," or "successor" or "“I am going to place a successive ˹human˺ authority on earth.”
    As Asad says, " The term khalifah - derived from the verb khalafa, "he succeeded [another]" - is used in this allegory to denote man's rightful supremacy on earth, which is most suitably rendered by the expression "he shall inherit the earth" (in the sense of being given possession of it). Some people, especially the Ahmadiyas have derived an alternative meaning from this namely that Adam was to be a Caliph over existing human beings, but this is a minority opinion.
    The angel's reply, "“Will You place on it one who will spread mischief and shed blood," does not  refer to spreading mischief among a pre-existing human society but spreading mischief on earth. This is said in the form of a taunt because they are unhappy with this creation of God.
    Quranic Adam existed about 6000 years ago. That does not agree with  Harari's cognitive revolution or with the theories of Darwinists or anthropologists in general.
    You will continue to raise these dubious and useless points because it is difficult for you to admit that your theories have more holes in them than one can count. At some point you will have to admit that you have just been making a fool of yourself.
    By Ghulam Mohiyuddin - 9/10/2019 2:14:16 PM

  • GM sb is mixing up stories from the Bible and the Quran. As far as the Bible is concerned, Adam and Eve were the first humans. As far as the Theory of Evolution and the Quran are concerned, Adam and Eve were not the first humans. As far as the Quran is concerned, before the creation of Adam, humans have lived for a very long time, and their existence is not even worthy of mention. God then created Adam and Eve with Cognitive powers not given to any other creation. Adam and Eve are the common great grandparents of all the human beings living in the 7th Century, when the Quran was revealed. The Quran is proved right by Science in this respect. Al human beings at the time of revelation, had common grandparents.

    The Concept of "Mitochondrial Eve" and "Y-chromosomal Adam" (or Y-MRCA) are very well understood. Biology relates them to the first humans that appeared 5-7 million years ago, and to the Homo Sapiens that appeared 315000 years ago. As far as biology is concerned, only their lineages survive to day and every other lineage has become extinct. Theoretically, if the "Mitochondrial Eve" and "Y-chromosomal Adam were not a new species, and could breed with other humans, then it is not necessary for them to have ever met. Biology however does not rule out that they could have been contemporaries and mated with each other and produced progeny.

    The estimate of the age of the "Mitochondrial Eve" ranges from 50,000 to 500,000 years ago and that of the "Y-chromosomal Adam" also falls in this range. Biology is not yet able to place the numbers more accurately, but that is not necessary for my argument. Now if humans appeared 5 to seven million years ago, and the anatomically modern humans (Homo sapiens) over 315000 years ago, there must have been at least ten thousand sisters of the "Mitochondrial Eve" and 10,000 brothers of the "Y-chromosomal Adam".  What is the probability, that only one man's and one woman’s progeny have survived today? Does biology favour survival of the progeny through such interbreeding or does it favour the theory that the age of the "Mitochondrial Eve" and the "Y-chromosomal Adam" should be as old as the age of the species? Certainly, biology favours the theory that the age of the "Mitochondrial Eve" and the age of the  "Y-chromosomal Adam" should be as old as the age of the species. The "Mitochondrial Eve" and "Y-chromosomal Adam" are then a new species and not the same as what appeared 5-7 million years ago or even 315000 years ago, although anatomically the same as Homo Sapiens.

    It is GM sb who understands neither Science nor the Scriptures but blindly believes in Science and blindly rejects the scriptures.

    Although he is fond of quoting the exhortation of the Quran to pursue the Sciences when it suits him, he recoils as any atheist would, at the very thought that the Quran speaks facts that can be scientifically established.

    By Naseer Ahmed - 9/10/2019 12:40:56 AM

  • no point discussing evolutionary biology with a electrical engineering ulama.
    By hats off! - 9/9/2019 7:00:37 PM

  • Naseer sb.,
    Your using the idea of mitochondrial Eve to support your Adam and Eve theory is simplistic and ill-informed.
    When evolutionary scientists speak of “mitochondrial Eve,” they may be referencing the biblical Eve, but the woman they have in mind isn’t quite the same. Hilariously, some creationists have taken this to mean that science has found the biblical Adam and Eve and evolution has thus been disproven. But mitochondrial Eve and Adam  probably weren't contemporaries and almost certainly never met. They aren't even fixed people; if branches of Adam's male line or Eve's female line die off, the title shifts to whoever currently meets the definition. Creationists willfully misunderstand the entire notion of Mitochondrial Eve. Since the concept was first introduced in 1987 by A.C.Wilson, creationists have been deliberately claiming that she must have been the first woman. They believe this because it says so in the Bible, and such is the addled state of their brains that they need no further proof. It really is most unfortunate that Allan Wilson did not call Eve by some other name. We might then have creationists wittering on about someone called Mitochondrial Doris instead.
    Naseer sb., you must stop catching at straws to breathe life into your unscientific theories. You are not fooling anyone except yourself.
    You seem to think my quote from Harari's book supports the last paragraph of your article. That is totally false. Harari would not agree with even a single word of your last paragraph. Would you ever stop lying and making preposterous claims?

