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Books and Documents

Books and Documents (23 Feb 2016 NewAgeIslam.Com)



Book Review: A Hizmet Approach to Rooting out Violent Extremism


By Ghulam Rasool Dehlvi

24 February 2016




Book Name: A Hizmet Approach to Rooting out Violent Extremism

Authors: Ozcan Keles and Ismail Mesut Sezgin,

Publisher: Centre for Hizmet Studies, London

Year: 2015

 

 

The violent extremist ideology cannot be rooted out until an effective, coherent, comprehensive and well-reasoned counter-narrative is evolved. For that, all the theological, religious, political, historical, instrumental and socio-psychological underpinnings of the global jihadism have to be counter-argued and dismantled. “A Hizmet Approach to Rooting out Violent Extremism” by Ozcan Keles and Ismail Mesut Sezgin produces a case study in this context. It provides a critical and detailed analysis of the Hizmet’s refutations of the ideological, theological and text-based rhetoric of the violent extremism, which could be aptly termed ‘radical jihadism’.

 

Based on a case study of the Hizmet’s approach to countering, rebutting and dismantling the extremists’ core underpinnings, the theoretical focus of the book is to argue and buttress the central point that the writings and teachings of the moderate Islamic scholar and Hizmet’s founder-ideologue, Mr. Fethullah Gulen have greatly inspired the movement’s multi-faceted anti-extremism initiatives.

 

The Hizmet’s Ideological Underpinnings against the Violent Extremism

  

The authors assert that the Hizmet’s arguments against the Violent Extremism mainly rely on a “robust” understanding of the spirit and teachings of Islam’s primary sources, the Qur’an and Sunna. The founder-ideologue of the Hizmet and a progressive Islamic scholar, Mr. Fathullah Gülen propounds: “A true Muslim cannot be a terrorist and a terrorist cannot be a true Muslim because they are so fundamentally and diametrically opposed to each other, not just according to the ‘letter of Islam’ but also according to the ‘heart, soul and spirit of Islam’ (Ozcan Keles and Ismail Mesut Sezgin, 2015).

 

Going by the detailed analysis of this book, the Hizmet’s ideological underpinnings against violent extremism can be summed up in the fowling five points, as put forward by Mr. Fathullah Gülen:

 

“Muslims must confront the totalitarian ideology because every terrorist act in the name of Islam profoundly affects all Muslims, alienating them from fellow citizens and deepening the misperceptions about their faith’s ethos”.

“When terrorists claim the Muslim mantle, then they bear this identity, if only nominally and members of the faith must do whatever possible to prevent this cancer from metastasizing in our communities”.

 

“Muslims must denounce violence and not fall prey to victimhood”.

“Having suffered oppression is no excuse for causing it or for failing to condemn terrorism.”

“That the terrorists are committing grave sins in the name of Islam is not merely an individual opinion; it is the inevitable conclusion of an honest reading of primary sources: the Quran and the accounts of the life of Prophet Muhammad.”

 

Hizmet’s Refutation of the Jihadist Theological Misinterpretations

 

The Hizmet’s theological refutation of violent extremist narratives has been worked out in a consistent, coherent and effective way. The first part of the book is titled: “Hizmet’s theological refutation”. According to the authors, Ozcan Keles and Ismail Mesut Sezgin, the Hizmet’s counter-extremism narrative or rhetoric is primarily based on a deep understanding of the foundational Islamic scriptures, the Qur’an and Sunnah. They state: “Hizmet’s position on violent extremism is based on a comprehensive, thorough and robust understanding and reading of the spirit and teachings of Islam’s primary sources, the Qur’an and Sunna – the same foundations on which its core teachings are based”.

 

The authors tell us that in order to promulgate his narrative of peace and counter-extremism, Gülen sought help from the popular interpretations of Badiuz Zaman Sayeed Nursi (1877–1960), an influential moderate Turkish Islamic scholar of 20th century. For instance, in his interpretation of the famous Qur’anic verse that forbids unjust killing equating it with ‘the killing of all humankind’ (Al-Ma’idah 5:32), Nursi is reported to have said:

 

“Every form of life manifests a unique combination of God’s names and attributes which we as humans were created to see and reflect upon in our spiritual journey of ‘travelling’ from the created to the Creator and arriving at a higher form of understanding and awareness of ourselves and God – that is the purpose of creation. Therefore, in addition to its inherent value, every form of life, be it human or not, is a unique species in and of itself”.

