رہی بات حنفی ، شافعی ، مالکی اور حنبلی ائمہ کرام کے
جہاد پر مبنی اقوال کی تو سیدھی بات یہ ہے کہ ان اقوال کو سمجھنے کے لیے ان کے اصول کو سمجھنا از حد ضروری ہے ۔ قتال وجہاد کی تعلیمات تو
قرآن وسنت میں بھی ملتی ہے تو کیا آپ قرآن جو کلام اللہ ہے اس پر کریٹیسائز کرنے کی جرات رکھتے ہیں ۔کوئی
مومن ایسا نہیں کرے گا۔بلکہ قرآن وسنت کی صحیح معرفت رکھنے والا ان آیات واحادیث
پر نظر کرے گا ، ان کے علل واسباب پر غور کرے گا، شرائط وتوجیہات اور جزئیات پر
نظر کرتے ہوئے ان کے مقاصد کو سمجھے گا پھر انہیں اپنے اپنے زمانے کے حالات کے
تقاضوں کے تحت پرکھے گا اور عین اسی کے مطابق فیصلہ کرے گا جو اس کے زمانے کے لیے
بہتر ہو۔ جہلا ء بالخصوص چند وہابیہ اور
دیابنہ اور بعض دیگر یہ نہیں سمجھتے کہ
قرآن وسنت کی تعلیمات ہر زمانے کے لیے ایک معجزہ ہے کہ ہر زمانے کی مصالحت
وضروریات اور بہتری کا خیال رکھتی ہے ۔
حنفی اصول کی روشنی میں ہی حنفی اقوال کو سمجھا جا
سکتا ہے ۔جن ائمہ نے اپنے زمانے کے احوال وحوادث پر نظر کرتے ہوئے جہاد وقتال کا
فتوی دیا یہ ان کے احوال وحوادث کے پیش نظر تو درست ہو سکتا ہے مگر آج کے اس
ماحول میں نظر اور غور وفکر کی گنجائش
رکھتا ہے ۔ اور یہ بات انہی حنفی اصول سے ماخوذ ہے ۔ ان ہی ائمہ کے اصول پر نظر کرنے سے معلوم ہوتا ہے کہ اگر وہ آج کے
زمانے میں ہوتے تو وہ بھی داعش جہادی تنظیموں کے خلاف فتوی دیتے ۔۔حیرت ہوتی ہے جب
قرآن کا دفاع غیر قرآنی انداز میں کیا جائے ۔تو کیا یہ دفاع ہے یا خود قرآنی
تعلیمات کی مخالفت ؟ لیکن یہ دفاعی مہم اس
وقت فیل ہو جاتا ہے جب ائمہ کرام کے اقوال کو پڑھتے ہیں ، اور اسے اپنے زمانے پر
منبطق کردیں اور یہ سمجھنے کی کوشش نہ کی جائے حنفی فقہ میں بدلتے زمانے کی رعات کا اصول موجود ہے۔لیکن اس کام کو انجام دینے کی اجازت ہرگز کسی کو نہیں صرف اہل نظر واجتہاد ہی یہ کام انجام دے سکتے
ہیں جنہیں ان اصولوں اور اقوال پر مکمل دسترس حاصل ہو۔ کونسا قول راجح ہے کونسا
مرجوح ، کونسا قول متروک ہے ، اس کا علم لیے بغیر صرف ان کے اقوال کو پیش کر دینا
یہ بھی درست نہیں ۔
صرف دو تین سو سال پیچھے چلے جائیں دینا کے حالات کا جائزہ لیں ، آج کے حالات کے بالکل مختلف پائیں گے ۔
باتیں بہت ہیں جنہیں خلوص اور نیک نیتی سے ہی سمجھا
سکتا ہے ۔
دیوبندی مدرسہ میں کیا پڑھایا جاتا ہے مجھے نہیں معلوم لیکن جہاں میں نے تعلیم حاصل کی ہے وہاں یہ سب بتایا جاتا ہے کہ موجودہ صورت حال میں ہرگز جہاد بالقتال کی اجازت نہیں ۔
Comment 8- on the usage of zulm in
God Almighty says,
أَظْلَمُ مِمَّن مَّنَعَ مَسَاجِدَ اللَّـهِ أَن يُذْكَرَ فِيهَا اسْمُهُ وَسَعَىٰ
فِي خَرَابِهَا ۚ أُولَـٰئِكَ مَا كَانَ لَهُمْ أَن يَدْخُلُوهَا إِلَّا خَائِفِينَ
ۚ لَهُمْ فِي الدُّنْيَا خِزْيٌ وَلَهُمْ فِي الْآخِرَةِ عَذَابٌ عَظِيمٌ ﴿١١٤﴾
“And who does greater oppression
(zulm) than the one who prevents the name of Allah being mentioned in the
mosques, and strives for their ruin? It did not befit them to enter the mosques
except in fear; for them is disgrace in this world, and a terrible punishment
in the Hereafter.” (2:114)
Many commentators try to specify the
mosques mentioned here. According to some, this points out to the Temple in
Jerusalem (the Farthest Mosque mentioned in 17:1) and the Kaabah in Makkah,
since they are named ‘mosque’ (masjid) in the Quran. Some comment that this
verse refers to when at Hudaybiyah the Makkans stopped the Prophet from
entering Makkah to pray at the Kaabah in 6H/628 and the Muslim pilgrims agreed
to go back to Madinah and return teh following year (see initial verses of
Surah 48). Tabari goes on to comment that even the idolaters never tried to
destroy the Kaabah, it must refer to the Temple. There are others who give it a