    By Ghulam Mohiyuddin - 9/8/2019 12:55:47 PM

  • GM sb says: Naseer sb. again seeks support in the writings of Noah Harari, a staunch Darwinist! He forgets that Harari clearly said, " Biology sets the basic parameters for the behaviour and capacities of Homo sapiens. The whole of history takes place within the bounds of this biological arena."
    On the contrary, that is precisely the thesis of the article as clearly concluded in the last paragraph.
    God created Adam, distinct from every other creation, with astounding cognitive abilities, and guided this creation through revelations, from an existence not very different from that of animals, to a stage when the final,perfect, and complete religion could be revealed in accordance with the full human potential determined by the genetic make-up of this species, which has not changed since the creation of Adam and will not change till doomsday. This is why the Quran is eternal and unchanging and will remain so till the end of time.
    I am saying very clearly, that biology defines the bounds, and Allah knows what those bounds are, and therefore the potential of human beings and the stage in our civilizational development when the final eternal and universal Message could be revealed. This is what the Quran is and why its Message is both eternal and universal.
    I am not denigrating Science but using it precisely as the Quran commands -  to discover the truth in what the Quran says. I am bringing out the fact that Science confirms what the Quran says and where it differs from what the Quran says, is in the realm of unproven theories and speculation.
    By Naseer Ahmed - 9/8/2019 2:10:53 AM

  • Biology has proved that every human being traces his ancestry to a single woman, whom they call the ‘Mitochondrial Eve’. It is not equally easy to establish that we also trace our lineage to a single father, or to Adam. This is because, although our genomes are a combination of DNA from both our mother and father, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) comes solely from our mother because the female egg contains large amounts of mitochondrial DNA, whereas the male sperm contains just a tiny amount. The sperm use their small amount of mitochondria to power their race to their egg before fertilisation. Once a sperm merges with an egg, all the sperm mitochondria are destroyed.
    Theory of evolution does not predict that a new species comes from a single male and a single female or that only a single lineage will survive. What then explains that only a single lineage has survived and all of us have a common father and mother? What about the evidence of interbreeding? This only proves that the progeny of Adam and Eve also mated with the Neanderthal, the Homo Erectus, the Homo Sapiens etc and produced children and there is a one-way flow of genes.  These mixed lineages have not survived so what is found common in those other species is what has flown from our ancestors. There is no reverse flow of genes as only one lineage has survived.
    That we share common building blocks with other organisms and DNA sequences with other species does not prove that we evolved from them. It only confirms what the Quran says – that Allah has used the same material to create every living organism.
    When Biology itself proves that all of us trace our lineage to a single pair, what does that prove? It certainly proves the story of creation of Adam and Eve in the Quran and not the theory of Evolution.
    GM sb has answered nothing. He has lost his bearings and become abusive.
    By Naseer Ahmed - 9/8/2019 1:22:01 AM

  • Naseer sb. wants to know if I answered his three stupid questions. What he is really pursuing is a derogation of science and an affirmation of the Quranic version of the creation of man. The fact is that he does not understand either science or the Quran. By trying to use the Quran as a weapon against science he is only making a fool of himself and trying to further exacerbate the backwardness of Muslims in the field of science.

    The answers given by science and by religion have their own value and their own place of honor. Our brains are large enough to accommodate both answers. The Quran deals with the issue in the context of a  discussion of the purpose of life and man's relationship to God, whereas science deals with the same issue by observation of nature and development of hypotheses based on analysis of observed findings. There are repeated calls in the Quran itself asking us to observe and reflect upon natural phenomenon.

    Creating a futile argument about whether the Quran or science is right is sheer idiocy. Wise men stay away from such arguments.

    Naseer sb. asks why only some apes evolved into human beings and others didn't.

    The reason other primates did not  evolve into humans is that they're doing just fine. All primates alive today, including mountain gorillas in Uganda, howler monkeys in the Americas, and lemurs in Madagascar, have proven that they can thrive in their natural habitats. Evolution is all about how well organisms fit into their current environments.

    Naseer sb. asks, "Why then the post Cognitive Revolution humans are not a new species?"

    All species evolve from earlier species. God created Adam from dust, so Adam would be called a new species. But we cannot fit that paradigm in modern scientific thinking. Is that a problem? Only for those who seek simplistic answers.

    On the question of whether God converted some Jews into apes and swine, the burden of proof is on you. In my mind, the great, merciful and glorious God would never ever want to do something like that, but I know that you have a different view on the sublect.

    Science is not out to prove Quran incorrect. Such questions arise only in small minds.

    Naseer sb. again seeks support in the writings of Noah Harari, a staunch Darwinist! He forgets that Harari clearly said, " Biology sets the basic parameters for the behaviour and capacities of Homo sapiens. The whole of history takes place within the bounds of this biological arena."

    By Ghulam Mohiyuddin - 9/7/2019 12:58:14 PM

  • GM sb says  “I did say that  animal behavior is no more DNA-controlled than human behavior. Do I have to keep repeating it?”
    He has apparently slided back into stupidity.
    Man is the only creation that can and does go against his DNA/Instinct/Biology based on his beliefs. The only creation that has the freedom to be a moral agent and make a moral choice going against even his instinct.
    No other creation is capable of moral agency and they are complete slaves of their instinct/DNA, Biology.
    “The Cognitive Revolution is accordingly the point when history declared its independence from biology. Until the Cognitive Revolution, the doings of all human species belonged to the realm of biology”, Noah Harahari
    Goes without saying that the doings of all species other than humans continue to belong to the realm of biology alone.
    By Naseer Ahmed - 9/7/2019 3:03:52 AM