 

Based on this understanding of the Quran, Fathullah Gulen infers, as the book points out, that “people have a positive responsibility to appreciate one another and ensure the continuation of life. And, since, according to Saeed Nursi, humans are key to the purpose of creation; unjust killing is a grave injustice not just against the person killed and their loved ones, but also against the entire universe to which their existence gives meaning”.

 

Therefore, the book states, Gülen sees no difference between suicide bombs in London, Tel Aviv or Istanbul. Since the unjust killing of one person is a grave sin, it cannot be employed for any so-called Islamic objective. Here, the book also has quoted Mr. Fathullah Gülen as having said:“A true Muslim cannot be a terrorist and a terrorist cannot be a true Muslim because they are so fundamentally and diametrically opposed to each other, not just according to the ‘letter of Islam’ but also according to the ‘heart, soul and spirit of Islam”.

 

 

Dar Al-Hizmah vs. “Dar Al-Kufr” And “Dar Al-Islam” 

 

The book patently explains how Gülen offers well-considered, rethought and progressive interpretations of the Qur’anic terminologies and references such as jihad, Hakimiyah (God’s rule over the earth), Khilafah (Islamic caliphate) and Istishhad (divine martyrdom) and Al-Wala wal-Bara (love for the sake of God and hatred for Him). These are some of the Islamic doctrines that the radical Jihadists misconstrue to justify their acts of violence and extremism. Based on a canonical understanding of the primary Islamic scriptures and scriptural reasoning, Gülen’s writings and oral statements have evolved a complete and coherent literature that refutes the jihadist ideology point by point, clause by clause.

 

For instance, Gülen has redefined the medieval jurisprudential terms such as “Dar al-Kufr (abode of disbelief) and Dar al-Islam (abode of belief)” which were instrumentalised to present a dichotomous worldview of ‘us’ versus ‘them’. He strongly exhort the Hizmet volunteers to replace all such exclusivist terms with a spiritual Islamic concept “Dar al-Hizmah” (abode of service) viewing the whole world as one family of God (Ayal al-Allah) and hence he enjoins them to serve and help each other.  In a nutshell, Hizmet’s theological curriculum on peace and counter-extremism, freely accessible in the online media, is entirely based on a deepened, balanced and insightful understanding of the two foundational scriptures of Islam—the Qur’an and Hadith.

 

 

A ‘Positivist’ Counter-Narrative against Extremism

 

With regard to the Hizmet’s Approach to rooting out violent extremism and radicalisation, the authors are of the view that Gülen has developed a ‘positivist’ counter-narrative against extremist, xenophobic, intolerant, radical and violent interpretations of Islam. By counter-auguring the narratives of victimhood and conspiracy theories, Gülen has worked out a moderate narrative of understanding Islam as a peaceful, pluralistic, progressive and forward-looking faith. This is precisely what another author on a similar topic, Mr. Marthe Hesselmans has better illustrated; “The Hizmet offers an alternative take on tolerance in which a strong religious group identity is balanced with flexibility towards people, values and customs outside one's own boundaries” (“A Different Take on Tolerance? Gülen's Alternative to Islam Controversies in Germany”, by Marthe Hesselmans, Journal of the Ottoman and Turkish Studies Association, Vol. 1, (2014), pp. 149, published by: Indiana University Press).

 

Some of the most inspiring and guiding quotes of Mr. Fathullah Gulen that the book has reproduced could be interesting to go through:

 

“A person who believes in the letter and spirit of Islam is called a Mu’min (literally, ‘believer’), which stems from the Arabic roots Amn and Amanah, meaning trust, trustworthiness, peace and security – attributes that should be upheld by a true believer”.

 

         

“A believer must always follow the concept of Sirat al-Mustaqeem (the middle way), avoiding harmful extremity at every level of life including thought, feeling and even in the practice of religion”...... A Mu’min of this type is one from whom others are safe with respect to what he says and does.....the Prophet admonished those who were too extreme in their fasting and praying to the point of neglecting their homes and families”.

 

The book also reproduces many of Gulen’s talks delivered on the subject of “Islam and violent extremism”. In one of his talks, Gülenis reported to have recited a Hadith narrated by Ibn ‘Abbas, which states that faith leaves the body of a believer when he or she commits a grave sin. (Therefore) “since suicide bombers die in the state of committing their murderous acts, they may die not only while committing a great sin but also outside the fold of the religion they claim to be serving”. “Even beyond the reprehensible violence of indiscriminate killing, violent extremism and terrorism, Gülen offers a rethinking on the less clear forms of state-declared war”, the authors comment.

