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Islam and Sectarianism (08 Oct 2008 NewAgeIslam.Com)



Can Deobandis be called Pink Wahhabis?

Date:        Sun, 5 Oct 2008 20:41:06 -0700 [09:11:06 AM IST]

From:      jaag trust <jaagpkpk@yahoo.com>

To:           SindhPost@yahoogroups.com, NewAgeIslam-Newsletter@newageislam.com,

Reply-To:               jaagpkpk@yahoo.com

Subject:  Re: [SindhPost] Re: (SPN) hoodbhoy on Taliban

Headers:                Show All Headers

FIRST, the information in ur email and in the papers u sent is not correct but its critisim of salfi school.  anyway, u better write ur own position so that one can argue approperiately.

 

 

--- On Sun, 10/5/08, Mansoor Hallaj <tarot66@yahoo.com> wrote:

 

[Hide Quoted Text]

From: Mansoor Hallaj <tarot66@yahoo.com>

Subject: Re: [SindhPost] Re: (SPN) hoodbhoy on Taliban

To: SindhPost@yahoogroups.com, NewAgeIslam-Newsletter@newageislam.com, Date: Sunday, October 5, 2008, 5:06 PM

--- On Sun, 10/5/08, jaag trust <jaagpkpk@yahoo.com>

wrote:

 

so it is the case. u r supporter of salfi+wahabi school in

fact. the file or article u sent clearly reflects salfi

school thinking. for safy puritans both devbandies and

beralives r one of the same thing. but for beralvies esp

other then naqshbadies , devbadies r mild form of wahabies.

if u r following salfi school then why u purpose this mansur

hallaj name? any way, now i understand ur position clearly.

========================================================

 

Mansoor Hallaj

 to SindhPost, NewAgeIslam.com, etc.

 

 

 

Dear Sir,

 

Deobandis were once called Pink Wahabi [Gulabi Wahabi] by

Late. Ghulam Ahmed Parvez in his masterpiece "Tasawwuf

Ki Haqeeqat" [Reality of Sufiism] but why. For those

who try to understand the Deceptive Deobandis regarding

their beliefs on Sufiism, a summary is as under in English

Language [Summary of all the three e-books I posted in Urdu

earlier]

 

"QUOTE"

 

The Deobandis are one of the groups of Muslims. This group

is connected to and named after the University of Deoband _

Dar al-Uloom _ in India. It is an intellectual school of

thought that is deeply rooted, and everyone who graduated

from that university was influenced by its academic

characteristics, so that they became known as Deobandis.

The University of Deoband was founded by a group of Indian

`ulamaa' (scholars) after the British had put a stop to

the Islamic revolution in India in 1857 CE. Its

establishment was a strong reaction against western

advancement and its materialistic civilization in the Indian

  Subcontinent, aimed at saving the Muslims from the dangers

of these circumstances, especially when Delhi, the capital,

had been destroyed following the revolution and the British

had taken full control of it. The scholars feared that their

religion might be assimilated, so Shaykh Imdaadullaah

al-Muhaajir al-Makki and his student Shaykh Muhammad

  Qaasim al-Nanatuwi, and their companions, drew up a plan

to protect Islam and its teachings. They thought that the

solution was to establish religious schools and Islamic

centers, thus al-Madrasah al-Islamiyyah al-Arabiyyah was

established in Deoband as a center for Islam and

Sharee'ah in India at the time of British rule.

 

The most prominent figures of this intellectual school:

 

1- Muhammad Qaasim

 

2- Rasheed Ahmad al-Kankoohi

 

3- Husayn Ahmad al-Madani

 

4- Muhammad Anwaar Shah al-Kashmiri

 

5- Abu'l-Hasan al-Nadvi

 

6- Al-Muhaddith Habeeb al-Rahmaan al-A'zami

 

Thoughts and beliefs

 

With regard to basic tenets of belief (`aqeedah), they

follow the madhhab of Abu Mansoor al-Maatreedi.

 

They follow the madhhab of Imaam Abu Haneefah with regard

to fiqh and minor issues.

 

They follow the Sufi tareeqahs of the Naqshbandiyyah,

Chishtiyyah, Qaadiriyyah and Saharwardiyyah with regard to

spiritual development.

 

The thoughts and principles of the Deobandi school may be

summed up as follows:

 

- Preserving the teachings of Islam and its strength and

rituals.

 

- Spreading Islam and resisting destructive schools of

thought and missionary activity.

 

- Spreading Islamic culture and resisting the invading

British culture.

 

Paying attention to spreading the Arabic language because

it is the means of benefiting from the sources of Islamic

sharee'ah.

 

- Combining reason and emotion, and knowledge and

spirituality.

 

Because the Deobandis follow the Maatreedi madhhab with

regard to belief (`aqeedah), we have to define what

al-Maatreediyyah is:

 

This is a philosophical (kalaami) group which is named

after Abu Mansoor al-Maatreedi. It is based on using

rational and philosophical proof and evidence in disputes

with opponents from among the Mu'tazilah, Jahamiyyah and

others to establish the truths of religion and Islamic

`aqeedah (belief). With regard to sources, the Maatreediyyah

divide the bases of religion into two categories depending

on the source:

 

1 _ Divine or rational: these are matters which are

established independently by reason and the reports follow

that. This includes issues of Tawheed and the Divine

attributes.

 

2 _ Legislative matters or transmitted reports, These are

matters which reason states may or may not exist, but there

is no way to prove rationally that they exist, such as

Prophethood, the torment of the grave and issues of the

Hereafter. It should be noted that some of them regarded

Prophethood as coming under the heading of rational issues.

 

It is obvious that this is contradictory to the methodology

of Ahl al-Sunnah wa'l-Jamaa'ah, because the

Qur'aan, Sunnah and consensus of the Sahaabah are the

sources of guidance in their view. This is in addition to

their bid'ah (innovation) of dividing the sources of

religion into rational matters vs. transmitted reports,

which was based on the false notion of the philosophers who

assumed that the religious texts contradict reason, so they

tried to mediate between reason and the transmitted reports.

This led them to force reason into fields where it has no

place, so they came up with false rulings which contradicted

sharee'ah, and that led them to say that they did not

know what the texts mean and that only Allaah knows their

meaning, or to misinterpret them altogether. In the view of

Ahl al-Sunnah wa'l-Jamaa'ah, on the other hand,

there is no contradiction between sound reason and the sound

transmitted reports.

 

Attitude of Ahl al-Sunnah towards the Maatreediyyah

 

It was narrated from the Prophet SAWS (peace and blessings

of Allaah be upon him) that this ummah would split into

seventy-three sects, all of which would be in the Fire apart

from one. The Prophet SAWS (peace and blessings of Allaah be

upon him) explained that the saved group is the

Jamaa'ah, which is the group that follows the same path

as the Messenger SAWS (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon

him) and his Companions.  Undoubtedly Ahl al-Sunnah

wa'l-Jamaa'ah, who adhere to the Qur'aan and

Sunnah in terms of both knowledge and actions, are the saved

group, and this description applies to them, i.e., they

adhere to that which the Messenger SAWS (peace and blessings

of Allaah be upon him) and his Companions adhered to in

terms of knowledge and actions.  It is not sufficient for an

individual or group merely to claim to belong to the Sunnah

whilst going against the methodology of the salaf, namely

the Sahaabah and Taabi'een. Rather it is essential to

  adhere to their methodology in knowledge, action, approach

and spiritual development. The Maatreediyyah are one of the

groups whose opinions include true and false views, and some

things that go against the Sunnah. It is known that these

groups vary with regard to the truth, how near or far they

are; the closer they are to the Sunnah, the closer they are

to the truth and the right way. Among them are some who went

against the Sunnah with regard to basic principles, and some

who went against the Sunnah with regard to more subtle

issues. There are some who refuted other groups who are

farther away from the Sunnah, so they are to be praised with

regard to their refutation of falsehood and what they have

said of truth, but they have overstepped the mark in so far

as they have rejected part of the truth and gone along with

some falsehood. So they have refuted a serious bid'ah by

means of a lesser bid'ah, and refuted falsehood with a

lesser form of falsehood.

  This is the case with most of the philosophers (ahl

al-kalaam) who claim to belong to Ahl al-Sunnah

wa'l-Jamaa'ah…"

 

There remains one important question to be answered, which

is: what is our duty towards the Maatreediyyah and groups

who hold similar beliefs such as the Deobandis and others?

 

The answer varies according to differences in the persons

involved.

 

If someone is stubborn and propagates his bid'ah, then

we must warn others about him and explain where he has gone

wrong and deviated. But if he does not propagate his

bid'ah and it is clear from his words and actions that

he is seeking the truth and striving for that purpose, then

we should advise him and explain to him what is wrong with

this belief, and guide him in a manner that is better;

perhaps Allaah will bring him back to the truth. This advice

is included in the words of the Prophet SAWS (peace and

blessings of Allaah be upon him):

 

"Religion is sincerity (or sincere advice)." We

[the Sahabah] asked, "To whom?" He said, "To

Allaah and His Book, and His Messenger, and to the leaders

of the Muslims and their common folk." (Narrated by

Muslim, 55).

 

It is important for us to understand, firstly, that the

words "Tasawwuf" and "Sufism" are modern

terms which refer to something that is not automatically

approved of in sharee'ah as the words eemaan (faith),

Islam and ihsaan are. Neither is it automatically condemned

like the words kufr, fusooq (immorality) and `asyaan

(disobedience, sin).

 

In such cases, we need to find out more about what is meant

by such words before we can pass comment. Shaykh al-Islam

Ibn Taymiyah (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: "The

words al-faqr and al-tasawwuf (i.e., Sufism) may include

some things that are loved by Allaah and His Messenger, and

these are things that are enjoined even if they are called

faqr or tasawwuf, because the Qur'aan and Sunnah

indicate that they are mustahabb and that is not altered if

they called by other names. That also includes actions of

the heart such as repentance and patience. And it may

include things that are hated by Allaah and His Messenger,

such as some kinds of belief in incarnation and pantheism,

or monasticism that has been innovated in Islam, or things

that go against sharee'ah and have been innovated, and

so on. These things are forbidden no matter what names they

are given… And it may include limiting oneself to a

certain style of clothing or certain customs, ways

  of speaking and behaving, in such a way that anyone who

goes beyond it is regarded as an outsider, although this is

not something that has been stipulated in the Qur'aan or

Sunnah; rather it may be something that is permissible or it

may be something that is makrooh, and this is a bid'ah

that is forbidden. This is not the way of the friends of

Allaah (awliya' Allaah); such things are innovations and

misguidance that exists among those who claim to follow the

Sufi path. Similarly, among those who claim to be servants

of knowledge there are innovations that involve beliefs and

words that go against the Qur'aan and Sunnah, using

phrases and terminology that have no basis in sharee'ah.

Many such things happen among those people. The wise

believer agrees with all people in that in which they are in

accordance with the Qur'aan and Sunnah and obey Allaah

and His Messenger, but he does not agree with that in which

they go against the Qur'aan and Sunnah and

  disobey Allaah and His Messenger. He accepts from every

group that which was taught by the Messenger… when a

person seeks the truth and justice, based on knowledge, he

is one of the successful friends of Allaah and His

victorious party…

 

But what Shaykh al-Islam said about the view of Sufis

depending on their situation is almost too theoretical for

our times, when the objectionable matters that he referred

to have become part of the path of those who call themselves

Sufis nowadays, in addition to the different occasions they

celebrate such as the Mawlid, and their exaggeration about

their living shaykhs, and their attachment to shrines and

graves, where they pray and circumambulate the graves and

make vows to them, and other well-known practices of theirs.

Because of these matters, the correct approach now is to

warn against them with no reservations. This is what was

agreed upon by the Standing Committee in their answer to a

question about the ruling on the Sufi tareeqahs that exist

nowadays.

 

They said:

 

Usually those that are called Sufis nowadays follow

bid'ahs (innovations) that constitute shirk, as well as

other kinds of bid'ah, such as when some of them say

"Madad ya sayyid (Help, O Master)", and call upon

the qutubs ("holy men"), and recite dhikr in

unison using names by Allaah has not called Himself, like

saying "Huw, Huw (He, He)" and "Ah, Ah (a

contraction of the word `Allaah')". Whoever reads

their books will be aware of many of their innovations that

constitute shirk, and other evils.

 

With regard to the Jamaa'at al-Tableegh, this is one of

the groups that is active in the field of da'wah,

calling people to Allaah. They do a great deal of good and

make commendable efforts. How many sinners have repented at

their hands, and how many have now become devoted to worship

of Allaah. But this group is not free of some innovations in

knowledge and action, to which the scholars have drawn

attention. But whatever the case they cannot be described as

being one of the misguided groups. We have quoted above the

words of Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah: The wise believer

agrees with all people in that in which they are in

accordance with the Qur'aan and Sunnah and obey Allaah

and His Messenger, but he does not agree with that in which

they go against the Qur'aan and Sunnah {5}.

 

The Jamaa'at Tableegh and the Deobandis {6}.

 

Sufism Today

 

Sufism or Tasawwuf is divided into many sects, called

Tareeqahs.[1] The four major Tareeqahs are, Chistiya,

Qadriyah, Naqshbandiya and Soharwardiyah. Sufism in India is

represented by ‘the Deobandis’ and ‘the Barelawis’,

who follow all these four Tareeqahs. Until the seventeenth

century, there was no distinct school of thought amongst

India’s Sufi Hanafee Scholars. But mutual disagreements

later caused a great rift among them and led to the

formation of two different and opposing institutions; the

‘Barelawis’ and the ‘Deobandis.’ Hostilities and

bitter disagreements between these two groups have taken

dangerous proportions and the Barelawis in particular have

exaggerated in the Takfeer (declaring Kufr) of the

Deobandis. Both these groups claim to follow the Hanafee

Madhhab, though they only follow the Hanafee Fiqh and do not

share the beliefs of Imam Abu Haneefah. Since this book

focuses primarily on the beliefs and methodology of the

  School of Deoband and the Jamaat Tableegh, we shall limit

ourselves only to those aspects of Sufism that are related

to the Deobandis, and study Sufism from their (Deobandi)

perspective.

 

[1] Tareeqah and Sharee’ah: According to the Soofis,

Tareeqah is the way by which one reaches to Allah, and

Sharee’ah is the path which reaches the Jannah. Tareeqah

is special and Sharee’ah is common. Tareeqah is based upon

a particular set of beliefs, actions and exercises. [A

Dictionary of the Technical Terms used in the Sciences of

the Musalmans by Moulvi Muhammad Alee Ibn Alee Al-Thanvi,

p.919]

 

The Barelawis

 

The founder and Imam of the Barelawis was Ahmad Raza Khan,

who was an extremist Sufi known for his Takfeer (declaring

Kufr) and extremely heretical beliefs. Allama Ehsan Illahi

Zaheer (rahimahullah) has written a detailed book on the

Barelawis, which highlights…

 

The influences of Shi’ism on the founder of the Barelawi

school of thought.

 

The easiness with which they declare Kufr on their

opponents.

 

Their giving superstitions, baseless talk, unfounded

stories and fables, the garb of religion.

 

Their distortion (Tahreef) and misinterpretation of the

Book and the Sunnah to support their beliefs.