general ruling and say that it applies to anyone who prevents people from entering
any house of worship (Tafsir Qurtubi). Some say that the term ‘kharab’ (ruin)
denotes the idolaters’ action of filling Kaabah with idols and the practice of
idolatry. Some Mufassirin mention that Hazrat Abu Bakr had a small mosque in
Makkah before Muslims migrated to Madina, a mosque that was later demolished by
the Makkans (Tafsir Razi). Some Sufis find out another level of meaning, that
is very spiritual, saying that the heart is the “house” of love and knowledge of
God (the Kaabah is the House of God) and the one who demolishes it through
false desires is the one who has done Zulm.
Here we find that the Quran describes
the act of demolishing houses of worship or preventing the people from entering
mosques is an act of Zulm.
Comment 7- on the usage of Zulm in the Quran
Allah Almighty says,
فَبَدَّلَ الَّذِينَ ظَلَمُوا قَوْلًا غَيْرَ الَّذِي قِيلَ لَهُمْ فَأَنزَلْنَا عَلَى الَّذِينَ ظَلَمُوا رِجْزًا مِّنَ السَّمَاءِ بِمَا كَانُوا يَفْسُقُونَ ﴿٥٩ البقرة﴾
“But those who oppressed (did zulm) substituted a word other than which had been said to them. So We sent down a torment from Heaven upon those who oppressed (did zulm), for the recompense of their disobedience.”
This verse refers to the event of the Israelites who were commanded to say hittah (‘remove the burden’) and prostrate but rather than doing so, they said hintah (‘wheat’) and entered upon their backsides, in mockery. This is what has been referred to as an act of zulm because they, rather than saying hittah and prostrating (also see 2:58), said hintah.
Though specific for a certain event, This verse denotes that changing the divine word or command is an act of zulm which will cause torment.
Comment 4- The Day of Judgment Free
from Injustice (Zulm)
The Quran says,
الْيَوْمَ تُجْزَىٰ كُلُّ نَفْسٍ بِمَا
كَسَبَتْ لَا ظُلْمَ الْيَوْمَ ﴿١٧ غافر﴾
“This day each soul will be
recompensed for what it earned. No one will be oppressed this day; indeed Allah
is Swift At Taking Account” (40:17)
This day refers
to the Day of Judgment. Every soul will be recompensed in accord with the good
and evil it has done. The same message has been reinforced in other verses such
as 3:161, 45:22, and 74:38. No injustice (zulm) will be done that day, in that
no good deed will remain unaccounted for, and no one will be punished for
something he or she did not do.
Comment 3- Divine Forgivness for the act of
Zulm on the condition of reformation
إِلَّا مَنْ ظَلَمَ ثُمَّ بَدَّلَ حُسْنًا
بَعْدَ سُوءٍ فَإِنِّي غَفُورٌ رَحِيمٌ ﴿١١ النمل﴾
“Except the one who oppresses (does
zulm) and then after evil replaces it with virtue – then indeed I am
Oft-Forgiving, Most-Merciful.” (27:11)
Comment 2, Usage of Zulm in the Quran
قَالَ أَمَّا مَن ظَلَمَ فَسَوْفَ نُعَذِّبُهُ
ثُمَّ يُرَدُّ إِلَىٰ رَبِّهِ فَيُعَذِّبُهُ عَذَابًا نُّكْرًا ﴿٨٧ الكهف﴾
“He said, “As for one who oppresses
(does zulm); we will punish him. Then he will be returned to his Lord, and He
will punish him severely”
This verse is a divine declaration
that those who oppress (do zulm) will be subject to severe punishment. The use
of the word ‘nukra’ following ‘azab’ in the verse refers to such a severe
punishment that has no parrellel in what is known in human life.