 

“Hizmet’s De-radicalisation by Default Praxis”

 

From the page number 17 to 27, the book has devoted a chapter to the Hizmet’s Positive counter-Narrative and what it calls “Hizmet’s Deradicalising by Default Praxis”. These pages conclude that the Hizmet is trying to defeat the violent extremist narratives head-on. By the “Hizmet’s Deradicalising by Default Praxis”, the authors meant the movement’s default approach which proactively address some of the underlying causes as they relate to ideology, mindset and inculcation. Thus, all the above-mentioned three parts are aimed at explaining the distinct and myriad facets of Hizmet’s approach to counter-extremism.

 

Conclusion

 

The book concludes that the Hizmet approach to counter-extremism and de-radicalisation does contribute to producing solutions to this growing problem. However, situations used in the book are hypothetical.A critical analysis of the Hizmet’s refutations of the extremists’ theological and ideological underpinnings clears its position that the mainstream moderate narrative of Islam, which the movement adheres to, is completely antithetical to the extremist Islamist doctrines. A holistic reading of the book proves that Hizmet’s positions on the extremists’ ideological arguments starkly contradict the mainstream spiritual narrative of Islam, which the movement claims to follow and promulgate. The book came as a part of “Thought & Practice Series” brought out by Centre for Hizmet Studies in 2015.

 

Ghulam Rasool Dehlvi, is an Alim and Fazil (Classical Islamic Scholar), English-Arabic-Urdu Writer, Translator and Doctoral Research Scholar, Centre for Culture, Media & Governance (JMI University).

URL: http://newageislam.com/books-and-documents/ghulam-rasool-dehlvi/book-review--a-hizmet-approach-to-rooting-out-violent-extremism/d/106443





TOTAL COMMENTS:-   11


  • The perfect description of a true Muslim in the essence of Islam by Mr Gulin, the book has soulfully regenerated the magic of the great scholar. “A person who believes in the letter and spirit of Islam is called a Mu’min (literally, ‘believer’), which stems from the Arabic roots Amn and Amanah, meaning trust, trustworthiness, peace and security – attributes that should be upheld by a true believer”
    By Raihan Nezami - 2/28/2016 12:29:46 AM



  • GRD sahib, thanks for remembering my old piece on Gulen.


    By Ghulam Mohiyuddin - 2/27/2016 1:26:39 PM



  • One of the frequent commentators of the NAI, Dr. Ghulam Mohiyuddin has done a fair write up on the Hizmet movement based on his solid experience:
    Turkish Islamic Imam’s Worldwide Schools And Millions Of Disciples Follow His Teachings Of Tolerance, Interfaith Dialogue, And Education


    The essence of this article is that Hizmet movement is a good movement for India's Muslims to learn from. It can broaden our horizons and enrich our minds. It is unfortunate that the corrupt Erdogan government has started a witchhunt again this movement in Turkey.

    By Ghulam Rasool Dehlvi - 2/27/2016 7:20:27 AM



  • In fact, these Mullahs of today with little knowledge such as the author of “Mujmal Ushul Ahlissunah Fil ‘Aqidah”  control the heartthrobs of the masses and through sermons and rituals. Far away from reality, distancing from the problems of the real life, by telling tall tales about rewards in the next world, they keep the masses engaged in narratives of puritanical radicalism, xenophobia and self-retarded mentality. 
    By Ghulam Rasool Dehlvi - 2/25/2016 1:43:08 PM



  • Mr. Asad, As for your blatant criticism of the Hizmet calling it akin to the Tablighi Jam’at in India, it is has no substance or saneness. The reason why I look up to the Hizmet as a moderate Muslim movement is that it has always voiced progressive values of democracy and Islam—pluralism, multiculturalism and even secularism which still remain at the loggerheads with the Radical Islamist groups including the Tablighi Jamat’s ideology of proselytisation—the most crucial part of the TJ. While the fact is that the radicals starkly abandon secularism and democracy as an Ideology of separating religion from country affairs, which is not only “an erroneous action” but also akin to kufr (infidelity) according to their view of Islam. As evidence, I reproduce the following remark by a Radical Islamist ideologue with the English translation below: 

    Dr. Nashir al ‘Aql writes in his book “Mujmal Usul Ahl al-sunnah Fil ‘Aqidah”:

     فصل السياسة أو غيرها عن الدين باطل, بل كل ما خالف الشريعة من حقيقة أو سياسة أو غيرها فهو إما كفر وإما ضلال بحسب درجته 

    English translation: “Separation of politic or other affairs from religion is indeed an erroneous action. Whatever comes against the shari’a, whether in the form of ‘core of religion’, politic, or else, might be ruled as kufr, or astray, according to it’s level (of deviation, -ed) (Mujmal Uhul Ahl assunah, pp 66, by Dr. Nashir al-‘Aql). 