  • Has GM sb answered the questions? No, he has not because biology has only conjectures but not the answers. He is a firm believer in Science and disbeliever in the Quran which is why he is happy with unproven and unsound conjectures and theories but not with what the Quran says. He has not explained why only some apes evolved into human beings and others didn't. If change is continuous and slow, we should still find humans who are half ape and humans incapable of learning the human language. This is not the case. Have the biologists identified any species which is in an in-between stage of evolution? It hasn't because all change in nature is in quantum leaps. It is never continuous. These quantums can be small or large. For example, a small change in the DNA resulted in a new species of the genus Homo viz the Homo Erectus. The distinguishing feature of this species was ability to make stone tools and use them. They remained unchanged for 2 million years or for their entire existence. They were both enabled and limited by their DNA. Certainly, the change in the DNA that caused the “Cognitive Revolution” was a much bigger change. Why then the post Cognitive Revolution humans are not a new species?
    There is rapid development in Science and Technology during the last 100 years. This has nothing to do with the DNA changing during the last 100 years but from cumulative learning using the Cognitive skills endowed to Adam and his progeny. The rate of development has been non-uniform during the last 70,000 years but unrelated to change in the DNA.
    There are three verses that speak about transforming rebellious people into apes/swine. I challenge GM sb to prove that these are allegorical or figurative. He will not even attempt it. He thinks that simply by calling the verses allegorical, they become allegorical and requires no proof.
    It is GM sb's arguments that are asinine and stupid. He blindly believes even the conjectures of Science and disbelieves the Quran even when what the Quran says makes complete sense. Science has not proved even one verse of the Quran to be incorrect while the discoveries of Science have progressively brought Science in agreement with what the Quran has said.
    By Naseer Ahmed - 9/7/2019 2:27:24 AM

  • Naseer sb. says, "The Cognitive Revolution happened 70,000 years ago while the Sapiens were there 200,000 years ago."

    It is asinine to try to find a point at which cognitive revolution occurred. Evidence of rapid cognitive development is found for 40,000 years, i.e. from 70,000 to 30,000 years ago.  Less rapid Cognitive development  occured even earlier. Your attempt to identify "cognitive revolution" as a signal event heralding the birth of Adam and Eve is stupid. Your attempt to reconcile evolutionary theories with the Adam and Eve story is naïve and ignorant.

    I did say that  animal behavior is no more DNA-controlled than human behavior. Do I have to keep repeating it?  Cognitive revolution itself is the eventual result of multiple DNA mutations.

    The three questions that Naseer sb. asks me are as senseless as all his other arguments.

    (1) The evolutionary theory provides a rational theory to explain the origin of species but I never called it "the literal truth". The Quran gives an allegorical narration. If that satisfies you as a complete answer, so be it, but your trying to find support in science is devious and dishonest.

    (2) Turning Jews into apes and swine as a punishment is again an allegorical story and cannot be juxtaposed with scientific study of evolution.

    (3) Man has made many more species extinct than you think. It is not just other members of the homo family.

    All your arguments have been shown to be thoughtless and idiotic and yet you continue to persist with them. You cannot prevail by just repeating hollow and invalid points.

    By Ghulam Mohiyuddin - 9/5/2019 1:17:19 PM

  • GM sb makes another factually incorrect statement. He says “And, by the way, there is no such thing  as "pre-cognitive revolution Homo Sapiens”
    The Cognitive Revolution happened 70,000 years ago while the Sapiens were there 200,000 years ago. So there was a pre-Cognitive revolution population of Homo Sapiens.
    Earlier, he also said:  His thesis that animal behavior is more DNA-controlled than human behavior is absolutely without any merit.” He doesn’t say that anymore. Glad to have educated him.
    He has also dropped many of his other straw man arguments.
    I have already explained why the argument about inter-breeding is irrelevant to the article.
    Can he give straight answers to the following questions?
    1.     Why do you take the theory of Evolution which conjectures without conclusive proof that some apes turned into humans as the literal truth but not vice versa although the Quran says so categorically in three different verses?
    2.     Is it not more credible to believe that some humans were turned into apes and swine and then multiplied their kind rather than believe that a few apes mutated into humans and multiplied their kind while the remaining apes failed to evolve? What explains this failure of the remaining apes to evolve? And what caused this flow of genes from ape to human but not the reverse flow from human to ape?
    3.     How do you explain that while apes are not extinct, all other species of the genus Homo are extinct? Is it not because the apes were never considered as competition but other species of the genus Homo were considered as competition and therefore wiped out? If we had evolved from apes, the evolved species would have done the same thing to the unevolved but at no point has man considered ape as enemy to be wiped out. The existence of apes and the extinction of other species of the genus Homo and our hostility to our own kind belies the theory of evolution from apes. If we had evolved from apes, this fact would be stored in our genetic memory making us either extremely compassionate towards apes or extremely hostile. Neither is the case.
    So what makes you believe in mere theory without conclusive proof and reject categorical and Muhkamat verses from the Quran? The answer is the fact that you are an atheist and you simply do not believe in the Quran. Your disbelief combined with your hypocrisy makes you argue in devious ways. Your first attack is to say that the other person is being literal. When that fails, the second attack is that the other person is not being critical. So, according to you, one must take all verses of the Quran only figuratively and when that is not possible, reject them based on critical analysis. You are not a truth seeker either and you support many lies.
    By Naseer Ahmed - 9/5/2019 12:51:24 AM

  • " It has only proof of genetic mutations but without proof that such mutations result in a new species."

    ah! what a gem of a statement from mr naseer ahmed. there seem to be no limits to his wisdom and knowledge of molecular biology. all hail the IITs!

