By Hasan Alhasan
January 30, 2019
New Delhi may never have felt more
vindicated in its Middle East policy than it does now. Its close ties with all
the major powers in the Middle East, including Israel, Iran and the Gulf
monarchies, have shielded its interests from the region’s geopolitical
fluctuations. Yet, going forward, the region’s increasing polarization, of which
the Middle East Strategic Alliance (MESA) is but the latest manifestation,
poses a considerable challenge for India.
Signs of this are becoming visible. Less
than a week after Iranian Foreign Minister Mohammad Javad Zarif left New Delhi
on January 9, Israeli National Security Adviser Meir Ben-Shabbat flew to the
Indian capital to lobby Prime Minister Narendra Modi on the growing Iranian
threat in Syria. As the region plummets further into conflict, India is likely
to face greater pressure from its partners to take sides.
Since the early 1990s, India has adopted a
strategy of building diverse relations across the Middle East. Having suffered
tremendous economic losses and diplomatic embarrassment after the 1990-91 Iraqi
invasion of Kuwait and the subsequent Gulf War, India decided to lessen its
dependence on Iraq and seek a broader set of partnerships in the region.
Accordingly, India normalized relations with Israel in 1991, built closer ties
with Iran during the terms of presidents Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani and Mohammad
Khatami in the 1990s and early 2000s, and bolstered relations with the Arab
Gulf monarchies in the aftermath of the 2003 Iraq war.
So far, India’s diverse portfolio of
relationships has served it well. India has stayed mute on the Gulf dispute
involving Qatar, having obtained reassurances from all sides that its citizens
would remain safe. As a result, the crisis has had a relatively small impact on
the Indian diaspora in the Gulf region, and unlike other players, India’s
neutrality has allowed it to avoid being dragged into the fray.
Another example is India’s neutrality on
the Syrian conflict that has placed New Delhi in a unique position as a
potential mediator. Incidentally, India was set to host the second India-Arab
Dialogue in early February, during which progress on negotiating Syria’s
reintegration into the Arab League was expected (although the conference has
now been postponed because of an apparent scheduling conflict with the EU-Arab
League Ministerial in Brussels on February 4). The Gulf monarchies hope that by
offering Syria a way back into the Arab fold, they might be able to loosen
Iran’s grip over Damascus, however dim the prospect. Bahrain and the United
Arab Emirates have led the way by reinstating diplomatic missions in Damascus.
Finally, despite its close ties to Israel
and the Arab Gulf monarchies, India has secured a strategic foothold at Iran’s
Chabahar Port. On January 7, the Indian government announced that its state-run
ports operator, India Ports Global, had taken over operations at the port.
India intends to use the port, which overlooks the Gulf of Oman, to bypass
Pakistan in its trade with Afghanistan and connect its economy to Central Asia.
However, the region’s growing polarization
seems poised to place India’s ability to juggle its various relationships in
the Middle East under serious strain. The US administration hopes that the
Middle East Strategic Alliance, or MESA, will bind the Gulf monarchies, Jordan,
Egypt and, unofficially, Israel into an alliance against Iran.
In a speech delivered at Cairo University
on January 10, US Secretary of State Mike Pompeo proclaimed that MESA would
serve “to confront the region’s most serious threat,” an obvious, if implicit,
reference to Iran. Pompeo also made several references to the Gulf monarchies’
growing proximity to Israel. They view Israel as a potential ally against an
Moreover, the United States’ deployment of
an aircraft-carrier group, that of the USS John C Stennis, in the Persian Gulf
since December has raised temperatures in the region. The move is intended to
signal greater American assertiveness against Iran and its ballistic-missile
program. For India, however, the move raises tension in an area close to its
port in Chabahar, potentially frustrating its bid for greater connectivity into
Afghanistan and Central Asia via Iran.
Further west, Israel’s confrontation with
Iran has taken a devastating turn in Syria in recent months. On January 21,
Israel launched a series of air strikes against Iranian and Syrian targets
around Damascus in response to what it said was an Iranian missile fired at the
Golan Heights. Israel had previously launched a round of air strikes against
Iranian forces last May in retaliation for rocket attacks launched from Syrian
territory. When coupled with a strategic alliance such as MESA, volatility in
Syria and potentially Lebanon means that a limited military conflagration is
now more likely to escalate into regional conflict.
Unless the region sees a dramatic reversal
in trends, India’s three-decades-long approach to the region may finally run
its course. India will weather the storm, but its policy of holding the
proverbial stick from the middle, however, might not.
This article was provided to Asia Times
by Syndication Bureau, which holds copyright.
Hasan Alhasan is a PhD researcher at King’s College London and the
National University of Singapore, where his work focuses on Indian foreign
policy in the Middle East. Previously, he served as a senior analyst at the
office of the first deputy prime minister of Bahrain.