In the next verse (18:88), it is
mentioned that the pious and true believers will receive kindly treatment,
honour and help in all their matters.
وَإِذْ قَالَ إِبْرَاهِيمُ رَبِّ أَرِنِي
كَيْفَ تُحْيِي الْمَوْتَىٰ ۖ قَالَ أَوَلَمْ تُؤْمِن ۖ قَالَ بَلَىٰ وَلَـٰكِن لِّيَطْمَئِنَّ
قَلْبِي ۖ قَالَ فَخُذْ أَرْبَعَةً مِّنَ الطَّيْرِ فَصُرْهُنَّ إِلَيْكَ ثُمَّ اجْعَلْ
عَلَىٰ كُلِّ جَبَلٍ مِّنْهُنَّ جُزْءًا ثُمَّ ادْعُهُنَّ يَأْتِينَكَ سَعْيًا ۚ وَاعْلَمْ
أَنَّ اللَّـهَ عَزِيزٌ حَكِيمٌ
“And when Abraham said, “My Lord, show
me how you give life to the dead”. He (Allah) said, “Have you not believed”? He
said, “Yes, indeed, but so that my heart may be at peace”. He said, “Take four
birds and make them be drawn to you. Then place a piece of them on every
mountain. Then call them: they will come to you in haste. And know that Allah
is Mighty, Wise” (2:260)
According to Mufassirin, When Hazrat
Abraham saw a scene on a coast where a dead body was being eaten by the sea creatures
during high tide, and by the wild animals and birds of prey when the tide was
low. This unusual sight brought in him the desire to experience the phenomenon of
life and death. Thus he made request to Allah Almighty. Hazrat Abraham said, “My Lord, show me how you
give life to the dead”. Allah Almighty said, ““take four birds and make them be
drawn to you. Then place a piece of them on every mountain. Then call them:
they will come to you in haste”. In response to this Divine instruction, Hazrat
Abraham (peace be upon him) reared a peacock, a rooster, a pigeon and a crow, slaughtered
them and cut them into mince, mixed the flesh of the four and placed the meat
on four different mountains, keeping their heads (beaks) with him. Then he
called them. By permission of Allah, all these limbs flew and joined with their
original and their bodies became ready in the air and became alive after the
beaks were joined.
From this verse, it emerges that when
the pious servants of Allah request about anything, Allah Almighty fulfils their
desire. Although faith in the unseen forms an essential part of our faith, the
faith of the prophets can be based on their actual observation.
We should also take this verse to
introspect and develop our spiritual thinking that while doing any piece of
work, we must remember, we should do it sincerely. If we are unable to repel
our negative thoughts that do not let us do such sincere works, we must
remember that God Almighty is the One who has given life to us and it is He Who
will resurrect us after death and then we will be accountable to Him for our
actions which were done whether with sincerity or hypocrisy.
I am a fool because I have wasted a great part of
time without remembering (my) Allah Almighty.
I am a fool because I have wasted my energy in
doing other than what takes me closer to Allah Almighty.
I am a fool because since I wake up and get up in
the morning, I forget to think that every work I should do to attain pleasure
of Allah Almighty, till I got to bed.
I am a fool because I easily let my ears hear everything
other than what consists of praises and glorification of Allah Almighty.
I am a fool because I respect all human beings but
I forget to remember that I am respecting human beings only for attaining the
pleasure of Allah Almighty.
GM sb, you say, “Any verses that encourage
intolerance, hate or violence are not authentic.”
I could not read your intention behind this statement.
However I would like to add my views here.
For a Muslim to have doubt in the faith of any
verses of the Quran is an act of Kufr. So the Muslims will never think of any
doubt as such. All verses of the Quran are authentic and the very first verse
reads, “There is no place for doubt” (2:1)
The verses that came down to curb oppression and persecution
were a blessing of God Almighty in favour of the oppressed people.
This is natural and usual in our days also. Our
countries train army; for what? For safety and security of the countries. All
countries have respective laws in war-tactics. They have power and everything. The
Quran spoke in favour of the oppressed people and allowed them to fight back to
defend their basic rights. They fought and they did it rightly.
What is important to note in today’s context is
that those rights of defence as enshrined in the Quran can’t be misused or
misapplied by any claimants of Islam, neither by hypocrites, nor by jihadists,
nor by anyone who is funding jihadists to get a chance to repel Islamic faith
from the hearts of the non-Jihadist believers.