 

Anyone who wishes to further study this subject should

refer to this book called, ‘Barelawis – History and

Beliefs’[1]

 

[1] Another excellent book that explicitly exposes the

corrupted beliefs and actions of the Barelwis is, ‘The

Book of Unity or Oneness of Allah’ compiled by Muhammad

Iqbaal Kailani.

 

The Deobandis and the Jamaat Tableegh

 

The inception of the Deobandi School of thought stems from

the differences and disagreements with the Barelawis, and

the subsequent formation of the Darul-Uloom Deoband in 1868

by Moulana Qasim Nanotwi. The term, Deobandi, is used to

describe all those who were in agreement with the school of

Deoband and its ideology. From amongst the Deobandi scholars

is Moulana Muhammad Ilyas, the founder of the Tableeghi

Jamaat. Moulana Ilyas was much influenced by another

prominent Deobandi scholar – Moulana Ashraf Ali Thanvi

about whom he used to say, “Hazrat Moulana Ashraf Ali

Thanvi has done a great service (to the religion). It is my

heart’s desire that the teachings should be his and the

Manhaj (methodology) of Dawah (propagation) be mine, so that

this way his teachings become well-known.”[1] (click to

view the scanned image of the quote)

<../../quotes/malfozaatmoulanailyas-cover-50/malfozaatmoulanailyas-cover-50.htm

So, the Jamaat Tableegh shares the

  same ideology as the School of Deoband and may be

considered as the Deobandis’s Dawah organ. Whilst the

Deobandis have been constantly bogged down because of the

opposition by the Barelawis, the Jamaat Tableegh has been

instrumental in the spread of Deobandism by hiding its true

orientations and evading controversy.

 

[1] Malfoozat Moulana Ilyaas (Sayings of Moulana Ilyaas),

collected by Muhammad Manzoor Noomani, p.50, incident no.

56.

 

Important Personalities amongst the Deobandis and the

Jamaat Tableegh

 

1. Moulana Qasim Nanotwi (d. 1879): “The Darul-Uloom

Deoband (the School of Deoband founded in 1868) was founded

by Moulana Qasim Nanotwi.”[1] He was ba’yt (taken the

oath of allegiance) at the hands of Imdadullah Muhajir

Makki.[2]

 

2. Imdadullah Muhajir Makki (d. 1899): The highly revered

Pir (spiritual guide) of the Deobandis. He is the spiritual

guide of Moulana Ashraf Ali Thanvi, Moulana Qasim Nanotwi

and Moulana Rasheed Ahmad Gangohi.

 

3. Moulana Ashraf Ali Thanvi (d. 1943): He was ba’yt at

the hands of Haji Imdadullah Muhajir Makki and the author of

many books like, “Bahishti Zewar” and ‘Tafseer Bayanul

Qur’aan’. He named many of his books after his Pir,

Imdadullah Muhajir Makki. Like Imdadullah Muhajir Makki,

Ashraf Ali Thanvi too was an advocate of Wahdat al-Wajood.

Ashraf Ali Thanvi’s teachings greatly influenced the

founder of the Jamaat Tableegh, Moulana Ilyas.

 

4. Rasheed Ahmad Gangohi (d. 1908): Another prominent elder

of the Deobandis, who was ba’yt at the hands of Imdadullah

Muhajir Makki.[3] One of his famous books is ‘Imdadus

Sulook.’

 

5. Other Prominent Deobandi Scholars include: Khalil Ahmad

Saharanpuri, Aashiq Ilahi Meerathi, Moulana Mahmoodul-Hasan

Deobandi, Moulana Shabbir Ahmad Uthmani and Moulana

Abdul-Rahim Lajpuri.

 

6. Moulana Ilyas, popularly known as Hazratjee: (d. 1944):

He was the founder and first Amir of the Jamaat Tableegh. He

was the Khalifah (successor) of Khalil Ahmad Saharanpuri,

who was amongst the Khulafa of Rasheed Ahmad Gungohi.[4] He

founded the Jamaat Tableegh on Sufi principles and

incorporated many Sufi practices like Muraqabah

(meditation), Chillah (40 day seclusion period) and the

silent Dhikr (remembrance) into the routines of his Jamaat.

 

7. Moulana Muhammad Yusuf (d. 1965): Moulana Ilyas was

succeeded by his son, Moulana Muhammad Yusuf (d. 1965), who

became the second Amir of the Jamaat Tableegh. Inamul-Hasan

succeeded Moulana Muhammad Yusuf. Presently, there is no

Amir of the Jamaat Tableegh and its affairs are run by a

Shoorah (committee).

8. Moulana Zakariyah:

 

The son-in-law of Moulana Ilyas[5] and the author of

Fazaail-e-Aamaal. He was well acquainted with Sufism and was

given the Khilafah of all the four Sufi Tareeqahs by Moulana

Khalil Ahmad Saharanpuri.[6]

 

[1] Mashaikh-e-Chist (Eng. Trans.) p.222. [2]

Irshaadul-Mulook (Eng. Trans.) p.32. [3] Irshaadul-Mulook,

(Eng. Trans.) p.32. [4] Irshaadul-Mulook, (Eng. Trans.)

p.12. [5] Mashaikh-e-Chist (Eng. Trans.) p.307. [6]

Mashaikh-e-Chist (Eng. Trans.) p.304-305.

 

The Training Manual of the Jamaat Tableegh

 

Originally known as Tableeghi Nisaab,

‘Fazaail-e-Aamaal’ literally means the virtues (Fazaail)

of actions of worship (Aamaal). It consists of a series of

booklets written by Moulana Zakariyah Kandhalvi on the

instructions of Moulana Ilyas (the founder of Jamaat

Tableegh) as mentioned by Moulana Zakariyah himself in his

autobiography ‘Aap Beeti.’ Fazaail-e-Aamaal consists of

nine booklets, namely - Hikayaat Sahabah, Fazaail-e-Dhikr,

Fazaail-e-Namaaz, Fazaail-e-Tableegh, Fazaail-e-Qur’aan,

Fazaail-e-Darood, Fazaail-e-Ramadaan, Fazaail-e-Sadaqat and

Fazaail-e-Hajj. These series were compiled in two volumes

and entitled, ‘Tableeghi Nisaab.’ They were intended to

be the fundamental training guide for the cadre of the

Jamaat Tableegh. Later on, it was re-named,

‘Fazaail-e-Aamaal.’ This book originally in Urdu, has

been translated to many different languages. But it has

never been translated into the Arabic language as a

whole.[1]

 

[1] The Arabic version is just a small booklet of about 72

pages compared to the original Urdu books, which consists of

two volumes (400+ pages each). The Arabs who affiliate

themselves to the Jamaat Tableegh never refer to the

Tableeghi Nisaab, but to Imaam Nawawi’s collection of

Hadeeth, ar-Riyaadh as-Saliheen. .

 

The Deobandis are followers of Sufism

 

Elders of the Deobandi school of thought, from among who is

Moulana Zakariyah; the author of Fazaail-e-Aamaal, have

testified to the fact that their Manhaj (way) is that of the

Sufis and take pride in it. Mufti Abdur-Rahim Lajpuri quoted

in his book of Fatawa, the words of Qaree Mohammed Tayyib

(the rector of the Darul-Uloom, Deoband) as, “Religiously,

the Ulema of Deoband are Muslims, as a sect they belong to

the Ahl us-Sunnah wal-Jamaah, by Madhhab they are Hanafee,

in conduct they are Sufis, scholastically they are Maturidi

and in Sulook they are Chisti[1]- rather they combine all

Sufi orders... And in nisbat they are Deobandi.”[2] “In

essentials and beliefs, they (the Deobandis) follow Imam

Abul Hasan Ash’aree and Imam Abu Mansoor Maturidi; and in

sub-principles Imam Abu Haneefah. They are initiates of the

Chistiyyah, Naqshbandiya, Qadriyah and Soharwardiyah Sufi

orders.”[3] Moulana Mohammad Zakariyah, whose book

‘Fazaail-e-Aamaal’ is

  revered and used as a training guide by the workers of the

‘Jamaat Tableegh’ highly praises this Fatawa collection

(Fatawa Rahimiyyah) of Mufti Lajpuri and approves of the

views mentioned In it.[4]

 

[1] A Soofi order i.e. Tareeqah [2] Quoted in Fatawa

Rahimiyyah, (Eng. Trans.), vol.1, p.9-10 from

Ulama-e-Deoband ka Maslak. [3] Fatawa Rahimiyyah (Eng.

Trans.), vol.1, p.58. [4] Moulana Zakariyah says, “The

humble writer prays most sincerely for (success of) the

Fatawa Rahimiyyah. May Allah make it the lot of the people

to avail themselves more and more of and derive benefit from

it and make it a Sadaqah-e-Jariah (continuous charity) for

you (the author), for the printer and publisher and for

everyone who may have in any way endeavored for the

publication of this work and bestow upon you (all) its best

rewards in both the worlds.” [Quoted from the first page

of ‘Fatawa Rahimiyyah’ vol.1, published by the Islamic

Book Printers, edition: Feb. 1997]

 

The Definition and Reality of Sufism

 

The Deobandis claim that Sufism is just another name for

Tazkeyyatun-Nafs (purification of the soul) and Ihsan (the

highest stage of Eemaan). Moulana Muhammad Maseehullah Khan,

a Khalifah (successor) of Moulana Ashraf Alee Thanvi states,

“It’s (Sufism) function is to purify the heart from the

lowly bestial attributes of lust, calamities of the tongue,

anger, malice, jealousy, love of this world, love for fame,

niggardliness, greed, vanity, deception, etc.”[1] And, as

such, they claim that Sufism does not contradict the

Sharee’ah (Islamic Regulation), rather “It is incumbent

for every Muslim to become a Sufi. Without Sufism, a Muslim

cannot be described as a perfect Muslim”[2] It is also

claimed that a Sufi is someone who strictly adheres to the

Sunnah and the Sharee’ah. But in reality, Sufism is far

from the above description. Purification of the soul and

curing the heart from its sicknesses is part of the religion

of Islam and is

  completely explained by Allah’s Messenger (sallallahu

alaihi wa-sallam). “Purification of the Soul” as Moulana

Muhammad Maseehullah Khan further explains is just the first

part of the journey of Sufism, and it is referred as journey

towards Allah.[3] The next part of this journey is called

– ‘The journey into Allah’, and “In this high stage

of spiritual development, matters pertaining to the Thaat

(Being of Allah), Sifaat (Attributes of Allah), Af’aal

(Acts of Allah), Haqaaiq (realities) as well as

relationships between Allah and His servants become

manifest.”[4] And thus, everything is manifest to the Sufi

and nothing is hidden from him. He accomplishes this by

either exaggerating in prescribed forms of worship or

indulging in innovative forms of worship. This is the real

face of Sufism!

 

[1] Shariat and Tasawwuf p.11. [2] Shariat and Tasawwuf

p.11. Some also go to the extent of saying that the

Messenger of Allah and his Sahabah were nothing but Soofis.

Especially the group of students who resided in the

Prophet’s Mosque – the Ashabus-Suffah. [3] Shariat and

Tasawwuf p.112. [4] Shariat and Tasawwuf p.113.

 

Sufism is marred by un-Islamic beliefs and is an Ideology

in itself

 

Sufism is not just an emphasis on the purification of the

soul but a complete ideology in itself and it is marred by

un-Islamic concepts and philosophies like:- 1. The belief of

Wahdat al-Wajood, which implies that the Creator (Allah) and

the creation are one, and the creation is just the

manifestation of the Creator. 2. The belief that the

Prophets and the Sufi saints are alive in their graves, just

as they were alive in this world. They are fully aware of

the outside world; they can communicate with the living and

help those who call upon them. 3. The spirits (Ruh) of the

righteous comes back from the Barzakh. 4. Gross exaggeration

in praising the Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alaihi

wa-sallam) whilst neglecting his (sallallahu alaihi

wa-sallam) teachings in understanding the religion. 5. Total

and complete obedience to a Sufi Shaikh. 6. Penance and

living the lives of hermits are ways to get closer to Allah.

7. Some Majzoobs, who have reached the

  goal of Sufism, run the affairs of the creation.[1]

Extremist Sufis have even more deviated beliefs, but we

limit our discussion to only those beliefs that are related

to the Deobandis in this book. S. R. Sharda comments in his

book, ‘Sufi Thoughts’, “Sufi literature of the

post-Timur period shows a significant change in thought

content. It is pantheistic[2]. After the fall of Muslim

orthodoxy from power at the center of India for about a

century, due to the invasion of Timur, the Sufi became free

from the control of the Muslim orthodoxy and consorted with

Hindu saints, who influenced them to an amazing extent. The

Sufis adopted Monism[3], Bhakti[4]and Yogic practices from

the Vaishnava Vedantic schools. By that time, the Vedantic

pantheism among the Sufis had reached its zenith.” This

observation by S. R. Sharda is correct, because eastern

religions have a well-established and highly revered

position for mysticism and abstinence, and Sufi

  beliefs are amazingly similar to them. Sufi Masters like

Ibn Arabee[5], who is greatly revered by the Deobandi

scholars[6], believed that every religion has an element of

truth in it. He considered the Pagan religions and

idol-worshipers as followers of the truth because in his

view, everything is Allah and since there is no difference

between the Creator and the created, the worship of the

creation is worship of the Creator. His belief as mentioned

in al-Fatoohaatul-Makkiyah is: “The slave is the Lord and

the Lord is the slave, I wish that I knew which was the one

required to carry out the required duties, if I were to say

that the servant then that is true, or if I were to say the

Lord, then how can that be required for Him.” Ibn Arabee

says about the Sufis: “Sufi; the person with complete

understanding is he, who sees every object of worship to be

a manifestation of Truth (Allah) contained therein, for

which it is worshiped. Therefore, they all

  call it a god, along with its particular name, whether it

is a rock, or a tree, or an animal, or a person, or a star,

or an Angel.”[7] It is this lax attitude of the Sufis

towards false religions that makes Sufism receptive to many

false philosophies and un-Islamic beliefs. Following is a

comparison of five concepts and beliefs of Eastern Pagan

Religions as compared to Sufi practices. 1 - In Search of

God Hinduism and Buddhism claim to possess great books of

wisdom inherited from the ancestors but instead of learning

from these books, all of their philosophers and thinkers

have to take up an essential journey to the wilderness... in

search of God. The Sufis too, instead of referring to the

Qur’aan and the Sunnah for guidance wander in forests in

search of God. They seclude themselves from the society

(Khilwah) for specific periods (Chillah), and examples of

this are abundant in their books… 1. Moulana Zakariyah

says: “He (Imdadullah Muhajir

  Makki) withdrew himself from the midst of people and

wandered in the wilderness of Punjab, which became his

home… He would refrain from eating for up to eight days.

Not a grain would go down his throat in these periods of

self-imposed starvation.”[8] (click to view the scanned

image of the quote)

quotes/imdad-ul-mushtaq-9/imdad-ul-mushtaq-9.htm 2. Moulana

Zakariyah says: “A beggar (a Sufi master in disguise)

chewed something, and gave Abdul Hadi to eat. As he ate the

morsel, his state began to change. Shaikh Abdul Hadi

developed a dislike for company and became claustrophobic in

settlements. He would wander into the forest and spend most

of his time there.”[9] 3. Moulana Zakariyah says:

“Shaikh Ahmad Abdul Haqq Radoli was a person of ecstasy,

and Uloom-e-Batiniyyah (inner knowledge) attracted him in

full force. Even before completing his academic career, he

adopted solitude and wandering in the forest.”[10]

 

2 - The Relationship between the Creator and the Creation

The Hindus, Buddhist and Jain religions unanimously agree on

the concept that everything is the Creator (i.e. nothing

exists other than God. The Creator and His creation are, in

reality, one) and ultimately everything merges in Him (the

Creator). This merging is basically the goal of worship in

Hinduism and Buddhism, which is also known as ‘Moksha.’