    By hats off! - 9/4/2019 6:41:20 PM

  • Naseer sb. says, " that Allah created Adam and his wife and they are a species different from even the 'pre-cognitive revolution” Homo sapiens."
    If so why  has Naseer sb. been trying to find support for his theory in scientific writings such as the book by Harari? And, by the way, there is no such thing  as "pre-cognitive revolution Homo Sapiens". This is an invention of yours and it is total rubbish. Talking about a "genetic gulf" between Adam and "pre-cognitive revolution Homo Sapiens" is as unscientific as one can get. I am sure both evolutionists and creationists would laugh at your ideas.
    Some genes are common to Homo Sapiens and the baboons. But finding genes that are distinctly Neanderthal genes in Homo Sapiens is not the same thing at all.  By the way, inter-breeding between a horse and a donkey cannot be compared to interbreeding between two closely related homo species.
    You say, "Biology has no explanation for what caused the “Cognitive Revolution mutation". Actually the cognitive revolution mutation is no different from any other mutations. Milllions of mutations took place before the great apes and the Homo Sapiens emerged including the cognitive revolution mutation. To find out why these mutations take place you have to go back to the basics of Darwinism, i.e. survival of the fittest and natural selection.
    You said, "The Quran is in conformity with all that Science has proved". Such unsupportable and ridiculous statements have become your speciality. What makes you lie and make false claims like that? Neither Islam nor science needs such unthinking and dishonest supporters.

    By Ghulam Mohiyuddin - 9/4/2019 2:38:05 PM

  • GM sb indulges in some more straw man arguments. I did not say that the Quran speaks of evolution of species. On the contrary, what I have said is that Allah created Adam and his wife and they are a species different from even the 'pre-cognitive revolution” Homo sapiens. If this was not a new species, we would still find children born without the genes that caused the “Cognitive Revolution” or children incapable of learning the human language. This is not the case. The genetic gulf between Adam and his progeny and all other previous species of the genus Homo is as wide as that between any two species.
    How do you infer inter-breeding if not from finding common genes? Humans share more than 90 percent of their DNA with baboons. So why should they not share genes with other species of the genus Homo?
    Is it not striking that the Quran should speak of turning a few rebellious persons to apes and pigs and not to any other animal and these two animals resemble us genetically the closest? In this is a Sign of the correctness of the Quranic Ayat which GM sb rejects. Why is it that he can believe that we evolved from apes without proof and reject the Quran which says some people were turned into apes?

    Biology has no explanation for what caused the “Cognitive Revolution mutation” and indeed no explanation of how a new species comes about. It has only proof of genetic mutations but without proof that such mutations result in a new species. The existence of different species and their relatedness with every other biological form does not constitute proof of the theory of evolution. It only constitutes proof of common building blocks of all living organisms which the Quran affirms.
    The Irrelevant argument of interbreeding
    Inter breeding between species does take place and also produce progeny that is more likely to be sterile rather than fertile. Inter breeding is conjectured based on finding between 1% to 4% common genomes with the other species and recent research findings also indicate that this was gene flow from humans to the other species and not the other way round. Let us consider for arguments sake that inter breeding took place freely between the species with two way genome flow producing fertile offspring although this hypothetical scenario is far from the truth. However, even if this is true, what is also true is that only the progeny that inherited the DNA that caused the Cognitive Revolution has survived and the rest become extinct. The argument of inter breeding does not prove or disprove anything and is irrelevant to our discussion.
    The Quran is in conformity with all that Science has proved. The theory of evolution is only a theory without conclusive proof.

    By Naseer Ahmed - 9/4/2019 3:19:58 AM

  • Naseer sb. says, "The proof is that we have genes in common with the other species." 
    That is rubbish. The studies that I referred to clearly concluded that some inbreeding occurred between the Neanderthals and Homo Sapiens. How much more clear can I make it for you? And if modern day humans are carrying some Neanderthal DNA, it means that the children of such inbreeding did procreate.
    When Naseer sb. says that he literally believes that God had actually turned Jews into pigs and apes, he takes literalism to ridiculous heights!
    Naseer sb. pretends that the Quran validates genetic mutation and evolution. This is false. The Quran does not give even a hint that man and the great apes evolved from a common ancestor. Trying to find common ground between  the Quran and science on this matter is fraudulent as well as stupid. 
    It is enough for us to understand that Quran's allegorical depiction of the birth of man serves well its theme  of explaining the purpose of life and the relationship between man and God. But God also created a separate branch of knowledge called science and left it to man to explore and discover God's secrets.
    Naseer sb., you are not well grounded either in science or in scriptures and you must stop spreading your lies and inventions that do not serve well either science or the scriptures.

    By Ghulam Mohiyuddin - 9/3/2019 11:42:49 AM

  • Another straw man argument from GM sb. He says: "So some inbreeding did occur between Neanderthals and Homo Sapiens"

     What is the proof? The proof is that we have genes in common with the other species. We also have genes in common with the pig. I believe that if we succeed in transplanting organs from animals to humans, it is most likely to be from the pig. The Quran forbids eating pork without giving a reason.  The Ulema merely speculate on the reasons without any basis for such speculation in the Quran. The reason most likely is the genetic closeness which makes it a form of cannibalism and therefore unhealthy. The Quran does say that Allah turned some rebellious people into apes and pigs as a punishment and as a lesson to the rest. As per the Quran, some humans have been turned into apes and pigs but not vice versa.

     This is not to say that inter species breeding does not take place. My previous comment itself speaks on inter species breeding. Inter species breeding however does not convert the donkeys to horses but produce sterile mules.

     Genetic mutations to cope with our changing environment and creation are both facts. The Quran also talks about Noah who preached for 950 years and so must have lived a thousand years. So, if genetic engineering can extend our lives, such modified genes are within the range of possibility for our species. The Quran also talks of people much stronger than the people of the 7thcentury who built cities hewn from rock.

    For a person well-grounded in both the sciences and in the Scriptures, it is easy to see where Science and the Scriptures converge but such a person is a rarity. The Ulema do not understand Science nor trust it and those who pursue Science only pay lip service to the Quran and do not believe in it as the word of God and therefore the literal truth.