    By Ghulam Rasool Dehlvi - 2/25/2016 1:36:25 PM



  • Asad saheb, 
    Since you raised this political issue over here, I felt quite impelled to seriously read up on this contemporary subject. I found, among many commentaries on this issue, a clear, logical, and cogent one by eminent Indian historian Irfan Habib, who writes in his opinion in The Hindu:

    “It is ironical indeed that the Turkish regime today is implicated in propping up a terrorist group called the Islamic State (IS), which has vowed to spread Wahhabi Islam all over the world. The present Wahhabism, legitimated and empowered by the Saudi regime, has violent, almost criminal, origins in the 19th century. If we care to look into its beginnings, we won’t be surprised at its utter contempt for human life and everything else which doesn’t conform to its own narrow/sectarian agenda. Let me explain the irony first”.

    “It was the Ottoman regime which bore the brunt of Wahhabi Islam soon after it became a force in the Central Arab region. The toxic combine of 18th century Islamic scholar Abdul Wahhab and the first monarch of Saudi Arabia Ibn Saud posed a challenge to the Ottoman rule. They also questioned the prevalent Islamic beliefs and practices. The Turks not only defended their power but also assiduously fought for the mystic Islam they had professed and supported all these years. The Ottomans fought and exiled the Wahhabis to the Arab deserts where they remained for almost a century. This Wahhabi bigotry was condemned by the Turks as criminal and unIslamic. The sad irony is that the current Turkish regime has joined the Wahhabi bandwagon, forgetting all about the Bektashis, Qadiris and other dervishes they had cherished all these centuries. The IS agenda today is merely an extension of the devious plan laid down by Abdul Wahhab almost 200 years ago”.


    By GRD - 2/25/2016 10:51:57 AM



  • Dear Asad, whether ISIS has been supported by Turkey or Erdogan regime is not the subject of this book review. What I have tried to highlight in this academic exercise is that Hizmet's founder-ideologue and his writings and thoughts have inspired the movement in its effort to counter ISIS messaging on social media. It’s indeed something of high-tech teamwork to battle the terrorist group online.
    Recently, executives from Apple, Twitter, Snapchat, Facebook, MTV and Buzzfeed offered their inputs to counter online radicalization at a meeting conducted at the Justice Department, according to an industry source familiar with the meeting.
    By Ghulam Rasool Dehlvi - 2/25/2016 8:41:49 AM



  • Probably we all know ISIS has been supported by Turkey, it is started in Erdogan regime. Erdogan is a great admirer and supporter of Fathullah Gülen and his Hizmet. Hizmet is as same as Tablighi Jamat only the form and way of implementation is change. Hizmet people are very narrow, irrational and rigid on their Islamic perception. World remarkable business man started business with Hizmet in Turkey. As I understand Hizmet is group of businessmen, Molvis without beard. People are being confused by their gentlemen face. Hizmet wants Turkey as Islamic nation and they have completed many more steps to reach their goal.


    By Asad - 2/24/2016 12:14:42 PM



  • asak wa wb,
    my name is syed viqaruddin..i often read ur articles. for most of the times i confer wit ur views but not all the times though, but that s the beauty of islam..isnt it?

    However i  must say your articles are worth reading. I am a Technical Writer..i enjoy writing and love it core..i need ur help, to be precise i need your guidence
    i have written numerous islamic stories for children
    i want to write articles but dont know how. 
    ill be glad if you please guide me on this...awating ur reply
    jazak Allah..assalam laikum

    By Syed Viqaruddin - 2/24/2016 6:22:23 AM



  • Thank you for posting this book review. I strongly hope to see a thread of comments stimulating a fruitful debate on modern approaches to countering faith-inspired violence and extremism.
    By Ghulam Rasool Dehlvi - 2/24/2016 1:41:04 AM



  • A very enlightening book review! Fethullah Gulen and the Hizmet movement have a lot to offer to  Muslims the world over including Indian Muslims. Gulen's five points against violent extremism are cogent and persuasive.

    By Ghulam Mohiyuddin - 2/24/2016 1:33:10 AM



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