These pantheistic views of the Hindus and Sufis are

amazingly similar. If one reads books explaining Pantheism

by the Hindus and the books of Sufis, one would hardly see

any difference. We shall see this with ample proofs in

Chapter 3: ‘Pantheism, Wahdat al-Wajood or Moksha.‘

 

3 - Abstinence is the Key to Piety and Wisdom According to

these religions; piety, wisdom and nearness to God is only

possible when one devotes all his time in the wilderness and

abandons the civilized world. Sadhus or hermits cause great

hardships to themselves by practicing harsh acts of

abstinence. They live without food for days to end until

their bodies are reduced to just bones. Their devotional

exercises include hanging upside down on the branches of

trees for hours and sleeping on bed of nails. They meditate

for long periods sitting without any movement in one

position and hold their breaths for enormously long time.

Professor D. S. Sarma, the author of numerous Hindu books

says: “The higher phase of self-control is detachment. We

have not only to overcome what is evil in life but also to

become independent of what is good. For instance, our

domestic affections, our family ties, our love for home and

friends are good in themselves. But, as long

  as, we are passionately attached to these earthly things,

we are only on the lower rungs of the spiritual

ladder.”[11] The Sufis too believe in complete abstinence

from worldly pleasures and deprive themselves of the

blessings of Allah. It is mentioned in Irshaadul-Mulook,

“According to some Sufiya, it has been learnt from

experience that thirst is a deceptive desire. Therefore,

whoever develops the habit of drinking less water at the

time of thirst; Allah will quench his thirst until he gains

the ability of abstaining from water for several months at a

time. He will not even have the desire to drink water.

Despite this, his physical health will not deteriorate in

anyway whatsoever. His body will be sustained by the

moisture acquired from the food he eats.”[12] We find

number of stories concerning wandering and starvation of

their Shaikhs mentioned in their books, 1. “He (Khwaajah

Abu Hubairah) loved solitude dearly. His entire life was

spent in

  one room. He would cry so much that people thought he

would die. He abandoned all delicious food.”[13] 2.

“Khwaajah Shareef Zandani stayed in forest for 40 years,

fleeing from people. He subsisted on the leaves of trees and

whatever he could find in the forest. He loved poverty and

starvation. He would break fast only after three days. When

he ate food, it was only salt-less vegetables.”[14] 3.

Khwaajah Uthmaan Haaruni adopted Mujahadah for 70 years,

never eating to satiation (to satisfy fully or excess) in

all this time. He would drink mouthful of water only after

seven days.[15] 4. “Hazrat Faridud Deen’s Shaikh advised

him (Faridud Deen) hunger for three days and then eat what

comes from Ghayb (Unseen). After three days, nothing came.

On account of extreme hunger Faridud Deen put some pebbles

in his mouth, the pebbles turned into sugar; he spat them

out. A short while later, he again put some pebbles in his

mouth which too, became sugar.

  This happened again for the third time. When Faridud Deen

informed his Shaikh of the incident, his Shaikh said: “It

would have been good if you had ate it.”[16] 5.

“Khwaajah ilw Mumshad Dinwari was a perpetual faster. It

is said that even during his infancy he would sometimes

abstain from drinking his mother’s milk. He is therefore

called a born wali.”[17] 6. Moulana Zakariyah says: “It

is said that Khwaajah Abu Ahmad Abdaal Chisti never slept on

bed for 30 years.”[18]

 

4 - Meditation, Excessive Chanting and breath holding

Excessive chanting and breath-holding exercises are

essential rituals of mysticism. This is generally done in

solitude and for hours together. It is believed that such

rituals enlighten the heart with knowledge and gives them

miraculous powers.

 

The Sufis too have similar types of Dhikr… Moulana

Zakariyah says: “Hazrat Nizamuddin al-Umri was instructed

by his Shaikh to recite ‘Allahu’ 90 times in a single

breathe gradually increasing the number in accordance with

his ability. Ultimately, he developed his ability to the

extent of up to 400 times with a single breath.”[19] The

practice of heavy breathing, as in the Sufi Dhikr of

inhaling whilst saying “La-ilaha” and then exhaling to

create a loud and sharp voice saying ‘ill-lal-lah’ is

seen in various oriental and eastern religions. Islam

neither specifies breathing techniques as part of Ibaadah,

nor sets any guidelines in this regard. This aspect of

Sufism will be discussed further under, ‘Chapter 7:

Worship in Islam.’

 

5 - The Concept of Eternal Life Eastern mystics claim to

have eternal life. No people would worship a mystic or

depend upon him to avert evil, if he had no control over his

own existence. The concept of death would imply that they

could not avert harm or help the people. Thus, the concept

of eternal life - as is also inscribed on the grave of

Rajneesh, “Osho – Never Born, Never Died - Only visited

this Planet, Earth between Dec 11-1931 to Jan

19-1990.”[20] The Sufis consider their Shaikhs in the

graves to be alive and in their senses. They consider them

able to benefit their followers. Moulana Zakariyah quotes

Haji Imdadullah Muhajir Makki in his book Mashaikh-e-Chist

saying, “…The Faqir does not die. He is simply

transformed from one abode to another. The same benefit

which was received from the Faqir’s physical life will be

acquired from his grave.”[21] These abovementioned

examples show the origins of the many deviated and

un-Islamic

  concepts that the Sufis have borrowed from Pagan

religions. The Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alaihi

wa-sallam) and his Companions (radhi allahu anhu) did not

live the life of hermits, neither did they abstain from

Halaal blessings of Allah. They did not punish themselves,

nor did they indulge in the types of innovative and

excessive Dhikr that the Sufis prescribe. They knew that

guidance is only in following the revelation and not

wandering in the wilderness.

 

[1] Moulana Zakariyah says: “According to some Ulema, he

(Shaikh Ibnul Hamaam Hanafee) was among the Abdal (the

Deobandi translator says Abdaal are a class of Awliya whose

identities remain concealed. They possess miraculous powers

and execute a variety of tasks under Divine Command in

various places of the world). [Ikhmaalush Shiyaam (Eng.

Trans.) p.59.] [2] Pantheism: The belief that God and the

universe are the same - doctrine that God is an expression

of the physical forces of nature [The World Book Dictionary]

[3] Monism: The doctrine that the Creator and His creation

are one and that nothing exists other than Allah. In Soofi

terminology, it is known as Wahdat al-Wajood [4] Bhakti:

Selfless devotion as a means of reaching a higher spiritual

being. [5] Abu Bakr Muhyiddin Muhammad bin ‘Ali al-Tai,

commonly known as Ibn Arabee / Ibn ‘l-’Arabee

(1165-1240), was born in Murcia (Spain) and died in

Damascus. He was one of the leading authorities on

  Sufism, who is respected by Sufis around the world. [6]

The scholars of the school of Deoband consider Ibn Arabee to

be one of ‘the great Soofi saints’ and refer to him,

Ash-Shaikh al-Akbar (The Greatest Shaikh). A Question was

put to Mufti Abdur Rahim Lajpuri, ‘Some Moulvis (religious

leaders) allege that Moulana Rasheed Ahmad Gangohi, Moulana

Muhammad Qasim Nanotwi, Moulana Khalil Ahmad Ambethvi,

Moulana Ashraf Ali Thanvi and other religious divines are

infidels and apostates, faithless and heretic, accursed and

denizens of Hell etc. Please comment. Answer: “The unholy

endeavor of vilifying and maligning men... is not something

new”. Mufti Lajpuri then gives the examples of Prophets,

the Sahabah, the scholars, the pious Imams and the Soofi

saints who have suffered likewise. He then states, “(Even)

the mystical statements of Ba Yazid of Bastami were adjudged

to be inconsistent with the Sharee’ah... About the most

great Shaikh Muhiyyud-Din

  Ibn Arabee it was said, ‘His unbelief (Kufr) is worse

than the unbelief of the Jews and the Christians’.”

[Fatawa Rahimiyyah (English trans.) vol.1, p.2-4] [7]

Al-Fusoos (1/195), al-Wakeel: Hadhihi Hiyas-Soofiyyah

(p.38). [8] Mashaikh-e-Chist (Eng. Trans.) p.220 and

Imdadul-Mushtaq ila Ashraful-akhlaq (Urdu) p.9. [9]

Mashaikh-e-Chist (Eng. Trans.) p.205. [10] Mashaikh-e-Chist

(Eng. Trans.) p.166-167. [11] ‘The Religion of the

Hindus’ by Professor D. S. Sarma, p.12. [12]

Irshaadul-Mulook (Eng. Trans.) p.70. [13] Mashaikh-e-Chist

(Eng. Trans.) p.125. [14] Mashaikh-e-Chist (Eng. Trans.)

p.140. [15] Mashaikh-e-Chist (Eng. Trans.) p.142. [16]

Mashaikh-e-Chist (Eng. Trans.) p.156. [17] Mashaikh-e-Chist

(Eng. Trans.) p.126. [18] Mashaikh-e-Chist (Eng. Trans.)

p.131. [19] Mashaikh-e-Chist (Eng. Trans.) p.192. [20]

Rajneesh has a great admiration for Sufism, and he wrote

numerous books on the subject. Among them are, ‘Soofis –

the people of the

  Path’, ‘Just like that’, ‘The Secret’, ‘The

Wisdom of the Sands’, ‘The Perfect Master’ and

‘Until you Die.’ [21] Mashaikh-e-Chist (Eng. Trans.)

p.211

 

Historical Background into the Deobandi-Barelawi

Differences

 

Bitter difference and rivalry between the Deobandis and the

Barelawis has caused much confusion and hatred amongst

Muslims in the Indian subcontinent. One of the major issues

that caused the rift and the subsequent formation of the

school of Deoband was the Tafseer (explanation) of

‘Khaatam an-Nabeeyeen’ (seal of Prophet-hood) mentioned

in Soorah al-Ahzab: “Muhammad (sallallahu alaihi

wa-sallam) is not the father of any man among you, but is

the Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) and the

last of the Prophets (Khaatam an-Nabeeyeen).”[1] Moulana

Ahsan Nanotwi (a prominent Deobandi scholar) mentioned that

the Khaatam (seal) of the Prophet-hood mentioned in Soorah

al-Ahzab does not deny the advent of another Prophet. And

even if another Prophet arrived, this would not affect the

finality of Prophet Muhammad’s (sallallahu alaihi

wa-sallam) Prophet-hood.[2] The Barelawis strongly objected

to this statement and used it as a proof for the

  Takfeer of the Deobandis. The Deobandis also argue with

the Barelawis on futile issues, like (Imkaan al-Kadhib)

whether Allah has the ability to lie or not? Other issues of

differences were the celebration of Milaad (the Prophet’s

Birthday) and various innovations which accompany it,

ceremonies in which Soorah al-Fatihah is recited over food

before eating, celebrations and festivities held at the

graves of popular saints, invoking the Messenger of Allah

(sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) believing that the Messenger

is Omnipresent and the like.[3]

 

The Real Ikhtilaaf (Disagreement)

 

In reality, the Barelawis and the Deobandis differ more in

practice than in principle. This is apparent from books that

have been written by the Deobandis in order to bridge their

differences with the Barelawis. Most disagreements are

either in finer details, or whether those actions are for

specific people or for all. A good example is the issue of

meditation (Muraqabah) and seeking benefit from the graves.

Even though, the two groups outwardly oppose each other on

this issue, the only difference is that the Barelawis call

towards and recommend visiting graves to derive benefit from

them for everyone, whilst the Deobandis make it specific for

a few. Therefore, the rift between the Deobandis and the

Barelawis is more of mutual prejudice, than of Aqeedah. The

Barelawis on their part have relied mostly on conspiracy

theories and misinterpretation in their Takfeer (declaring

Kufr) of the Deobandis. They created a lot of noise on

Moulana Ahsan Nanotwi’s

  statement, “And even if another Prophet arrived…”,

but this statement is not objectionable from the Sufi point

of view. It simply stems from the common belief of all the

Sufis that everything was created from the light of Muhammad

(sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam), and that he (sallallahu

alaihi wa-sallam) is the ‘Seal of Prophet hood’ from the

very beginning. Besides, ‘real Sufis’ know that since

nothing exists other than Allah, to believe in the real

existence of Allah’s Messenger (sallallahu alaihi

wa-sallam) is Shirk. This shows that the differences between

these two Sufi groups are superficial and based mostly upon

party rivalry than upon religion. The Sufis in general do

not give Aqeedah, which is the core of Islam, its due

position. We shall elaborate further in light of statements

by Haji Imdadullah Muhajir Makki.

 

[1] Soorah al-Ahzab (33): 40. [2] Tahzeerun-Naas, p.3 and

25. [3] See Bahishti Zewar, Part 12, p.222, (Unity in Islam

by Haji Imdadullah).

 

The Importance of Aqeedah to the Sufis in light of an essay

by Imdadullah Muhajir Makki

 

Firstly, the influence of the views of Haji Imdadullah

Muhajir Makki on the Deobandis and the Jamaat Tableegh

cannot be over-emphasized - He is the spiritual guide of

many prominent Deobandi scholars like Moulana Ashraf Ali

Thanvi, Rasheed Ahmad Gangohi and Qasim Nanotwi. Moulana

Rasheed Ahmad Gangohi addresses his Shaikh Imdadullah

Muhajir Makki as, “O my Refuge of both worlds.”[1] and

Moulana Zakariyah (the author of Fazaail-e-Aamaal) refers to

him as, “guide for humanity.”[2] An essay by Imdadullah

Muhajir Makki has been compiled in the English translation

of ‘Bahishti Zewar[3] by the name, ‘Unity in Islam’

and its subject is the Deobandi-Barelawi Dispute. In this

essay, Imdadullah Muhajir Makki comments upon the Milaad

gatherings, which are held to commemorate the birth of

Allah’s Messenger (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam). In these

gatherings, poetry in praise of Allah’s Messenger

(sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) is read and when the

  crowd is signaled, everybody stands (to greet the

Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam)).[4]

Imdadullah Muhajir Makki, the esteemed Shaikh of the

Deobandi scholars, says about the Milaad gatherings...