أَلَمْ تَرَ إِلَى
الَّذِي حَاجَّ إِبْرَاهِيمَ فِي رَبِّهِ أَنْ آتَاهُ اللَّـهُ الْمُلْكَ إِذْ قَالَ
إِبْرَاهِيمُ رَبِّيَ الَّذِي يُحْيِي وَيُمِيتُ قَالَ أَنَا أُحْيِي وَأُمِيتُ ۖ قَالَ
إِبْرَاهِيمُ فَإِنَّ اللَّـهَ يَأْتِي بِالشَّمْسِ مِنَ الْمَشْرِقِ فَأْتِ بِهَا
مِنَ الْمَغْرِبِ فَبُهِتَ الَّذِي كَفَرَ ۗ وَاللَّـهُ لَا يَهْدِي الْقَوْمَ الظَّالِمِينَ
“Did you not see the one who argued with Abraham about
His Lord (merely) because Allah had given him kingship? When Abraham said, “My
Lord is the one who gives life and causes death”, he said, “I give life and
cause death”. Abraham said, “Indeed Allah brings up the sun from the east, so
bring it up from the west”. So the disbeliever was overwhelmed by astonishment,
and Allah does not guide the wrongdoing people.” (2:258)
This verse is about Namrud bin Kanaan who was endowed
with kingship. But instead of thanking God Almighty for that kingship, Namrud
became arrogant and began to claim for his own Lordship. When Hazrat Abraham
called him towards God Almighty, Namrud denied and said, “who is your Lord”.
Hazrat Abraham replied to him, saying, “My God is the one who gives life and
causes death”. Namrud had a chance to observe that his own life and death is in
the power of God Almighty but missed it just because of his arrogance attitude
and saving his so-called respect from falling prey to embarrassment among his
people. It was misfortune on the part of Namrud and a sign of extreme
irrationality and ignorance that he showed.
Since he was cunning, he hatched a plan. He called two
prisoners; and killed one of them and forgave other, saying “I also gives life
and cause death”. It was again a display of extreme irrationality and an answer
based on cunning. Calling two prisoners, killing one and leaving the other alive
is not what is actually meant in the verse “allazi yuhi wa yumeet الذي يحي ويميت”. God Almighty gives life to dead and takes life by capturing
Hazrat Abramah (peace be upon him) did not let Nimrud feel proud at his
question and claim of lordship, saying, it is beyond your capability to give
life and leave one alive, but o false claimant of lordship, “can you do a work
easier than that?”. Hazrat Abraham said My Lord brings up the sun from the
east; can you bring it up from the west? Nimrod was then overwhelmed by
astonishment and did not have anything to reply. But since he was insistent
upon his Kufr, God Almighty did not guide him.
Nearly the same argument as between Hazrat Abraham and Nimrod was made
later between Hazrat Moses (peace be upon him) and Pharaoh. (79:24/ 2:28)
From this verse, we should learn that one should not make reply based on
cunning way. One should be sincere and honest in one’s approach towards getting
Marifat of God and His blessings. Only the sincere people get benefit of their knowledge.
Those who are not sincere remain all their life surrounded by multiplex of
confusing and corrupt ideas. Such an attitude of these takes them to the
station where there is no rest and peace.
May God Almighty give those who are sincerely looking for guidance, Your
guidance and blessings!
Tafisr by Ghulam Ghaus Siddiqi
@Arshad sb, In my opinion, saying that every Madrasa
product is a fool falls within the acts of zulm.
Zulm in broader space of its definition qualifies for
something that denies one’s right. For that matter, one will be accountable to
Good and bad people are everywhere. You choose a
general word to label all good and bad people in one category; which my
intellectual faculty does not accept.
Once you wrote an article on your father and proudly
expressed about his relation with Abul Hasan Nadwi who too is a Madrasa
product. Why did your father have a relation with Nadwi? Can you call him the
way you have called all Madrasa products?
It is not about the issue of tolerance or intolerance
but the issue of tazkiya al-qalb that you need.
Your heart can’t succeed if it is filled with
prejudice and negative thoughts.
@Arshad sb, what is the proof of this statement, “The
term ayat as sayf is derogatory to Quran.”?
Terrorism must be refuted but not in the way bereft of
evidence acceptable to religion and rationality.
If you are honest and true you do not need to be
apologetic for proving Islam, a religion of peace.
Science has not developed to the extent of treating
cancer of prejudice. But it can be treated by Tazkiyat al-Qalb. Start doing
Mujahada against your negative thoughts, that is, do not let any negative
things capture your mind. Fill your mind with beautiful messages of the Quran
and Sunnah, not in the way of ‘easy come easy go’ but by spending hours after
hours with pure intention of receiving blessings of God Almighty. If you do
that, you will find yourself at a place where there is no place for hate and
prejudice. If you are unable to reach
this station, it means something that I would not like to share with you.