By Akbar Ahmed
"A Baluch woman dressed in her wedding
finery and wearing all her jewellery could walk alone from one end of
Baluchistan to the other end without ever being molested." Baluch elders
said this in response to a query on Baloch character while sitting with
the-then Balochistan's Chief Minister, Jam Mir Qadir Khan of Las Bela. The
image struck me as a metaphor; a literal sociological reflection on
contemporary Pakistan. It has stayed with me ever since.
Three decades later, I asked Prince Ahmed
Ali, Jam Sahib's grandson, to describe Baluch character. He noted, "Baluch
identity revolves around hospitality, respect and honour, truthfulness, and the
behaviour of a cultured man or woman."
The definition of being Baluch, thus, remained unaltered through time.
In my dealings with Baluch leaders, I often
found them to possess great wisdom and be ever-ready to perform miracles if
approached with honour. This held true even for those in opposition as I
discovered during my stint as Makran Commissioner. During my early days, I had
learned of a plan to attack the Zikri community, a minority sect living in the
division. Religious leaders in Karachi and Lahore were promising a bloodbath in
order to convert them to "proper" Islam.
In addition to taking the usual
administrative measures, I also decided to seek the help of the former
governor, Mir Ghaus Bakhsh Bizenjo, then a left-leaning Baluch opposition
leader. Widely revered by the Zikris, he was said to have landed in Makran to
stir up trouble against the administration. Despite him being an avowed opponent
of President Zia-ul-Haq, he accepted my dinner invitation at the Commissioner's
house. He also promised me to request his followers to remain peaceful. Of
course, nothing can be kept secret for long in Pakistan. The intelligence
agencies soon reported this to the president who demanded an explanation from
Balochistan Governor, General K.K. Afridi, as to why I had hosted such a dinner
with an opposition leader.
Ultimately, by working together, peace was
maintained in the region and the Zikri community was protected.
I often hear educated people in Islamabad
and Karachi dismissing Baluchs as regressive and uneducated. This is an
incorrect perception. One of the most sophisticated discussions I have ever had
about Ibn Khaldun was with Nawab Akbar Bugti, a top Baluch tribal leader and
the former provincial governor. Answering my question as to why Baluchs had
stayed behind while Pukhtuns had left their homelands to settle and rule in
India, Bugti emphasised on the importance given to their code of honour. If we
had migrated to India to set up ruling dynasties like Pukhtuns, we would have
slowly lost our language and our culture, he exclaimed.
Not only did Bugti show an understanding of
Khaldun's theory of Asabiyah (social cohesion) that kept a tribe united,
he also took an intellectual leap and applied it to his own tribal group. I was
deeply impressed by his vast knowledge of history and different cultures. It
remains a grave tragedy that this Baluch leader was hunted like animals by
missiles despite his loyalty to Pakistan in the face of immense opposition.
Baluchistan is both blessed and plagued by
its geographic and demographic situation within the federation of Pakistan.
Blessed because of its tiny population and vast resources while it remains
plagued due to its size--covering almost half of Pakistan's territory--, its
borders with Iran and Afghanistan, and its coastline spanning over hundreds of
miles; all of which give the province great geopolitical strategic importance.
Of course, some of the criticism against
the Baluch leaders stands valid. They do represent a system, which may not seem
viable in the current times. Some cruel and tyrannical Sardars taint the entire
tribal hierarchy. However, the critics often overlook the fact that the tribal
society, despite all its ills, still provides its members with continuity,
stability, and identity in an ever-changing world.
Pakistan's treatment of Baluchistan has,
unfortunately, been erratic and unsatisfactory. The founding charter of the
nation, which reflected the vision of the Quaid-i-Azam, was intended to be
fully inclusive. Pakistanis should recall that the Quaid always had a soft spot
for Baluchs. For a state that lost over half its population when its eastern
wing broke away in 1971, Pakistan could be assumed to have had learned its
lesson by now. The debate over an independent Baluchistan has once again reared
its head, this time with some international support. Although the movement is
tiny and sporadic, Pakistan should still vigorously reach out to Baluchs, both
economically and culturally, to avert a graver crisis in the future. At the
heart of its strategies, the state should emblazone all developmental plans
with the much-talked-about motto, "Honour the Baluch."
Akbar Ahmed is an author, poet, playwright, and is the Ibn Khaldun Chair
of Islamic Studies, American University in Washington, D.C.. He formerly served
as the Pakistani High Commissioner to the UK and Ireland, and can be reached at