“…you should not hate someone who does not perform

‘Qiyaam’ (standing) in Milaad because this is not Wajib

(desirable) or Fardh (obligatory)… If you know someone,

who considers the Qiyaam as Wajib (obligatory), then Qiyaam

will be an innovation for him alone. However, to call all

those who perform Qiyaam in Milaad, as innovators, is

exceeding the limit. It is quiet possible that the holy

Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) stays in his abode in

Paradise and our activities are shown to him as on T.V. or

somehow through other means; through Angels or without

them…” He further adds, “Consider these differences as

trivial (unimportant), like the differences between Imam Abu

Haneefah and Imam ash-Shafi’ee”. He says: “Do not

  oppose these ceremonies, where they are customary… If

those who oppose Qiyaam are also invited in a general

meeting, then it is better to drop the Qiyaam. However, if

it is not possible to do so, then if they (those opposed to

Qiyaam) wish to continue then they should also join the rest

in Qiyaam and Salaam.”[5] Commenting upon music, which is

totally Haraam in Islam[6] Muhajir Makki says, “Do not

call each other as Bidati (i.e. innovators) and Wahabi, live

in peace with moderation. Musical concerts (or Sama or

Qawwali) with or without instrumental music are likewise

controversial. Some need them (instrumental music) among the

loving Sufis (Ahle-Muhabbat) and it is best not to criticize

others as hypocrites. Who do not need them should not

perform them, but do not divide over trivial (unimportant)

differences.”[7] As we mentioned earlier, the Deobandis

agree in principle on most issues with the Barelawis. The

disagreements are either in finer

  details or, whether those actions are for specific people

or for every one. This essay by Imdadullah Muhajir Makki is

an open witness to this attitude and is apparent in both the

examples (Milaad and music). Haji Imdadullah Muhajir

Makki’s advice to his followers is that (1) Milaad, (2)

the gatherings, (3) the standing to greet Allah’s

Messenger (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) and (4) the belief

that even after death Allah’s Messenger (sallallahu alaihi

wa-sallam) can attend multiple gathering at the same time

are not innovations in themselves. The problem is only with

those who consider standing in Milaad to be an obligation!

Furthermore, he expresses no real disapproval for this

“pagan originated custom” (as today’s Deobandis call

it), by allowing his followers to participate in the Milaad.

The so-called, ‘Ahle-Muhabbat’ mentioned by Imdadullah

Muhajir Makki were those who indulged in the Haraam

(prohibited) action of playing and

  listening to music, in order to please Allah. To

exaggerate in righteous actions is bad enough but to indulge

in Haraam action claiming to gain the pleasure of Allah is

the worst of all. This essay also raises another question as

to whether certain actions are Haraam for the common Muslims

and Halaal for a special few. Is anyone above the

Sharee’ah? Furthermore, Haji Imdadullah Muhajir Makki

considers issues of Aqeedah and, Halaal and Haraam to be

trivial. He considers such disagreements to be a mercy for

the Ummah.[8]

 

[1] Mashaikh-e-Chist (Eng. Trans.) p.242. [2]

Mashaikh-e-Chist (Eng. Trans.) p.218. [3] Bahishti Zewar is

a highly revered book of the Deobandis written by Moulana

Ashraf Ali Thanvi. This book deals with everyday Fiqh and is

traditionally given to brides as part of their dower. [4]

The pro-Deobandi Majlis Ulema of South Africa says,

“…The reason behind the standing during Milaad is the

belief that Rasoolullah presents himself at such

gatherings…” By this belief, “The attribute of

omnipresence (present in all places at all times) is

bestowed upon Rasoolullah.” The same booklet declares,

“…the Milaad originated from the pagans.” [All

quotations from the booklet, “What is Milaad?” p.12.,

published by pro-Deobandi Majlis Ulema of South Africa] [5]

Bahishti Zewar (Eng. Trans.) Part twelve, p.222. [6] The

Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) said: “I

forbid two voices, which are imbecilic and sinfully

shameless: one is the

  voice (of singing) accompanied by musical instruments and

Satan’s wind instruments.” [Related by al-Hakim]. The

Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) warned the Muslims

against those who consider music to be lawful, when he

(sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) said, “There will be people

from my nation [Muslims] who will seek to make lawful:

fornication, the wearing of silk [for men], wine drinking

and the use of musical instruments [ma’aazif]…. Then

Allah will destroy them during the night causing the

mountain to fall upon them, while He changes others into

apes and swine. They will remain in such a state until the

Day of Resurrection.” [Saheeh al-Bukharee, (Eng. Trans.)

vol. 7, 494 B] The Sufis consider this Haraam action as food

of the soul: Abu Bakr al-Kalabadhi said, ‘I heard

Abu’l-Qasim al-Baghdadi say, “Audition is of two kinds.

One class of man listens to discourse, and derives therefrom

an admonition: such a man only listens

  discriminately and with his hearten present. The other

class listens to music, which is the food of the spirit and

when the spirit obtains its food, it attains its proper

station, and turns aside from the government of the body;

and then there appears in the listener a commotion and a

movement.” [The Doctrine of the Sufis, p.164] [7] See

Bahishti Zewar, Part twelve, p.223, “Unity in Islam by

Hazrat Haji Imdadullah”. Moulana Zakariyah has quoted five

page discussion in his book “Mashaikh-e-Chist” from the

writing of Moulana Ashraf Alee Thanvi’s by the name,

“Haqqus Sama.” The conclusion of this discussion is that

listening to Samaa and music is permissible for the Soofis

with certain conditions. [See, Mashaikh-e-Chist (Eng.

Trans.) p.174.] [8] See Bahishti Zewar, Part twelve, p.222.

 

Propagation of Truth Mixed with Falsehood

 

The Deobandis and the Barelawis both have their own

specific religious schools, literature and Dawah

organizations. It would be unjust to consider both these

groups influenced by Sufism on an equal footing, because the

Barelawis directly call to acts of Kufr and openly support

such views by distorting the meanings of some Qur’aanic

verses and Ahaadeeth. The Deobandis, however, do not openly

call to grave-worship and saint-worship, and other acts of

Shirk and Bidah (innovation). Rather, their Dawah organ, the

“Jamaat Tableegh”, calls towards acts of righteousness,

like Salaat (prayer), but they have various manifestations

of Shirk in their beliefs, and innovations in their actions.

Therefore, they may be less deviant but their danger to the

Muslims in general is more, because of their hidden nature!!

The emergence of people who propagate the good mixed with

falsehood, is prophesized by Allah’s Messenger (sallallahu

alaihi wa-sallam). Hudhaifah Ibn

  al-Yamaan (radhi allahu anhu) narrates: “The people used

to ask Allah’s Messenger (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam)

about the good and I asked him about the evil, fearing that

it would reach me. So I asked: “O Messenger of Allah

(sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam)! We were living in ignorance

and evil, and then Allah brought this good (i.e. Islam) to

us. So, will there be any evil after this good?” He

(sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) replied: “Yes” I then

asked: “Will there be any good after that evil?” He

replied: “Yes, but it will be tainted” So I asked:

“What will be its taint?” He replied: “People who

guide others to other than my way, you will approve of some

of their deeds and disapprove of others.”[1]

 

[1] Saheeh al-Bukharee (Eng. Trans.) vol. 9, p.159-160 and

Saheeh Muslim (Eng. Trans.) vol. 3, no: 4553. Also see

Fathhul-Baaree (13/37).

 

Introduction: The Jamaa'at Tableegh and the Deobandis

 

http://www.ahya.org/tjonline/eng/contents.html

 

http://www.ahya.org/tjonline/eng/contents.html

 

Acknowledgements

 

Foreword 

 

Introduction: The Jamaa'at Tableegh and the

Deobandis

 

Chapter 2: The Islamic Concept of Tawheed (Monotheism)

 

Chapter 3: Pantheism, Wahdat al-Wajood or Moksha

 

Chapter 4: Life of the Barzakh

 

Chapter 5: Visiting Graves

 

Chapter 6: Back from the Barzakh

 

Chapter 7: Waseelah

 

Chapter 8: Worship in Islam

 

Chapter 9: Knowledge of the Ghayb (Unseen)

 

Chapter 10: Excessive Praise for the Messenger of Allah

(sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam)

 

Chapter 11: Blind Following of Sufi Shaikhs

 

Chapter 12: The Deobandi’s Understanding of Taqleed

 

Appendix

 

Bibliograpgy.html

 

"UNQUOTE"

 

-------------------------------

 

Jaag trust to SindhPost, NewAgeIslam-Newsletter@NewAgeIslam.com

 show details 01:29 (10 minutes ago)

               

Reply

 

sir ji

very sorry to say, ur emails r too long to read. try to answer briefly, u really need a good editor i think. its my humble advice, do not take it personally.

i will send u proves but before i send u, you already showed ur biased clearly by declaring sufies Dacoits. as u wrote Dacoits of the

Faith i.e. Sufis. u r puritan. u knew mollana waheed u din wrote in his diary that " all sects or school of thoughts in islam are against Kharjies but they had true Hadiths only " i think kharjies were also puritans. don't think i am declaring u kharji, no but i want to realize u a fact that u accept presence of different school of thoughts in Islam and give them ample space to live but not allowed any school of thought to impose her ideas on others. it is so simple, if u accept it.

Note. u did not answer my previous question that why u choose ur yahoo ID as mansoor hallaj??????

 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

Mansoor Hallaj

 to SindhPost, NewAgeIslam.com, etc.

 

Dear Sir,

You first ask a question and demand a reply when i try to reply then you expect that the reply would be as per your demand [that doesn't happen]. Even when I try to reply then you say my post is long and I need a good editor [I don’t think so]. I assume that you reach to your earlier conclusion [that the information I provided on Sufism is wrong] by reading the attachment then please read the last reply and then raise objection I shall be much obliged and will try to digest whatever you say about my alleged Biased against Sufis [Reincarnation of Devils]

When you don’t even read introductory not with the attachment then how can one discuss any issue with you. I have already answered your question regarding why I use the name Mansoor Hallaj [your query and my reply is mentioned below with yours and mine original posts. By the way before starting a new discussion on Kharijites you must differentiate between Sects and School of Thought. And please when you start discussion on an issue related with Islam then cite Quranic Text and then Hadith not the opinion of any Tom, Dick or Harry e.g. Maulana Waheeduddin Khan [though a great Indian Scholar of repute]. You can declare me Kharji, Atheist, Communist, Socialist, Wahaabi or whatever you like because I am least bothered about Name Tags and I damn Care. Before mixing Schools of Thought [Hanafi, Maliki, Shafa'i and Hanbali] and Deviant Sects [e.g. Kharijis, Motazilla, Murjiyaa, Rafidha] you must at least have basic knowledge about them and for a start I would
 suggest 4 Books [Originally in Arabic but Translations are available in Pakistan and if you live in Karach then go to Fazlee Sons Urdu Bazar and get and then come and discuss]:

1 - Al-Fisal fi al-Milal wa al-Ahwa' wa al-Nihal ("The Separators Concerning Religions, Heresies, and Sects") by  Ibn Hazm al-Andalusi Al Zahiri.

2 - Al-Milal wa al-Nihal كتاب الملل و النحل, The Book of Sects and Creeds by Abdul Karim Al Shahrastani.

Dear Sir,

Since you have a very fond regard [Husn-e-Zann] for Sufis therefore I would request you to read the book allegedly written by Saint of Saints i.e. so-called Ghaus Pak Qadir Jeelani and do read attentively as to what kind of language he used against the Followers of Hanafi Fiqh and Shia School of Thought.

3 -  Al-Ghunya li-talibi tariq al-haqq wa al-din (Sufficient Provision for Seekers of the Path of Truth and Religion) by Abdul-Qadir Gilani

4 - Talbees Iblees - Arabic [The Devil's Deception] by Ibn al-Jawzee explosive on the Shi'a school of thought in Islam, as well as various other groups such as the Khawaarij (Khaarijites) and the Baatineeyah.
[also available in Urdu]

English Translations Talbees Iblees [The Devil's Deception] A - Translated By D.S. Margoliouth Edited By N.K. Singh Published In India, B -  Translated Dr. Bilal Philips'

Background of EMAIL ID MANSOOR HALLAJ:

By the way I am using the name Mansoor Hallaj as a symbolic gesture [please don’t read any meaning into it]. Names, Stones, Colours and Days have no importance at all.

 

 --------------------------------------------------------

 

 

 

 

From:      Mansoor Hallaj <tarot66@yahoo.com>

To:           SindhPost@yahoogroups.com, NewAgeIslam-Newsletter@newageislam.com,

 

 

--- On Wed, 10/8/08, jaag trust <jaagpkpk@yahoo.com> wrote:

sir ji

u knew mollana waheed u din wrote in his diary that " all sects or school of thoughts in islam are against Kharjies but they had true Hadiths only " i think kharjies were also puritans. don't think i am declaring u kharji, 

Note. u did not answer my previous question that why u choose ur yahoo ID as mansoor hallaj??????
========================================

Dear Sir,

Names [like my ID Mansoor Hallaj] have importance at all because Mansoor's full name was Hussain Bin Mansoor Al Hallaj [The Heretic] but there is another Hussain who is Hussain Bin Ali [May Allah be pleased with him - A Companion of the Prophet - PBUH ]. There was a Hassan Bin Sabbah [another heretic of Qila Al Amut the notorious Hasheeshain - Assassins] but there is another Hassan i.e. Hasan Ibn Ali [May Allah be pleased with him - A Companion of the Prophet Mohammad - PBUH and Ameerlul Momineen i.e. Khalifa-e-Rashid i.e. Pious Caliph] and there were many Comapnions of the Prophet Mohammad [PBUH] carrying names like Umro and Umar but there is one infernal [Jahannami] we all know carrying the name Umro bin Hasham i.e. Abu Jehel and list goes on and on. Now for a start some information on Kharijites:

"QUOTE"

Al-Khawaarij 

While Abdul Rehman Ibn Maljam [Kharji] attacked Hazrat Ali [May Allah be pleased with him] which resulted in his martyrdom and on the same day Barak Bin Abdullah [Another Kharji and friend of Ibn Maljam, had attacked Hazrat Ameer Muawiyah (May Allah be pleased with him) which resulted in injury] {Tareekh Ibn-e-Khaldun]

The Khawarij believed that Mu`awiyah (may Allah be pleased with him) had committed kufr by fighting against the Caliph, and that `Ali (may Allah be pleased with him) had also committed kufr by agreeing to an arbitration. They were a strictly religious group who believed that any sin was kufr. They eventually fragmented into around twenty sects, each accusing the others of kufr.

Zahdam ibn Mudrab narrated: I heard 'Imraan ibn Husayn saying: The Prophet (sal-Allaahu `alayhe wa sallam) said:

((The best people are those living in my generation, then those coming after them, and then those coming after (the second generation).)), [Saheeh al-Bukhaaree, 3/219]

'Abdullaah ibn Mas'ood (radhi-yallaahu 'anhu) narrated: The Prophet (sal-Allaahu `alayhe wa sallam) said:

((The people of my generation are the best, then those who follow them, and then those who follow the latter)), [Saheeh al-Bukhaaree, 3/820]

'Aa.ishah (radhi-yallaahu 'anhaa) narrated that: A person asked Allaah's Apostle (sal-Allaahu `alayhe wa sallam) as to who amongst the people were the best. He said:

((Of the generation to which I belong, then of the second generation (generation adjacent to my generation), then of the third generation (generation adjacent to the second generation).)), [Saheeh Muslim 6159]

Khawaarij 

Name of group - Khawaarij

Adherent to group - Khaarijee, plural - Khaarijiyyoon 

The Khawaarij are a sect which came out to kill 'Alee ibn Abee Taalib (radhi-yallaahu 'anhu) concerning the issue of ruling/leadership. 