     Let Science disprove just one verse from the Quran and then I will also treat it with the same disdain as GM sb does and categorize it as a 7th Century anachronism irrelevant to us in the 21st century as he does.

    By Naseer Ahmed - 9/3/2019 12:47:03 AM

  • Naseer sb. persists in advancing phony and self-deceptive arguments. He says, "Scriptures provide a perfect explanation for the “Cognitive Revolution” while biology has no explanation whatsoever." Is Naseer sb. trying to deceive us, or deceive himself, or both?  He considers simple self-assertions to be "explanations".
    When Harari says, "The Cognitive Revolution is the point when history declared its independence from biology”,  he is just paraphrasing what I had quoted him as saying before,  ""Homo Sapiens long preferred to view itself as set apart from animals. . . . But that is just not the case."
    You said, "just as every species has its own distinctive DNA, so it is with Adam and his progeny." The question has never been about a distinctive DNA. It has been about a radically different DNA, a "miracle" DNA. When you say, "Members of one (hono) species may mate with a member of another species but not produce any offspring or only sterile offspring," it seems you are not aware of several recent studies which show that 20 percent of Neanderthal DNA survived in modern humans, notably expressed in the skin, hair and diseases of modern people. 
    So some inbreeding did occur between Neanderthals and Homo Sapiens.
    Your making assertive pseudo-scientific claims based on allegorical accounts is reprehensible. Your using such claims to call others atheists is doubly more reprehensible.

    By Ghulam Mohiyuddin - 9/2/2019 12:39:51 PM


    Unless we are as blindly dogmatic as the atheists in rejecting the Scriptures, there is no reason NOT to accept the perfect explanation provided by the scriptures.

    By Naseer Ahmed - 9/2/2019 12:50:50 AM

  • It is GM sb who is trying to wriggle out of his nonsensical straw man arguments. I have clearly said that Harari is an atheist who does not believe in creation and therefore dogmatically ignores the Scriptures although the Scriptures provide a perfect explanation for the “Cognitive Revolution” while biology has no explanation whatsoever. 

     GM sb says :  His thesis that animal behavior is more DNA-controlled than human behavior is absolutely without any merit.

     To quote Harahari The Cognitive Revolution is the point when history declared its independence from biology 

     Since the Cognitive Revolution took place only some 70,000 years ago as a result of genetic mutation, and this happened with only one species of the genus Homo, the behaviour of all other species continues to be totally dependent on their DNA and only the modern mans behaviour is both dependent and independent from his instinct/DNA/biology. It is not instinct alone that enables, restrict and shape mans behaviour but also his religion/culture and beliefs.

     What is common between Human beings and other species?

    Human beings have not become exempt from biological laws.  Our societies are built from the same building blocks as every other living organism. To quote from the Quran, Allah has created every living organism from water and elements found in the earth.  Adam was created from the same elements as every other organism. However, just as every species has its own distinctive DNA, so it is with Adam and his progeny.

     What puts the modern Human being in a category of its own?

     The fact that the genetic mutation causing the Cognitive Revolution happened only with this species is what puts modern human beings in a category of its own.

    The argument of Creation vs Evolution

    The four species of the genus Homo are:

    Homo Rudolfensis (East Africa);

    Homo Erectus (East Asia);

     Homo Neanderthal  (Europe and western Asia).

    Homo Sapiens.

    Members of one species may mate with a member of another species but not produce any offspring or only sterile offspring. For example a horse may be mated with a donkey to produce a mule which is sterile.

    Harari argues that the modern man is from the species Homo Sapiens and an unexplained genetic mutation caused the Cognitive Revolution. How does this work? So, there is a pre cognitive revolution population of Homo Sapiens and all of a sudden the mutation occurs in all members of the species?  Or is one random offspring born with this mutation? And if so, how is the mutation propagated?  The obvious answer is through procreation. Is this new mutant genetically not more different from other non-mutated Homo Sapiens than a Homo Sapien is from Homo Erectus for eaxmple? The obvious answer is yes which means the new mutant is a new species. If it is not a new species, then it can procreate with other members of the Homo Sapiens and produce offspring with non-mutated genes. This means that we should still have Homo Sapiens with non-mutated genes or people who are unable to learn the human language. This is not the case and every child born has the capacity to learn any of the worlds languages.

    As far as our genes are concerned, we share something in common with every other species and therefore with every species of the genus homo as well.

    Whether we take the argument of evolution or the argument of creation, the modern man is a species distinct from Homo Sapiens which existed for thousands of years before the Cognitive Revolution. If this was not so, we should still find babies being born without the capacity to learn the human language.

    Biology really has no answers to the fundamental questions and it is through blind dogmatism alone that they maintain the façade that the theory of evolution has all the answers. It does not.  Unless we are as blindly dogmatic as the atheists in rejecting the Scriptures, there is no reason to accept the perfect explanation provided by the scriptures.

    By Naseer Ahmed - 9/2/2019 12:42:51 AM

  • Naseer sb. is trying to wiggle out from what he has said several times before. Even now he says, "Quran speaks of a creation of a new human species with cognitive powers so superior that even the Angels are asked to prostrate before this creation." Yes, the Quran does say that, but Naseer sb. had tried to find scientific support for that belief by quoting Harari. He now completely leaves Harari out and repeats the Quranic positions. He then says, "Biologists are also filled with wonder with the genetic mutation that all of a sudden, without anything to explain it, caused the "Cognitive Revolution"." This is how Naseer sb. lies. He is trying to falsely invent scientific support for allegoric verses.

    He should stop his deceptions when talking about Quranic verses which should be discussed honestly and without false embellishments.  You do not enhance the veracity of the Quran with your lies and trickery.

    By Ghulam Mohiyuddin - 9/1/2019 12:13:11 PM

  • GM sb continues with his straw man arguments against what I never said or implied because he has no argument against what I actually said. 
    Every creation is limited by biology or its DNA. The religion of Allah revealed to Muhammad (pbuh) after a long transformative process brought about through 124000 prophets over a period of 70,000 years, is the final perfected and complete religion in accordance with the full potential of this species. The Message of the Quran is therefore eternally and universally valid.

    It does not matter whether the verses in the Quran about the creation of man are allegorical or a simple statement of fact. The point is that the Quran speaks of a creation of a new human species with cognitive powers so superior that even the Angels are asked to prostrate before this creation.

    It also speaks of pre-historic existence of species belonging to the same genus homo which is the reference point for the angels who are aghast at another similar creation.

     The Quran also contains clear verses of pre-historic humans whose existence is not even worthy of mention.

     Biologists are also filled with wonder with the genetic mutation that all of a sudden, without anything to explain it, caused the "Cognitive Revolution".

     For those who believe in the Quran as the literal word of God, making the connection is easy. It is understandable that for those who are congenitally opposed to the Quran and reject it as the literal word of God, this discussion will cause them extreme cognitive dissonance. How they resolve this cognitive dissonance depends upon their integrity. They can correct their views about the Quran or continue to delude themselves with straw man arguments.

    By Naseer Ahmed - 9/1/2019 12:18:33 AM

  • Poor Naseer sb. is quoting Harari against himself! Harari clearly says, "Biology sets the basic parameters for the behaviour and capacities of post Cognitive Revolution humans. The whole of history takes place within the bounds of this biological arena." Nowhere does he say that the cognitive revolution was qualitatively different from the rest of the gamut of adaptive processes. He emphasizes the biological nature of the cognitive revolution. In what way does it support your argument  that the progeny of Adam were special or distinct from the rest of the big ape family? As I quoted him before, he clearly said, "Homo Sapiens long preferred to view itself as set apart from animals. . . . But that is just not the case."
    Are you trying to fool us with quotations that do not support your article and that assertively show you to be in error?
    When you claim, "I show where what the Quran says meets with what the evidence from Science confirms," you are telling a distinct lie. You have not shown that at all. In fact you are only making a fool of yourself with your specious arguments.

    By Ghulam Mohiyuddin - 8/31/2019 11:21:48 AM

  • In this article and my previous articles listed below, I show where what the Quran says meets with what the evidence from Science confirms. The Scientists, given as they are to a dogmatic rejection of the Scriptures as a source of knowledge fail to acknowledge this truth.18:29 Say, "The truth is from your Lord": Let him who will believe, and let him who will, reject (it) 
    (68:15) When to him are rehearsed Our Ayat, "Tales of the ancients", he cries!
    (23:66) "My Ayat used to be recited to you, but ye used to turn back on your heels-
    (67) "In arrogance: talking nonsense about the (Qur´an), like one telling fables by night."

    By Naseer Ahmed - 8/30/2019 11:16:18 PM

  •  An example of the DNA determining and limiting range of behaviour from Noah Harari’s book

    Two million years ago, genetic mutations resulted in the appearance of a new human species called Homo erectus.

    Its emergence was accompanied by the development of a new stone tool technology, now recognised as a defining feature of this species. As long as Homo erectus did not undergo further genetic alterations, its stone tools remained roughly the same for close to 2 million years!

    Noah Harari summarizes as follows:

    To summarise the relationship between biology and history after the Cognitive Revolution:

    a. Biology sets the basic parameters for the behaviour and capacities of post Cognitive Revolution humans. The whole of history takes place within the bounds of this biological arena.

    b. However, this arena is extraordinarily large, allowing post Cognitive Revolution humans to play an astounding variety of games. Thanks to their ability to invent fiction, post Cognitive Revolution humans create more and more complex games, which each generation develops and elaborates even further.

    Poor GM sb! He persists with his nonsensical straw man arguments as always. 

    By Naseer Ahmed - 8/30/2019 10:55:43 PM

  • Nasser Shab and as useual, my Islam is best and on,y universal.
    Arrogance and shamelessness go together,
    Abhrahmic relgiin tending  to say their religion suprior or universal is full of arrogance and hatred towards other religion and belife
    By Aayina - 8/30/2019 10:37:58 PM

  • Shahin Sb,
    You make an excellent point.
    Those are what I call transactional verses from which the underlying principles can be derived as I have shown in my article:

    By Naseer Ahmed - 8/30/2019 10:33:37 PM

  • The so-called "strawman" is a real man and his name is Naseer sb.! His theory of DNA as a "limiting" agent is his own invention. His thesis that animal behavior is more DNA-controlled than human behavior is absolutely without any merit. Animals learn and enhance their survival skills during their life-time as much as humans do. If man made great strides in the cognitive sphere, the tiger and the snake made great strides in other spheres. Survivability is the ultimate test of adaptive behavior. By that standard, cockroaches are said to be more likely than humans to survive a disaster such as the one that was faced by the dinosaurs or a disaster such as a nuclear war.

    When you say "biology is unable to explain what caused this genetic mutation," you are again interposing your own bias as if it were a generally accepted fact. You cannot juxtapose scientific theories with faith-based theories. You are not doing the Quran any favors with your hare-brained arguments. Both  scientific and  allegorical discourses have their value. Trying to reconcile them is not only silly. It is unnecessary.