Their chosen path was one of distancing themselves from 'Uthmaan ibn 'Affaan and 'Alee ibn Abee Taalib (radhi-yallaahu 'anhumaa), and condoning walking out against the Imaam (leader) and seeking to overthrow him if he opposes the Sunnah. Likewise, they would make takfeer (render someone a kaafir) of anyone who commits a major sin and claim that he will forever abide in the Fire of Hell. 

ash-Shahrastaanee defines them as: 

((Anyone who walks out against (seeking to overthrow) the true appointed Imaam (leader) upon whose leadership the Jamaa'ah is in agreement is called a Khaarijee. This is the case, despite whether the walking out (against the Imaam) occurred in the days of the Rightly-Guided Khulafaa. or other than them from the Taabi'een)). 

And some of the pious predecessors used to call all those who practiced Islaam based upon their desires as Khawaarij. 

The Khawaarij were the first sect to appear in the history of Islaam, splitting up into more than 20 different sub-sects. However, it is said that the major sub-sects of the Khawaarij are seven:

1) al-Mahkamah al-Oolaa;

2) al-Azaariqah;

3) an-Najdaat;

4) ath-Thu'aalabah;

5) al-'Ajaaridah;

6) al-Abaadhiyyah;

7) as-Safriyyah. 

Some of the other sub-sects include:

1) al-Ibaathiyyah;

2) ash-Shamraakhiyyah;

3) as-Salaydiyyah;

4) as-Sirriyyah;

5) al-'Azriyyah;

6) al-'Ajradiyyah;

7) ash-Shakkiyyah;

8) al-Fadhaliyyah;

9) al-Bayhasiyyah;

10) al-'Atwiyyah;

11) al-Fadeekiyyah;

12) al-Ja'diyyah;

13) ash-Shaybiyyah;

14) al-Hurooriyyah;

15) al-Khamariyyah;

16) ash-Sharaah. 

Deviant Ideology of Khawaarij - Khaarijee, plural - Khaarijiyyoon of the present time:

Far removed is Allaah from all imperfections! And that which is happening today, is it not from the actions of the Khawaarij? And it is declaring the Muslims to be disbelievers, and more severe than that is the killing of the Muslims and transgressing against them through terrorist activities. And this is the manhaj of the Khawaarij, it comprises of three aspects: 

Firstly - Takfeer of the Muslims. 

Secondly - Disobedience to the ruler. 

Thirdly - Making permissible the blood of the Muslims. 

This is the manhaj of the Khawaarij, and even if a person believed it in his heart and did not speak (with any of it) or did not act out any of it, he would still become a Khaarijee in his belief and opinion, which he did not express openly. 



The Prophet said: 

إنَّ أمّتكم هذه جُعل عافيتها في أوّلها، وسيصيب آخرَها بلاء وأمورٌ تنكِرونَها، 

وتجيء فتنٌ يرقّق بعضُها بعضاً، وتجيء الفتنة فيقول المؤمن: هذه مهلكَتي، 

ثم تَنكشِف، ثم تجيء الفتنة فيقول: هذِه هذه، 

فمَن أحبَّ أن يُزحزَح عن النار ويُدخَل الجنّة فلتأتِه منيّتُه وهو يؤمن بالله 

واليوم الآخر، وليَأتِ إلى الناس الذي يحبُّ أن يُؤتَى إليه

“Safety of this your ummah lies in its first generation. Its later generations will be afflicted with calamities and things you will find repulsive. Trials will follow one another successively until later ones will make the former seem insignificant until the believer will say at the advent of each trial: ‘This is the one that is going to destroy me.’ So let whosoever wants to be saved from Hell and made to enter Paradise die while he is believing in Allaah and the Last Day and let him do to people what he would like them to do to him .” (Muslim) 

Abd-Allaah ibn Mas’ood spoke the truth when he described the companions of the Prophet ( صلى الله عليه وسلم ) by saying: 

فإن الحي لا يؤمن عليه الفتنة، أولئك أصحاب محمد صلى الله عليه وسلم من كان منكم مستنا ، فليستن بمن قد مات أبر هذه الأمة قلوبا ، وأعمقها علما ،

وأقلها تكلفا ، قوم اختارهم الله لإقامة دينه ، وصحبة نبيه ، 

فاعرفوا لهم حقهم وتمسكوا بهديهم ، فإنهم كانوا على الهدى المستقيم

“Whoever wants to follow a path, let him follow the path of one who has died, for there is no guarantee that the one who is still alive will not be tempted. Those are the companions of Muhammad ( صلى الله عليه وسلم ), the most pure in heart of this ummah and the most deep in knowledge, the least sophisticated and complicated, people whom Allaah chose to establish His religion and accompany His Prophet. So acknowledge their rights and adhere to their guidance, for they are following true guidance .”

وَإِنَّ مِنْهُمْ لَفَرِيقًا يَلْوُونَ أَلْسِنَتَهُم بِالْكِتَابِ لِتَحْسَبُوهُ مِنَ الْكِتَابِ 

وَمَا هُوَ مِنَ الْكِتَابِ وَيَقُولُونَ هُوَ مِنْ عِندِ اللّهِ وَمَا هُوَ مِنْ عِندِ اللّهِ 

وَيَقُولُونَ عَلَى اللّهِ الْكَذِبَ وَهُمْ يَعْلَمُونَ

{ and verily, among them is a party who distort the Book with their tongues (while they read it) , so that you may think it is from the Book, but it is not from the Book, and they say, “This is from Allah,” but it is not from Allah; and they speak a lie against Allah while they know it.} [3:78]. 

Imam ibn Al-Qayyim said, “The origin of Kufr and Shirk comes from saying about Allah without knowledge, which is one of the most prohibited acts in the Sight of Allah. It produces the most harmful effects, because it entails lying with regards to Allah and describing Him with what is not appropriate. This also entails changing and altering Allah’s religion, denying what He has approved while approving what He has denied, implementing what He has rejected while rejecting what He has commanded to be carried out, hating those who are His loyalists while taking His enemies as loyal friends, detesting what He loves while loving what He hates, and describing Him with what is not appropriate with regards to His Attributes, Speech and Actions.” 

Allah has forbidden us from following our lusts and desires, and declared that doing so is not the path of the believers, but instead is the path of the disbelievers and the heretics. Allah said about such people, what translated means, 

أَفَرَأَيْتَ مَنِ اتَّخَذَ إِلَهَهُ هَوَاهُ

Have you seen him who takes his own lust (vain desires) as his ilah (god)? [45:23]. 

The Salaf used to call those who follow the sayings that contradict the Quran and Sunnah and those who innovate in the religion, “Ahlu Al- Ahwa’,” meaning the people who follow the desires. 

This is because such people discard the Quran and Sunnah and what they legislate, and instead follow their opinions and desires and depend on them. 

They have even made their desires and lusts as the indisputable source of legislation, and declared that the Texts of the Quran and Sunnah do not necessarily lead to certain and clear rulings. 

They thus accept the Texts only if they are in harmony with their opinions and desires, and they reject the rest or alter their meanings in the manner they see fit. 

The Messenger of Allaah said, 

إياكم والغلو في الدين، فإنما أهلك من كان قبلكم الغلو في الدين

"Beware of extremism in religion, for it is extremism in religion that destroyed those who were before you." (Ahmad and An-Nasaaee) 

Imaam Maalik said, 

ينبغي للمرء أن لا يتكلم إلا فيما أحاط به خيرًا، فقد كان رسول الله وهو إمام المسلمين وسيد العالمين يُسأل في الشيء، فما يجيب حتى يأتيه الوحي من السماء

“It is incumbent upon a person not to speak on an issue until he knows everything about it. Even the Messenger of Allaah who is the leader of all Muslims would not answer a question posed to him until he received a revelation to that effect from Heaven.” 

Asking the people of knowledge 

فَاسْأَلُواْ أَهْلَ الذِّكْرِ إِن كُنتُمْ لاَ تَعْلَمُونَ

Ask the people of knowledge if you do not know. ( 16:43) 

The Shaykh ‘Allaamah Saalih Al-Fawzaan was asked: 

هل أسامة بن لادن ومن تبعه من قوله وأيدهم على مذهبهم يُعتبرون من الخوارج؟

Is Bin Laden and those who follow his views and promote his beliefs considered to be from the (deviant sect known as the) Khawaarij?

He responded: 

عندكم قاعدة أن الذي يخرج على ولي الأمر أنه من الخوارج سواء أسامة بن لادن أو غيره، اللي يخرج على ولاة أمور المسلمين هذا من الخوارج . 

There is a (well known) principle, and this is that everyone who rebels against those in authority is considered to be from the Khawaarij, whether this is Bin Laden or anyone else. Anyone who rebels against the Muslim leaders is deemed to be from the Khawaarij. 

1427/2/5 in the lesson ‘The Explanation of the Creed' 

Question: Are those who carry the ideology of the Khawarij present today? 

Answer: Far removed is Allah from all imperfections! And that which is happening today, is it not from the actions of the Khawarij? And it is declaring the Muslims to be disbelievers, and more severe than that is the killing of the Muslims and transgressing against them through terrorist activities. And this is the Manhaj of the Khawarij, it comprises of three aspects: 

Firstly - Takfir of the Muslims. 

Secondly - Disobedience to the ruler. 

Thirdly - Making permissible the blood of the Muslims. 

This is the Manhaj of the Khawarij, and even if a person believed it in his heart and did not speak (with any of it) or did not act out any of it, he would still become a Khariji in his belief and opinion, which he did not express openly. 

Shaykh Salih al-Fawazan 

Al-Ijaabaat al-Muhimmah fee Mashaakil il-Mudlahimmah, compiled by Muhammad bin Fahd al-Husayn. 

Translated by Abul-Irbaad Abid Zargar 

Question: Is the one who makes Takfir of the rulers and encourages the Muslims to revolt against their rulers, to be considered from the Khawarij? 

Answer: This is the Madhhab of the Khawarij. When an individual holds it permissible to revolt against the Muslim rulers, and more severe than that is to declare them to be disbelievers. This is the Madhhab of the Khawarij. 

Shaykh Salih al-Fawazan 

Al-Ijaabaat al-Muhimmah fee Mashaakil il-Mudlahimmah, compiled by Muhammad bin Fahad al-Husayn. 

Translated by Abul-Irbaad Abid Zargar 

Question: What is our position towards those who make Takfir of the Muslim rulers today, generally and in detail? Are they (those who make Takfir of the rulers) considered to be from the Khawarij? 

Answer: Those who declare the Muslim rulers to be disbelievers in general, then these are from the most extreme of the Khawarij because they do not exclude anyone and give the ruling of disbelief to all the Muslims rulers. So this is most severe form of the Madhhab of the Khawarij, because they generalized (the declaration of disbelief). 

Shaykh Saleh al-Fawazan 

Al-Ijaabaat al-Muhimmah fee Mashaakil il-Mudlahimmah” by Muhammad bin Fahad al-Husayn 

Translated by Abul-Irbaad Abid Zargar 

Question: What is your advice to those who say that this country fights the deen and restricts the du’aat? 

Answer: Since the Saudi state began, it has been aiding the deen and its people, and it was not set up except on this foundation. 

And now it aids the Muslims in every place with financial help, building Islamic centers and masajid, sending du’aat, printing books foremost amongst them - the Noble Qur’an, opening centers of learning and Shari’ah colleges, and also it rules by the Islamic Shari’ah and has an independent body for enjoining good and forbidding evil in every town. 

And all of that is a proof that this state aids Islam and its people, and it is a thorn in the throats of the hypocrites and the people of evil and splitting. 

And Allah will aid His deen even if the mushrikun and those of evil intentions hate it. 

And we do not say that this state is perfect in every way and that it doesn’t have any mistakes. 

Mistakes occur from everyone, but we ask Allah to aid us in rectifying the mistakes. 

And if the one who said this looked at himself he would find mistakes in himself which would prevent him from speaking about others and he would be ashamed to look at the people. Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzaan

إِنَّمَا جَزَاءُ الَّذِينَ يُحَارِبُونَ اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ وَيَسْعَوْنَ فِي الأَرْضِ فَسَادًا 

أَنْ يُقَتَّلُوا أَوْ يُصَلَّبُوا أَوْ تُقَطَّعَ أَيْدِيهِمْ وَأَرْجُلُهُمْ مِنْ خِلافٍ أَوْ يُنفَوْا مِنْ الأَرْضِ 

ذَلِكَ لَهُمْ خِزْيٌ فِي الدُّنيَا وَلَهُمْ فِي الآخِرَةِ عَذَابٌ عَظِيمٌ 

“The recompense of those who wage war against Allaah and His Messenger and do mischief in the land is only that they shall be killed or crucified or their hands and their feet be cut off from opposite sides, or be exiled from the land. That is their disgrace in this world, and a great torment is theirs in the Hereafter.” (Al-Maaidah 5:33) 

HISTORY OF KHAWAARIJ 

Al-Khawarij is plural for “Kharij”, meaning one who rebels against the acknowledged Muslim ruler whom Islam obliges every Muslim to obey and not rebel against. 

This definition of Al- Khawarij, which is taken from Islamic terminology, has become a trademark for the twelve thousand Muslims who rebelled against Caliph Ali bin Abi Talib, may Allah be pleased with him, and this includes all the groups that followed their way of understanding the religion. 

These groups have since been known as “Al-Khawarij” even though they carried different names. 

Among those groups are: Al- Muh’akkimah, Ash- Sharat, Al- ‘Haroriyyah, An- Nawa-sib, and Al- Mariqhah. 

Al-Khawarij are the people whom the Messenger of Allah, Salla Allahu Alayhi Wasallam, mentioned when he said, what translated means, “A group will go astray during a time of division between Muslims. The closest among the adversaries (the side of Ali bin Abi Talib and the side of Mu’awiyah) to the Truth will kill them (the deviant group, Al-Khawarij) .” 

Also, the Messenger of Allah, Salla Allahu Alayhi Wasallam, said regarding a man who once accused him of injustice, “From among the offspring of this man there will rise a people who will read the Quran but it will not go beyond their throats (meaning it will not enter their hearts). They will kill Muslims and spare Idol-worshippers. They will deviate from Islam (as fast and clean) as an arrow pierces the game. If I live to witness their appearance, I will kill them as the people of ‘Aad (whom Allah utterly destroyed and annihilated because of their disbelief) were killed.” [Al-Bukhari & Muslim]. 

He further said, “Just before the end of time, young, idiotic people will rise. They will say words similar to (the good words) of the best people. They will recite the Quran, but it will not go beyond their throats. They will deviate from the religion as fast as an arrow pierces the game. If you meet them, kill them, for killing them will bring about a reward from Allah on the Day of Resurrection for whoever kills them.” [Al-Bukhari & Muslim]. 

The companions of the Messenger of Allah, Salla Allahu Alayhi Wasallam, were unanimous in their decision to fight Al-Khawarij. Also, the majority of the scholars of Islam state that it is an obligation to fight them. 

Soon after they appeared as a distinct group, Al-Khawarij divided into seven groups, among them Al- Muh’akkimah who fought Ali bin Abi Talib. 

Al-Khawarij accused Ali of Kufr and announced their animosity towards him. They departed to Haroraa’ and chose two men as their leaders, one to lead them in prayer and the other to lead their forces in battle. When Ali realized the danger posed by these people, he sent Abdullah Ibn Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, to debate them and expose their erroneous ways. Ibn Abbas argued with them and refuted the arguments supporting the positions they took. Many of them abandoned the camp of Al-’Haroriyyah and rejoined the camp of Caliph Ali bin Abi Talib. 