    By Ghulam Mohiyuddin - 8/30/2019 12:04:18 PM

  • Dear Naseer Saheb, your interpretation of Quranic verse 5: 3 (“This day I have perfected for you your religion and completed My favour upon you and have approved for you Islam as religion), is that "what is found in the previous scriptures but not in the Quran is abrogated."

    However, it seems to me that the verse 41:43. (nothing is said to you that was not said to the apostles before you), should mean that only those exhortations in the Quran that are also found in previous scriptures (Vedas, Upanishads, Yoga Vasishta, Gita, Buddhavacana, the Tripitaka, the Sutras, Old and New Testaments, etc)  are of universal and eternal relevance. The rest are of contextual nature and were revealed to guide the Prophet and his companions in issues of the moment and hence cannot be applicable to Muslims today. 

    By Sultan Shahin - 8/30/2019 10:26:37 AM

  • GM sb persists with his straw man arguments which have nothing to do with what I said.
    The fact is that every species is limited by its DNA including modern man. While every other creation is more severely limited, modern man starting with the "Cognitive Revolution" is less of a slave of its DNA/instinct on account of its enormous capacity for learning.  Cognition is the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses and the modern man’s vast superiority in cognitive skills is what makes them different from every other species. This does not mean or imply that modern man is biologically unrelated to other species.
    While biology is unable to explain what caused this genetic mutation and consequent Cognitive Revolution attributing it to pure chance, the Quran has a straight answer about the creation of Adam and investing this creation with vast cognitive skills.
    A person who believes in Science but not in the Quran, will continue to say that the question ‘what caused the Cognitive Revolution’ remains an unsolved and unexplained mystery. For a person who believes in both Science and the Quran, there is no mystery and the question is answered very well by the Quran.
    GM sb’s problem is that he does not believe in the Quran and rejects the story of the creation of Adam but being a hypocrite, will not admit it.
    By Naseer Ahmed - 8/30/2019 3:19:08 AM

  • Hats Off is talking rubbish! Animals do not make religious sacrifices because they do not have religions. They kill other animals for food and hence have no ethical advantage over man. He tries to further confuse the issue by cavalierly comparing complex human interactions with simple animal actions and even bringing up CAIR in this argument. Why does he have to make an idiot of himself when he has nothing to say?

    By Ghulam Mohiyuddin - 8/29/2019 1:46:23 PM

  • Now Naseer sb. is denying saying what he said several times in the article. For example, he said, "Significant changes in social behaviour among all other species except modern humans are possible only with genetic mutations." That is not like saying the horse is different from a donkey. He is actually saying that man is distinctly different from all other species. He even misquotes Harari, who clearly said, ""Homo Sapiens long preferred to view itself as set apart from animals. . . . But that is just not the case. Like it or not, we are members of a large and particularly noisy family called the great apes."

    Naseer sb. does not answer why he had misquoted Harari. And why is he using deceptive means to find scientific support for scriptural assertions? He comes up with more quotations from the Quran which we all already know. But in the article he had falsely tried to marshal scientific evolutionist arguments in support of his creationist theories. He offers no apologies for trying to hoodwink us.

    By Ghulam Mohiyuddin - 8/29/2019 1:35:41 PM

  • no animal sacrifices other animals to pacify some blood thirsty god of theirs. they just hunt for food and fight for mates. by the way rapes are very rare among animals.
    humans also hunt for food, and fight for mates and by the way, among many of the humans, rape is a pass time.
    in the process religiously minded people (who do both) will mindlessly sacrifice a third party in homage to their hallucinating role model.
    this level of depravity is rarely seen in animals.
    but maybe in mr. ghulam mohiyuddins dystopia killing is saving, unscrupulous is noble. just like CAIR.

    By hats off! - 8/29/2019 9:21:03 AM

  • GM sb’s comment is a straw man argument. He is attacking what I have never said. When I say that Adam and his progeny is a species distinct from other species, it is not different from saying that the horse is a species distinct from the donkey and every other species. Both statements are true. The horse and the donkey do share a common ancestor and likewise Adam and his progeny are also from the genus homo of which the other species are  Homo Rudolfensis, Homo Erectus or the Homo Neanderthals. This is the reason why when Allah decided to create a new species of the genus homo, the Angels were aghast and said:


    Quran (2:30) Behold, thy Lord said to the angels: "I will create a vicegerent on earth." They said: "Wilt Thou place therein one who will make mischief therein and shed blood?- whilst we do celebrate Thy praises and glorify Thy holy (name)?" He said: "I know what ye know not."

    The verse cited indicates that human beings given to mischief and bloodshed already existed and therefore the Angels wondered what Allah meant by a new creation of the same genus Homo. However, this creation is different in their cognitive ability which is why Allah says:

    (2:31) And He taught Adam the names of all things; then He placed them before the angels, and said: "Tell me the names of these if ye are right." (32) They said: "Glory to Thee, of knowledge We have none, save what Thou Hast taught us: In truth it is Thou Who art perfect in knowledge and wisdom." (33) He said: "O Adam! Tell them their names." When he had told them, Allah said: "Did I not tell you that I know the secrets of heaven and earth, and I know what ye reveal and what ye conceal?" (34) And behold, We said to the angels: "Bow down to Adam" and they bowed down. Not so Iblis: he refused and was haughty: He was of those who reject Faith.