However, their leaders and those who remained with them refused to abandon their rebellion against the righteous Khalifah, Ali. They announced that their campaign of war against their adversaries will continue. Ali bin Abi Talib then decided to meet them himself. 

He called upon them to rejoin the ranks of the Khalifah and abandon their deviant ways. He also refuted their arguments and nullified their misguided way of understanding the religion. 

However, they persisted in their defiance of the Khalifah and camped their forces at the area of An-Nahrawan. 

On their way to An-Nahrawan, Al-Khawarij met Abdullah -- the son of Khabbab bin Al-Aratt, a noble companion of the Messenger Salla Allahu Alayhi Wasallam, and seized him. They asked him, “Who are you?” He replied, “I am Abdullah bin Khabbab, the companion of the Messenger Salla Allahu Alayhi Wasallam.” They said, “Narrate to us a Hadith you heard from your father who related it to the Messenger Salla Allahu Alayhi Wasallam.” He said, “I heard my father say, ‘The Messenger of Allah, Salla Allahu Alayhi Wasallam, said, ‘There will be a Fitnah (calamity and division) in which those who sit idle are better than those who walk, and those who walk are better than those who rush. Therefore, whoever has no choice but to kill or be killed, let him be killed and let him not be the killer.’” They asked him, “What do you say regarding Abu Bakr and Umar?” Abdullah said good words of praise regarding them. They said, “What do you say with
regards to At- Ta’hkim (when Ali and Mu’awiyah reverted to some of the companions to judge between them in their dispute, according to the Quran and Sunnah)?” 

He said, “I say that Ali has better knowledge in the Book of Allah, is more careful with the religion, and has more wisdom than you!” They said, “You do not follow the Truth and Guidance. Rather, you follow men according to their fame.” They then said to him, “This Quran (which you carry) around your neck commands us to kill you.” He said, “Whoever the Quran preserves his life, you preserve his life in turn. 

And whoever the Quran sheds his blood, give him death in turn.” Then, they brought Abdullah bin Khabbab closer to the river, and one of them, Musmi’ bin Qhadali, slit his throat. Then, they entered his house and killed his children and also his wife, who was pregnant, and slit open her stomach. 

When Ali bin Talib heard what Al-Khawarij did to Abdullah bin Khabbab and his family, he led an expedition of four thousand soldiers to arrest those who committed this atrocity. When he reached their area, he asked them to deliver those who killed Abdullah. They said to Ali’s emissary, “We all killed him. And, furthermore, if we catch you (meaning 

Ali) we will kill you too.” Then, Ali prepared to fight them. 

But before the battle commenced, he asked them, “What do you dislike as regards my matter?” They said, “We hate that you, when we fought with you on the Day (incident) of Al-Jamal, allowed for us their (the side of ‘Aaishah, Tal’hah, and Az-Zubair) possessions after we defeated them but did not allow us to seize their women and children as slaves. Why did you allow us to shed their blood and seize their possessions but not their women and children?” Ali said, “I only allowed you to seize their possession in return for their looting the Muslim treasury in the city of Basrah before I came to meet them (to convince them to end their rebellion). As for their women and children, they did not fight against us and they, therefore, still enjoyed the rights of Muslims who live in the Islamic state. Also, if I had allowed their women for you, who among you would have liked to take ‘Aaishah (the Prophet’s wife) as his share?” They became ashamed
and silent. 

Thereafter, Ali refuted all their arguments and, as a consequence, eight thousand of them rejoined his camp. However, four thousand of them insisted on fighting, led by Abdullah bin Wahb Ar-Rasibi and Thu Al-Khuwaysirah (also known as Thu Ath-Thadiyyah) , whose name was Hurqus bin Zaid. 

Soon afterwards, the battle between Ali and Al-Khawarij commenced, and Ali’s army defeated and killed them all except nine people. 

After the battle ended, Ali ordered his soldiers to search for Thu Ath- Thadiyyah, who was then found among the dead. Ali then said, “Allah and His Messenger have said the truth,” because before he passed away, the Prophet Salla Allahu Alayhi Wasallam had told Ali that he should search for Thu Ath-Thadiyyah among the dead when he meets these rebels. 

This sect of Al-Khawarij, also known as Al-Mu’hakkimah, considers Uthman, Ali, ‘Aaishah, Tal’hah, and Az-Zubair as Kuffar. They also oblige the removal or assassination of the Muslim ruler who does not agree with their way of understanding the religion. 

Furthermore, they accept the Muslim Ummah being leaderless, allow shedding the blood of the women and children of their adversaries, consider those who fall into major sins as Kuffar, and prohibit marrying the women of those who do not follow them, because they consider them also as Kuffar. 

Also, among the sub-sects of Al-Khawarij is Al-Bayhasiyyah. They are the followers of Abu Bayhas, Al- Haytham bin Jabir. They claim that knowledge is only knowing Allah and what the Messenger of Allah, Salla Allahu Alayhi Wasallam, was sent with. They consider whoever falls into an action not knowing if it permissible or forbidden as Kafir, since he lacks the “knowledge”. 

Al-Azariqhah is another Khawarij sub-sect. They are the followers of Nafi’ bin Al-Azraqh who was known as Abu Rashid. When he first appeared, he rebelled against Abdullah bin Az-Zubayr -- a companion of the Messenger of Allah, Salla Allahu Alayhi Wasallam. Many people from Oman and Al-Yamamah also joined Nafi’. They later moved to Persia and took over the area of Al- Ahwaz after they killed Abdullah bin Az-Zubayr’s deputy in that area. They soon controlled Al-Ahwaz and adjacent areas in Persia. 

As is the case with other deviant sects, Al-Azariqhah consider their adversaries as Kuffar. They consider those who join their ranks as believers and all others who do not as Kuffar. Yet, they believe that whoever joins their ranks must first be tested to prove his allegiance by ordering him to kill a Muslim captive. Otherwise, he would be killed himself. Also, Al- Azariqhah permit killing the women and children of their adversaries and consider those adversaries to be bound to dwell in Hell for eternity along with their women and children. They also consider the areas that do not join them to be areas of Kufr. Furthermore, they abandon stoning the adulterer, compel women to pray and fast while in their menses, consider Muslims who commit major sins as Kuffar, and allow shedding the blood of Muslims who do not join their ranks. Yet, they prohibit shedding the blood of Jews and Christians who live under Muslim control! 

This is just as the Messenger of Allah, Salla Allahu Alayhi Wasallam, described them that, “They kill Muslims and spare idol-worshippers.” Also, Al-Azariqhah would cut the hand and arm of the thief, while Islam commands cutting the thief’s hand only from the wrist. They also claim that the Ayah, 

And of mankind there is he whose speech may please you (O Mohammad) in this worldly life.[2:204] , describes Ali bin Abi Talib, and that the Ayah, 

And of mankind is he who would sell himself, seeking the Pleasure of Allah. [2:207], describes Ibn Muljim, the cursed criminal who killed Ali, may Allah be pleased with him. 

Najdah bin Amir was the leader of yet another Khawarij subsect called “An-Najdaat”, which established its stronghold in Al-Yamamah. They believe that it is an act of Kufr to consider as Kuffar those followers who could not physically join their forces. They also believe that those who agree with their beliefs will not enter Hell, and if they are punished in Hell, it will be because of their other sins and not because they joined their sect. They also give their loyalty to their followers who fall into major sins but consider insisting on committing minor sins as Kufr. Furthermore, they do not consider those who persist on committing major sins as Kuffar. In addition, they allow shedding the blood of their neighbors as well as their adversaries. 

Another sub-sect of Al- Khawarij is As-Safriyyah, followers of Ziyad bin Al-Asfar. This group does not consider as Kuffar those who believe in their way but do not join their ranks. Also, they do not consider the children of their adversaries as Kuffar or that they will abide in Hell forever. They differ, however, on whether those who commit major sins are Kuffar or not. Some of them consider such sinners as Kuffar. Others, on the other hand, disagree, except in the case of those caught committing major sins and are thus punished for these sins by the rulers.Some of them claim that major sins that have prescribed punishment will not cause whoever commits them to become a Kafir, while actions that do not have a prescribed punishments, such as abandoning the obligatory prayer or Az-Zakat, will cause one to become a Kafir. They also allow women to assume leadership positions. 

Another Khawarij sub-sect, “Al-Ajaridah”, are followers of Al- Karim bin Ajrad. This group disowns their own children before they reach the age of puberty. After the child becomes an adult, they oblige calling him unto Islam and teaching him matters of the religion. They do not allow shedding the blood of Ahlu As- Sunnah except if they meet them in battle. They also consider those who commit major sins as Kuffar. 

Ath-Tha’alibah is yet another Khawarij sub-sect. This group was started by Tha’labah bin Mashkan, who used to be a follower of the Ajaridah before he started his own sect. This group later divided into six sects, the first being the followers of Tha’labah himself who persisted on his path. As for those who formed their own sects after they were followers of Ath-Tha’alibah, they include Al- Ma’badiyyah, followers of Ma’bad bin Abdurra’hman, who declare other Tha’alibah as Kuffar and who used to take Az-Zakat due on the possessions of their rich slaves. They also include Al-Akhnasiyyah, followers of Al- Akhnas bin Qays, who differed with Ath-Tha’alibah when they hesitated to call those who might appear to be disbelievers, yet conceal their Islam, as Kuffar. These sects also include followers of Rashid At-Tawsi, who were called Ar-Rashidiyyah. This sect disowned all those who disagree with them. There is also Al-Mukarramiyyah, followers of
Abu Mukarram Al-’Ijli. This group considers those who fall into major sins as Kuffar because they are ignorant about Allah.Again, this group also considers those who disagree with them as Kuffar, and their adversaries from among Ath- Tha’alibah considered them Kuffar in turn. The sixth Tha’alibah sub-sect was called Ash-Shaybaniyyah, followers of Shayban bin Salam. This is the sect which Abu Muslim Al-Khurasani, the leader of the Abbasid armies, fought and defeated, killing Shayban and capturing the rest of his followers. This was the end of Ath- Tha’alibah who denied Allah’s Attributes and also resembled Allah with the creation. 

Another major sub-sect of Al-Khawarij is the one still known as “Al- Ibadhiyyah”, who are the followers of Abdullah bin Ibadh Al-Murri. He permitted Al-Ibadhiyyah to marry women from Ahlu As-Sunnah and accepted the testimony of Ahlu As- Sunnah even against the Ibadhiyyah Themselves because they consider that the general name of Islam still bonds them together. 

This group only allowed the shedding the blood of Ahlu As-Sunnah in battle. They fell into confusion when they considered their adversaries as Kuffar (disbelievers) , but not Mushrikeen (polytheist) . 

Al-Ibadhiyyah also divided into six sects. 

The first is Al-Yazidiyyah, followers of Yazid bin Anas who claimed that another Prophet will be sent for non-Arabs and that his law will replace Prophet Mohammad’s Law. They also claimed that Arabs who attest that there is no god except Allah and that Mohammad is His Messenger are believers even if they do not actually embrace and abide by Islamic laws. Therefore, according to this false claim, Arab Jews and Christians are considered believers if they only declare the Shahadatayn (the Testimony) with their tongues. 

The second sub-sect of Al- Ibadhyyah is known as Al-Hafsiyyah, followers of Al-Hafs bin Abi Al- Miqdam. They claim that belief is merely knowing Allah and that this suffices if one disbelieves in the Prophets, the angels, Paradise, Hell, Resurrection, and Reckoning. They consider those who know Allah to be saved from Shirk even if they commit all types of major sins. 

The third Ibadhi sub-sect is known as Al-’Harithiyyah, followers of Al-’Harith bin Yazid. This sect denies Predestination and Allah’s Will and condones acts of worship that are not meant for the sake of Allah. The last three Ibadhi sub-sects are Al- Ibrahimiyyah, Al-Maymoniyyah, and Al-Waqifiyyah. 

We have shown how this deviant sect, Al-Khawarij, divided among themselves, and we also clarified the major beliefs of different Khawarij sub-sects. 

From this short summary of their beliefs and practices, we now know the imminent danger of their beliefs, many of which still flourish among ignorant Muslims in the present time. 

The beliefs of Al-Khawarij have always been and still pose grave danger to Islam and Muslims. 

We ask Allah for protection and safety from the misguided beliefs of Al-Khawarij and their likes, for He is the All-Hearer and the only One Who fulfills the Du’aa’. 

THE GREAT DEBATE of Ibn Abbas’s

The story of Ibn Abbas’s (May Allah be pleased with him and his Father) debate against them is in the Mustadrik of Hakam (2/150-152) in an authentic chain and upon the conditions of acceptance of Imam Muslim. 

In it is the statement of Ibn Abbas: 

أتيتُكم من عند صحابة النَّبيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم من المهاجرين والأنصار، لأبلِّغكم ما يقولون،المخبرون بما يقولون، فعليهم نزل القرآن، وهم أعلمُ بالوحي منكم، وفيهم أنزل، وليس فيكم منهم أحد

“I come to you from the Companions of the Prophet ( صلى الله عليه وسلم ) from amongst the Muhajireen and Ansaar to inform you of what they say. They were present when the Qur’an was revealed, and they are more knowledgeable about the revelation than you are and were present at its descending, and not a single one of you is from them. So some of them said: لا تخاصموا قريشاً Do not dispute with a person from the Quraish because 

Allah says: بَلْ هُمْ قَوْمٌ خَصِمُونَ But they are a quarrelsome people Ibn Abbas (May Allah be pleased with him and his Father) said: 

وأتيتُ قوماً لم أرَ قوماً قطُّ أشدَّ اجتهاداً منهم، مسهمة وجوههم من السَّهر، كأنَّ أيديهم وركبهم تثنى عليهم، فمضى من حضر

“I never saw a people striving harder in doing deeds. Their faces were marked with lines from abstaining from sleep. It was as if their hands and knees praised them. 

So those who were present proceeded, and some of them said, 

لنكلِّمنَّه ولننظرنَّ ما يقول

“By Allah we will speak to him and debate what he says”I asked: 

أخبروني ماذا نقمتم على ابن عمِّ رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم وصهره والمهاجرين والأنصار؟

“Why do you have resentment against the cousin of the Messenger of Allah ( صلى الله عليه وسلم ) his in-laws, the Muhajireen and Ansaar? They said:” (because of) ثلاثاً Three things” I asked: ما هنَّ؟ “What are they?” 

They said: أمَّا إحداهنَّ فإنَّه حكم الرِّجالَ في أمر الله، “As for the first one it is that he made men arbitrators in the matters of Allah. And Allah said: 

إِنِ الْحُكْمُ إِلاَّ لِلّهِ Verily! The decision rests only with Allah [Yusuf: 67]

I said: هذه واحدة “ This is one” And they said: 

ولَم يسْب ولَم يغنَم، فلئن كان الذي قاتل كفَّاراً لقد حلَّ سبيُهم وغنيمتهم،

ولئن كانوا مؤمنين ما حلَّ قتالُهم

“As for the other, it is that he fought and did not take captives or booty of war. If the ones being fought are disbelievers, then indeed it is permissible to take them captive and take the booty of war, and if they were believers it would not be permissible to fight them. 

I said: هذه ثنتان، فما الثالثة؟ “ That’s two, so what is the third one?” 

They said: إنَّه مَحا نفسَه من أمير المؤمنين، فهو أمير الكافرين “He wiped out the title of ‘Amir al-Mu’mineen’ for himself, so he is the Amir of the disbelievers.” 

I said: أعندكم سوى هذا؟ “Do you have anything others than these? They said: حسبنا هذا “ This suffices us” So I said to them: 

أرأيتم إن قرأت عليكم من كتاب الله ومن سنَّة نبيِّه صلى الله عليه وسلم

ما يُردُّ به قولُكم أتَرضَون؟

“If I read of the Qur’an and Sunnah that which refutes these claims, will you be pleased? They said: نعم! “Yes” So I said: 

أمَّا قولكم: حكَّم الرِّجال في أمر الله، فأنا أقرأ عليكم ما قد رُدَّ حكمُه إلى الرِّجال في ثمن ربع درهم، في أرنب ونحوها من الصيد

As for your statement: ‘A man has arbitrated in the matter of Allah’, I will read to you what has given the power of arbitration to men concerning a killed rabbit and the likes of that which is hunted which price is worth a quarter of a dirham. Allah says: 

:(( يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ لاَ تَقْتُلُواْ الصَّيْدَ وَأَنتُمْ حُرُمٌ ))

إلى قوله: (( يَحْكُمُ بِهِ ذَوَا عَدْلٍ مِّنكُمْ ))،

O you who believe! Kill not game while you are in a state of Ihram (for Hajj or 'Umrah), and whosoever of you kills it intentionally, the penalty is an offering, brought to the Ka'bah, of an eatable animal (i.e. sheep, goat, cow, etc.) equivalent to the one he killed, as adjudged by two just men among you; [Maidah: 95] 

فنشدتكم الله: أحُكم الرِّجال في أرنب ونحوها من الصيد أفضل أم حكمهم في دمائهم وصلاح ذات بينهم؟!

وأن تعلموا أنَّ الله لو شاء لَحَكم ولَم يُصيِّر ذلك إلى الرِّجال، وفي المرأة وزوجها

I ask you by Allah, is the arbitration of men concerning a rabbit and its like of hunted animals better than their arbitration regarding bloodshed and reconciliation between themselves? And you are aware that if Allah wished he would have decided the matters himself and not left it to men. And concerning a woman and her husband Allah says: 

وَإِنْ خِفْتُمْ شِقَاقَ بَيْنِهِمَا فَابْعَثُواْ حَكَماً مِّنْ أَهْلِهِ وَحَكَماً مِّنْ أَهْلِهَا إِن يُرِيدَا إِصْلاَحاً يُوَفِّقِ اللّهُ بَيْنَهُمَا

"If you fear separation between them, appoint an arbitrator from his family and from her family; if they both wish for peace, Allah will cause their reconciliation" [Nis’aa: 35] 

فجعل الله حكم الرِّجال سنة مأمونة، أخَرَجتُ من هذه؟

So Allah has made the judgement of men a reliable Sunnah. Have I convinced you on this?” They replied: : نعم! “Yes” (I said to them): 

قاتَل ولم يسْب ولم يغنم، أَتَسبُون أمَّكم عائشة، ثمَّ تستحلُّون منها ما يُستحلُّ من غيرها؟! 

فلئن فعلتم لقد كفرتُم، وهي أمُّكم، ولئن قلتُم: ليست أمَّنا لقد كفرتُم

Regarding your saying ‘You fought them, but did not seize their booty nor capture them,’ Can you capture your Mother 'Aisha then make permissible concerning her what is permissibility concerning other female slaves. 

If you say that she can be captured and treated like any of the other female slaves, you have surely committed disbelief, because she is your mother. If you say that ‘she is not our mother’ than you have also committed disbelief, for Allah says: 

النَّبِيُّ أَوْلَى بِالْمُؤْمِنِينَ مِنْ أَنفُسِهِمْ وَأَزْوَاجُهُ أُمَّهَاتُهُمْ

The Prophet is closer to the believers than their ownselves, and his wives are their (believers') mothers (as regards respect and marriage). [Ahzab: 6] 

فأنتم تدورون بين ضلالَتين، أيّهما صرتُم إليها صرتُم إلى ضلالة، فنظر بعضُهم إلى بعض،

You are thus hovering between two deviations. Whichever one you go towards, you go towards misguidance.” 

So some of them began to look at each other.I asked: أخرجتُ من هذه؟ “Have I convinced you?” They replied: نعم! “ Yes” (I said to them): 

مَحا اسمَه من أمير المؤمنين، فأنا آتيكم بمَن ترضَون وأريكم، قد سمعتُم أنَّ النَّبيَّ صلى الله عليه وسلم يوم الحُديبية كاتَبَ سُهيل بن عمرو وأبا سفيان بن حرب،

فقال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم لأمير المؤمنين

اكتب يا علي: هذا ما اصطلح عليه محمد رسول الله، فقال المشركون:

لا والله! لو نعلم أنَّك رسول الله ما قاتلناك،

فقال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم : اللَّهم إنَّك تعلمُ أنِّي رسول الله، اكتب يا علي:

هذا ما اصطلح عليه محمد بن عبد الله، فوالله لرسول الله خيرٌ من علي،

وما أخرجه من النبوة حين محا نفسَه

And as for your statement that he wiped out the title of ‘Amir al- Mu’mineen’ for himself, I will show and bring you proof by one whom you are pleased with. I heard on the Day of Hudaybiyyah, when the treaty was being drafted by Suhail bin Amr and Abu Sufyan bin Harb, the Messenger of Allah ( صلى الله عليه وسلم ) say to the Amir ul Mu’mineen: "Write O’ 'Ali: ‘This is what has been agreed upon by Muhammad, the Messenger of Allah’." The Mushrikeen objected to this saying: "No, By Allah, if we believed that you were the Messenger of Allah, we would not have fought you." Upon this, the Messenger of Allah ( صلى الله عليه وسلم ) said: O’ Allah you know that I am the Messenger of Allah. Write O’ Ali ‘This is what has been agreed upon by Muhammad bin Abdullah.’ …For I swear by Allah that the Messenger of Allah ( صلى الله عليه وسلم ) is better than Ali, and erasing his title did not remove his
Prophethood. 

Abdullah Bin Abbas (May Allah be Pleased with him and his Father) said: 

: فرجع من القوم ألفان وقُتل سائرُهم على ضلالة

So (after this), two-thousand of them (the Khawaarij) returned to the truth and the rest of them were killed upon falsehood. 

THERE IS ENOUGH BENEFIT FOR ANYONE WHO HAS INTELLECT. 

Shaykhul Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah said, 

فإن عامة ضلال أهل البدع كان بهذا السبب، فإنهم صاروا يحملون كلام الله ورسوله على ما يدعون أنه دال عليه، وليس الأمر كذلك

“Majority of innovations have their roots in misunderstanding of Islaamic texts, for those who established innovations had wrongful perception of the Word of Allaah which they used to back up their innovations.” 

The scholars say, 

من اتباع المتشابهات الأخذ بالمطلقات قبل النظر في مقيِّداتها، أو في العمومات من غير تأمل في مخصِّصاتها، وكذلك العكس بأن يكون النص مقيدًا فيُطلق، أو خاصًا فيُعمّ بالرأي من غير دليل سواه، فإن هذا المسلك رميٌ في عماية واتباع للهوى بالدليل، وحينئذ فالخلل في هذه المسالك الاجتهادية يوقع في أخطاء فاحشة عقائدية وفرعية

“It is part of following the ambiguous evidences to take to absolute evidences before looking at its restricted aspects or to take to general rules and disregard its particular aspects like making particularized or restricted evidence a general or unrestricted one or vice versa without any tangible evidences. This may cause grave mistakes. 

For instance, the Khawaarij who revolted against ‘Alee said, “There is no judge save Allaah”, misinterpreting the Word of Allaah, “The judgement is but Allaah’s.” They thereby gave this verse a wrong meaning. 

The Khawaarij sect was later influenced by scholastic theology and its principles became very close to those of the Jahmite and Mu’tazilite sects.

They center upon the following matters: 

(1) Imputing kufr upon ‘Ali, ‘Uthmaan and other sahaabah ﻦﻴﻌﻤﺟأ ﻢﻬﻨﻋ ﷲا ﻲﺿر .

(2) The right to rebel and fight the Muslim rulers who may err or sin. 

(3) Justifying the rebellion and fight against disobedient Muslims (rulers and/or ruled) and that it is permissible for them to secede from the general body of the Muslims. 

(4) They believe that the Qur’aan is created. However, the Qur’aan is the literal Word of Allaah Who uttered it in letter and sound and which He Spoke to Jibreel عليه وسلم , directly without a mediator, and who then brought it down to the Prophet Muhammad ( صلى الله عليه وسلم ). The Qur’aan is neither the word of Jib reel nor the word of Prophet Muhammad ( صلى الله عليه وسلم ). 

(5) They distort the meanings of Allaah’s Attributes by resorting to figurative interpretation. 

(6) Like the twelver Shee’ites and other deviant sects, they deny that the believers will see Allaah on the Day of Resurrection. This contradicts what is asserted in the Qur’aan and authentic sunnah . 

(7) Imputing kufr on the Muslims who commit major sins. 

(8) The majority of the Khawaarij deny the actual punishment in the grave that Allaah inflicts upon those who deserve it. 

(9) They speak ill about the scholars الطعنُ في العلماء See the incident with Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم and Ibn Abbaas, how they treated them, this is the common amongst the mis-guided youths of today, ignorant, foolish in understanding. 

The aforementioned are some of the major characteristics of the Khawaarij.

I intended to give the reader some background about this very dangerous sect and which has influenced many Muslim groups and parties in our times leading to bloodshed in many parts of the Muslim World. The bloody confrontations are hard to stop in some places and that has distorted the view of Islam in many parts of the world. The truth, however, is emerging and will inshaa’ Allaah completely emerge on the hands of the true followers of Islam who are working hard to correct this problem with the good word without compromising the ‘aqeedah nor the manhaj . We should be able to present the truth without imitating the kufaar and their ways. In this respect, the words of Imaam Maalik ) ﷲا ﻪﻤﺣر ( are remembered: “Nothing will benefit this ummah to come except that which benefited its early generations .” Related by Imaam Ibn ‘Abdil-Barr in At-Tamheed (23:1). 

This refers to the correct creed, methodology and righteous deeds. Another point of benefit is that the Muslim should be aware that the principles of many of these sects are still alive and propagated by certain individuals and/or groups, and accordingly the believer must be cautious 

And what shows the danger of extremism and deviation from the truth and staying away from what Ahlus Sunnah wal Jama’ah is upon, is the statement of the Prophet ( صلى الله عليه وسلم ) from the Hadith of Jabir (May Allah be pleased with him): 

إنَّ أخوفَ ما أخاف عليكم رجل قرأ القرآن،

حتى إذا رُئيت بهجته عليه وكان ردءاً للإسلام، 

انسلخ منه ونبذه وراء ظهره، وسعى على جاره بالسيف ورماه بالشرك، 

قلت: يا نبيَّ الله! أيُّهما أولى بالشرك: الرامي أو المرمي؟ قال: بل الرامي

Indeed what I fear most for you is that a man reads the Qur’an until magnificence is seen upon him and he is a support for Islam and it is withdrawn from him and he throws it behind his back and strives against his neighbor with the sword and he accusing him of shirk. I said O’ Prophet of Allah, which one is more worthy of (the accusation of) shirk, the accuser or the accused? He said: The accuser . [Collected by Imam Al-Bukhari in his Taarikh and Abu Ya’ala and Ibn Hibban and Al-Bazaar. See Sahih Al-Albani 3201] 

The Prophet ( صلى الله عليه وسلم ) said: 

ومَن خرج على أمَّتي يضرب برَّها وفاجرَها، ولا يتحاش من مؤمنها،

ولا يفي لذي عهد عهدَه،فليس منِّي ولستُ منه

“Whoever rebels against my Ummah and fights the righteous and unrighteous of them, does not avoid its believers and does not fulfill his obligation to whom he has a contract, then they are not from me and I am not from them . [Muslim 1848] 

Ibn Al-Qayyim said, 

نهيُ النبيِّ عن قتال الأمراء والخروج على الأئمة وإن ظلموا أو جاروا ما أقاموا الصلاة، سدًّا لذريعة الفسادِ العظيم والشرِّ الكثير بقتالهم كما هو الواقع، فإنّه حصل بسبب قتالهم والخروج عليهم أضعافُ أضعافِ ما هم عليه، والأمّة في بقايا تلك الشرور إلى الآن

"The Prophet forbidden taking arms against the rulers and revolting against them even if they were unjust as long as long as they established prayers. He said this in order to prevent great corruption and evil that could emanate from taking arms against them. 

The reality has shown that taking arms and revolting against them had brought harm and evil that that was much greater than their corruption." 

While speaking about undesirability of forbidding vices if that could lead to a greater vice he said, 

ومن تأمّل ما جرى على الإسلام في الفِتن الكبار والصِّغار رآها مِن إضاعةِ هذا الأصلِ وهو إنكار المنكر إذا كان يترتّب عليه ما هو أنكرُ منه، ومِن عدم الصبر على المنكَر،

فيُطلَب إزالتُه، فيتولّدُ منه ما هو أكبر منه

"Like revolting against kings and rulers, for this is the foundation of all evils and calamities. If one reflects over what happened to Islaam during minor and major crises one will realize that it caused by the negligence of this very principle." 

‘Umar said, 

إنا لا ننتصر على عدوّنا بعددٍ ولا عدة، وإنما ننتصر بطاعتنا لله ومعصيتهم له، فإن عصينا الله فقد استوينا وإياهم في المعصية، وكان لهم الفضل علينا

“We do not defeat our enemy through our great numbers and or sophisticated ammunitions, we defeat them through our obedience to Allaah and our enemies’ disobedience to Him. But when we disobey Allaah, we become like them in sins and they will then defeat us.” 

REMOVING DOUBTS 

Question: As you know, there are a number of ahaadeeth concerning how Muslims are to deal with the Muslim rulers, including the sinful and oppressive rulers.How would you respond to the one who claims that these ahaadeeth are concerning the khaleefah of the Muslims, not the various leaders, kings, or prime ministers of today?

The Answer: This Shubuha (misconception) that the Ahaadeeth of obedience to the Rulers are restricted to the general Khaleefah (greater Imaam) is, al-hamdulillah , already answered by the scholars of Islaam. Here are some of their statements:

1- Sh. Al-Islam Ibn Taymeyah ( rahimahullaah) said: "The sunnah is that the Muslims have one Imaam and the rest are his deputies. Suppose, however, the Ummah abandoned this due to a sin from some part of it and incapacity from the rest or for a reason other than that and which led to having number of Imaams, then it is binding upon each Imaam to establish the Hudood (prescribed punishments) and fulfill the rights (of people)." [Majmoo' al- Fataawaa, 35/175-176]. 

2- Imaam Ash-Shawkaani ( rahimahullaah) said: "In Principle, all Muslims should have one Imaam. However, after the spread of Islam and the expansion of its territories and their remoteness, it is known that in each region there became a ruler or Imaam and so with the rest of the regions, none of them having authority to command and forbid in the other regions... So the presence of various (multiple) Imaams and Rulers is of no harm, and it is binding to obey each one of them after giving him the bay'ah (pledge of allegiance) in the region in which his commands and prohibitions are executed therein. And similarly in the case of the one in charge of another region. And it is not obligatory upon the people of the other regions to obey him, nor to be under his governorship due to the remoteness of the regions..." 