    From evolutionary biology we learn that from an animal of no significance, a cognitive revolution that began about 70,000 years ago, transformed man who started to form elaborate structures called cultures based on common values given by religion. The biologists are not sure what caused the revolutionary new ways of thinking and communicating which constitute what may be called the Cognitive Revolution. They conjecture that accidental genetic mutations which Yuval Noah Harari, a historian, philosopher and an atheist,  calls “the Tree of Knowledge mutation”, changed the inner wiring of the brains of the modern man, enabling them to think in unprecedented ways, and to communicate using an altogether new type of language.  Note that the verse about Adam’s unique creation metaphorically describes “the Tree of Knowledge mutation” which makes Adam superior to the Angels in knowledge about the world. Another verse that metaphorically describes genetic coding that makes us instinctively believe in Allah is as follows:

    (7:172) When thy Lord drew forth from the Children of Adam - from their loins - their descendants, and made them testify concerning themselves, (saying): "Am I not your Lord (who cherishes and sustains you)?"- They said: "Yea! We do testify!" (This), lest ye should say on the Day of Judgment: "Of this we were never mindful":

     Why did this mutation not occur in the other species of humans such as the Neanderthals? The biologists think this was pure chance but consider that it is more important to understand the consequences of the Tree of Knowledge mutation than its causes. From the Scriptures, we know that it was not chance, but a new creation as described in the Quran with cognitive abilities that astounded the Angels. The biologists connect our species to the species Homo sapiens which appeared some 150,000 years ago, because we are more like the Homo sapiens than the other species of humans. The fact may well be that we are very much different from what existed before the Cognitive Revolution. The biologists, not being believers in creation, conjecture that it was a chance mutation in an existing species.

    Adam's creation is described as follows:

     (15:29) "When I have fashioned him (in due proportion) and breathed into him of My Rūḥī, fall ye down in obeisance unto him."

    The ruh of Allah is Allah’s inspiration with which He inspires man. In the case of creation of Adam, it was both inspiration and genetic coding with cognitive abilities hitherto not given to any other creation – not even to previous species of humans such as the Homo rudolfensis, Homo erectus or the Homo neanderthalensis which is why Allah says:

    (3:33) Allah did choose Adam and Noah, the family of Abraham, and the family of ´Imran above all people,-       

    Why would Allah say He chose Adam above all people unless there were other human species? Also consider:

    (17:70) We have honoured the sons of Adam; provided them with transport on land and sea; given them for sustenance things good and pure; and conferred on them special favours, above a great part of our creation.

    (19:58) Those were some of the prophets on whom Allah did bestow His Grace,- of the posterity of Adam, and of those who We carried (in the Ark) with Noah, and of the posterity of Abraham and Israel of those whom We guided and chose. Whenever the Signs of (Allah) Most Gracious were rehearsed to them, they would fall down in prostrate adoration and in tears.

    (4:1) O mankind! reverence your Guardian-Lord, who created you from a single person, created, of like nature, His mate, and from them twain scattered (like seeds) countless men and women;- reverence Allah, through whom ye demand your mutual (rights), and (reverence) the wombs (That bore you): for Allah ever watches over you.

    Allah honored Adam and his progeny over the progenitors and progeny of every other species including other humans. The function of Allah’s Ruh is described in my article:

    Islam and Mysticism: Is ‘Ruh’ Soul? (Part 2)

    By Naseer Ahmed - 8/29/2019 12:46:30 AM

  • Hats Off,
    The pro-social behaviour of animals is hard-wired. If you take the entire population of any species such as say chimpanzees, and plot any aspect of their behaviour, the variation from the mean will be very small. They have limited freedom to deviate from the behaviour dictated by their DNA or instinct.
    In contrast, the variance of human behaviour from the mean is as large as you can possibly imagine because it is determined by beliefs held and emotions such as greed, fear, anger, pride and envy and not so much by instinct. This is why correct beliefs are important to overcome base emotions and the reason why humans are capable of both extreme good and extreme evil and the reason why they need divine guidance to behave as “moral agents” for promoting what is good and wholesome for all.
    By Naseer Ahmed - 8/29/2019 12:42:58 AM

  • Hats Off says, "many animals demonstrate a better sense of ethics than most of the religiously minded people."
    That is an idiotic comment. All that we can say is that many animal species do show rudimentary ethicality.
    By Ghulam Mohiyuddin - 8/28/2019 10:49:57 PM

  • crows, elephants and many other animals use "tools".
    experiments have demostrated that animals make ethical choices too.
    interestingly, it is only humans that deliberately kill and maim other humans as well as other animals. animals do not rape. humans do. so this allah-gave-us morals is nothing but imagination overtaking religious indoctrination.
    like the eid blood orgy.
    many animals demonstrate a better sense of ethics than most of the religiously minded people.
    as usual another wildly pseudo scientific article.

    By hats off! - 8/28/2019 5:58:07 PM

  • Naseer sb. says, "What Noah Harari calls “the Cognitive Revolution “occurred 70,000 years ago with the creation of Adam. This creation is so different from any other species that it can be considered a new species."
    This is false. Harari never called Homo Sapiens "a new species", or even a radically different species. Here is what Harari said: 
    "Homo Sapiens long preferred to view itself as set apart from animals. . . . But that is just not the case. Like it or not, we are members of a large and particularly noisy family called the great apes. Our closest living relatives include chimpanzees, gorillas and orang-utans."
    Thus Naseer sb. pretends to  quote a  well respected author when he is only misquoting him in order to support his silly theories.
    And he again derogates the holy books of   Jews and Christians when he says, "what is found in the previous scriptures but not in the Quran is abrogated." The Quran says no such thing. Naseer sb. must stop deriving the wrong and self-serving meaning from our Holy Book.

    By Ghulam Mohiyuddin - 8/28/2019 11:37:00 AM