Then he said: "You should know this, since it is fitting to the Sharee'ah Foundations, and in full agreement to what is indicated by the evidences. And turn down what is being said in opposition to this, since the difference between the condition of the early Islamic wilaayah (administrative governship) and its state nowadays is clearer than the sun during the day." [Imaam Ash-Shawkaani in As- Sayelul Jarraar, 4/512]. 

3- Sh. Imaam Muhammad bin 'Abdil Wahaab ( rahimahullaah) said: 

"The Imaams from each Madh-hab are unanimous that whoever overtakes a country or countries (seizes power) is entitled to assume the same rulership as the Imaam in ALL affairs. Were it not so, the affairs of this worldly life would not be upright. And for a long time, since before the time of Imaam Ahmad ( rahimahullaah) and until our time, people were not in agreement upon one Imaam, and they have no account of a scholar stating that the validity of (the applicability) of any of the rulings (of sharee'ah) is conditional upon the presence of the Greater Imaam ." [In Ad-Durar As-Saniyyah, 7/239]. 

4- Al-'Allaamah (esteemed scholar) As-San'aani ( rahimahullaah) said in his explanation of the hadeeth of Abu Hurairah ( radiya Allaahu 'anhu), raised to the Prophet ( _ : salllaallaahu 'aleihi was-sallam): 

"One who defected from obedience (to the Amir) and separated from the main body of the Muslims - if he died in that state - would die the death of one belonging to the days of Jahiliyya (i. e. would not die as a Muslim). [Saheeh Muslim, Book 20, # 4555, English Translation] that the "obedience" is the obedience to the Khaleefah upon whom there isagreement, and it seems that what is intended is the khaleefah on any region from the regions, since people were not on agreement on a single khaleefah over the entire Islamic lands since the Abbasid Rule. Rather each region became independent under a ruler running its affairs. And if we carry the hadeeth to apply only to one khaleefah upon whom the Muslims are unanimous then its (the hadeeth) benefit would be diminished. 

And that the saying (in the hadeeth) "and separated from the main body of the Muslims," means: separated from the Jamaa'ah who agreed upon an Imaam under whom their body and affairs are organized, their world is united, and their protection from their enemy is achieved." 

So, it becomes clear that negating the validity of governership on separate Muslim states leads to evil in the sense that its sets the stage for rebellion against the rulers, and this is forbidden in Islaam even if the ruler is an oppressor as this constitutes the creed of ahl-us-Sunnah . 

And Allaah Knows Best. 

May Allaah, the Most High, guide me, you, and all Muslims to abide by the way of the Salaf and make us from those who relate the unclear matters to the clear so that they reach that which is clear and pleasing to Allaah. 

Shaykh `Alee al-Faqeehee on The Ways Used By the Khawaarij To Incite the Youth

Shaykh `Alee bin Naasir al-Faqeehee explained that what is said regarding the excellence of these miracles (karaamaat), then that is amongst the ways of stirring up the youth and he also said: 

Verily, the ideology of the Khawaarij which is exemplified in declaring the Islamic societies to be disbelieving (societies) has not ceased to spread, and it has its callers and those who organise for it to be spread. 

It is spread using these means by way of the Internet and the callers (to this ideology) spread it amongst the youth (in order) to employ their religious zeal. This is done by spreading what they claim to be miracles of the mujaahideen, and this is amongst the ways of stirring up the youth and using their zeal. 

It is for this reason that they approach them from the avenue of their religion, and there has come in a hadeeth of Abu Bakr for a hadeeth of `Alee bin Abee Taalib (radiyAllaahu `anhu) in description of the Khawaarij - and Ibn Hajr has related it in the explanation of the hadeeth - "Then Satan will come to them from the avenue of their religion". And this is happening today, because what is spread on the World Wide Web is from unknown (unidentified) people, not known for knowledge and nor for religion. 

And all of that (is done) in order to stir up the youth from the angle of their religion. The likes of this is not befitting for an intelligent person in that he turns to an unknown ignoramus (on the Internet), and such a one could be a plant (placed) by certain orientations who have goals that are enmitous to Islaam and which are not openly announced to the people. 

And when we notify the youth of the likes of this (affair), we do not (at the same time) reject the miracles of the Awliyaa (pious friends of Allaah), rather these affairs are established and they are from the creed of Ahl us-Sunnah wal-Jamaa`ah. 

And we do not also reject what Islaam and the Muslims are subjected to by its enemies. These affairs are well-known, and it is obligatory upon every Muslim to do what he is able towards this. However, Jihaad in the path of Allaah has conditions and rulings, and it is the Scholars and the Jurists of the religion who explain all of that . 

About the Book: 

This is a complete translation of the small booklet “Al-Masaa’il-ul-Muntaqaat min Sifaat al-Khawaarij- ul-Ghulaat” [Selected Examples from the Characteristics of the Extremist Khawaarij] compiled and prepared by a student of knowledge, ‘Aadil bin ‘Alee Al-Furaydaan, and reviewed and examined by Shaikh Saalih bin Fawzaan Al-Fawzaan and Shaikh Muhammad bin ‘Abdir-Rahmaan Al-Khumayyis. 

In this treatise, the author briefly touches upon the definition, history, and characteristics of the Khawaarij, one of the first and most dangerous sects in Islamic history whose effects and ideologies continue to exist up to today and will remain until the Final Hour. The majority of the treatise is dedicated to outlining the major and distinguishing attributes of the Khawaarij, which the author counts at 58. 

It is important to study and be aware of these attributes so that one may avoid characterizing himself with them and thus fall into the ranks of the Khawaarij. This is from the perspective of learning evil in order to avoid it. And it is also beneficial since today, the ways and ideologies of the Khawaarij are prevalent, as can be seen in terrorist acts, suicide missions, assassinations and political strife. So by understanding the characteristics of the Khawaarij, the reader will be able to identify the perpetrators of such crimes, acknowledge their remoteness from Islaam and the fact that they are indeed from the extremist Khawaarij. 

"UNQUOTE"


URL: http://www.newageislam.com/islam-and-sectarianism/can-deobandis-be-called-pink-wahhabis?-/d/860





TOTAL COMMENTS:-   2


  • --- On Fri, 10/10/08, NewAgeIslam-Newsletter@newageislam.com <NewAgeIslam-Newsletter@newageislam.com> wrote:

    Can Deobandis be called Pink Wahhabis? A correspondent in an interesting internet discussion writes: “Deobandis were once called Pink Wahhabi [Gulabi Wahhabi] by Late Ghulam Ahmed Parvez in his  masterpiece "Tasawwuf Ki Haqeeqat" [Reality of Sufiism] but why? NewAgeIslam.com would welcome any write-ups in support or rebuttal of the understandably one-sided arguments given below. If you can believe it, one of the correspondents calls our most revered of Sufi saints “Dacoits” or “Dacoits of the Faith”, whatever that  means.

    UPDATED LINK

    http://newageislam.com/ArticleDetail.aspx?ArticleID=860

    Ujaale ke Ore, A film on the life and work of Sir Syed Ahmad and the urgent need for a revival of Aligarh Movement.

    http://newageislam.com/SirSayedAhmadVideo.aspx
    ========================================================

    Dear Sultan Sahab,

    You wouldn't have suggested to revive Aligarh Movement had you been aware of Racist Face of Sir Syed Ahmed Khan or not not only his Racism and Bigotry towards Newly Converted Muslims [who used to be scheduled caste before their conversion to Muslims faith]  but also the Racist Behaviour of Spiritual God Father of Deobandis i.e. Hakeemul Ummat Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanvi [amongst one of rare Deobandi Sufi Mullahs who supported Pakistan and Secular Jinnah but I wonder where did Thanvi Sahab find Ashraf and Ajlaf class division in the so-called Humanist Sufi Literature of Ibn Arabi, Hallaj, Mohasibi, Baghdadi, Rumi, Juwaribi...]. Isn't it strange that Mullahs of India [Deobandi, Ahle Hadith, Barelvis and Shias] had declared that Sir Syed Ahmed Khan was Deviant because he rejected the Hadith and Sir Syed interpreted Quran as per his whim and desire but these Elite Class Mullahs of India  [because of their connection to Rampantly Lecherous Mughal Court] and Sir
    Syed Ahmed Khan had one thing in common that both of these were Extremely Prejudiced towards Ajlaf [as per them the Lower Class] and here they violated the very basic spirit of Islam [equality] and message of Quran [supremacy is as per piety not colour and creed]

    It is true Sir Syed Ahmed Khan, an ardent advocate of modern education among Muslims and founder of Mohommedan Anglo-Oriental College (MAO) opposed Muslims joining the Congress but it was because of his priority to modern education rather than politics and not because of lack of patriotism. Also, he was representing the interests of upper classes of Muslims i.e. ashraf. Sir Syed was Quran Aloner [means no need of Hadith] but Sir Syed and Mullahs even violated a very Quranic Verse which is openly against any kind of Racism and Racial Supremacy.

    Your glorious Quran alone logic says this about the equality of Human Being:

    ??? ???????? ???????? ?????? ???????????? ???? ?????? ???????? ??????????????? ???????? ??????????? ????????????? ????? ???????????? ????? ??????? ??????????? ????? ??????? ??????? ???????

    O mankind! Lo! We have created you male and female, and have made you nations and tribes that ye may know one another. Lo! the noblest of you, in the sight of Allah, is the best in conduct. Lo! Allah is Knower, Aware. [AL-HUJRAAT (THE PRIVATE APARTMENTS, THE INNER APARTMENTS) Chapter 49 Verse 13]

    "QUOTE"

    The position of the Julahas had got thoroughly undermined and this inferior-lowly people (badzaat) were most active in the uproar(1857 rebellion).(Sir Syed Khan 1958:60)

    Sir Syed had only the Ashraaf interests in mind when he started  his educational movement. In an address at the foundation laying ceremony of ‘Madrasa Anjuman-e-Islamia’ in Bareli  where children from the so-called ‘low-caste’ communities used to study, he said that he finds no use in teaching  English to them. “It is better and in the interests of the community that  they are engaged in the old form of study… It appears appropriate if you teach them some writing and math. They should also be taught small tracts on everyday affairs and through which they know basic beliefs and practices of the Islamic faith.

    Sir Syed Ahmad was Flagrant Racist and Bigot and he hated the Ajlaf [Working Class of India particularly Bengalis]

    Sir Syed pioneered the cause of English education and rational and
    scientific thought amongst Indian Muslims. He was concerned only with the future of Muslim Ashraf ; not with the future of all Muslims i.e including the poor. This is not widely realised. He looked upon 'low born' people with contempt. For example, commenting upon qualifications for Membership of the Viceroy's Legislative Council, Sir Syed expressed his deeply rooted class (caste ?) prejudice when he said that 'It is essential for the
    Viceroy's Council to have members of high social standing. Would our aristocracy like that a man of low caste or insignificant origin, though he may be a BA. or an MA., and have the requisite ability, be placed in a position of authority above them and have the power of making laws that affect their lives and property?

    All those Deobandi, Barelvi and Ahle-Hadith Mullahs like Ashraf Ali Thanvi, Ahmed Raza Khan Barelvi, House of Shah Waliullah and even Rationalists like Sir Syed Ahmed and Company who Claim the Lease of Islam in Undivided Sub Continent, were Bigot Racist to the core while Deobandi, Bareliv and Ahle-Hadith of India also carried this Filthy Baggage of Sufiism with them in the name of Islam. Their thoughts are as under:

    Sayyads, Ashrafs, Ajlafs, Jolahas, Rajputs, etc. Marriages were  disallowed between the high caste Ashrafs, Sayyads, Sheikhs or Pathans and the low caste Ansaris, Kunjras or Qureshis. The founder of the Aligarh Muslim University, Sir Sayyad Ahmad Khan, denied backward Muslims entry into AMU and kept its door open only for the Ashrafs. Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanvi wrote a book [Bahishti Zewar - Heavenly Ornaments] in which he said that the Sayyads are the highest caste and after them Ansaris, Qureshis, and Sheikhs but Mughals and Pashtun though High Caste but cannot be compared with Syeds.

    Three groups found in Indian Muslims of Bengal:

    Ashraf or better class Muslims ? The Syeds, Sheikhs, Pathans, Moghul, Mallik, and Mirza.

    Ajlaf or lower caste Muslims ? Cultivating Sheikhs, and others who were originally Hindus, Darzi, Jolaha, Fakir, Mallah, Kula Kunjara, Kasai, Kalal, Dhunia, Abdal, Bako, Chamba, Dafali, Dhobi, Hajjan, etc.

    Arzal or degraded class ? include Bhanar, Halalkhor, , Kasbi, Lalbegi, Maugta, Mehra.

    These Rascal Maulvis of India had no sense at all that there is no such thing called High Caste in Islam. If you would go through Holy Scripture of all the three Known Revealed Religions  you will be amazed to know that many such professions which are considered low caste Professions were the Professions adopted by Prophets [PBUT] and Companions of the Prophet Mohammad [PBUH]

    "UNQUOTE"

    References:

    1 - S M Jain:

    The Aligarh Movements, Its Origin and Development, 1885-1906.

    2 - Paul R Brass.

    Language, Religion, and Politics in North India Cambridge 1974.

    For More Reading:

    1 - Hayat-e-Jawed by Altaf Hussain Hali.

    2 - Maqalat-e-Sir Syed [Published in Lahore]

    3 - Sugata Bose and Ayesha Jalal (eds.), Nationalism, Democracy and Development: State and Politics in India, Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1998-9)
    By Mansoor Hallaj -



  • Islam is a great religion of Allah and it was beautifully presented by His Prophet Mohammed PBUH to Mekkans. He built it through character, love and affection towards all. Unfortunately after Prophet's death, politics took precedence over religion. It wall fine till the rule of Hazrat Abu Bakr and Hazrat Umar (Radiyatala Anhuma). Both were democratically elected Khalifas. The first to be elected in the Majlise Shoora was Hazrat Abu Bakar. Then after him rightly, Hazrat Umar.

    Soon there was simmering difference among the followers of Hazrat Ali (RTA) as a section of then Sahabis thought Hazrat Ali should have succeeded Prophet Mohammed as Khalifa. This was spread by the new converted Jew Ibne Sabba who wanted to destroy Islam from within. Ibn Saba was responsible as per the history to create dissent in the choice of Khalifa and the height of it came when Zinooren Hazrat Uthman RTA was appointed as the third Kalif. Though Hazrat Ali was not opposed to the appointment of any of the preceding three Kalifs to whom he gave his "bait", yet he did not prevent the encirclement of the house of Hazrat Uthman and finally the martyrdom of the Khalifa Hazrath Uthman. Then soon after his killlings, the group of assasins who were the supporters of Hazrat Ali led by Ibn Sabba, declared Hazrat Ali as the new Khalifa.

    Hazar Ali's mistake was not in his acceptance as Khalifa, who was the natural successor, but he failed to take "Qassas" actions against the killers of Kalifa Hazrath Uthman. That was his major blunder that led to war in which Bibi Ayesha Radiallahu Tala Anha, also participated against Hazrath Ali. Subsequent rebellion by Hazrat Mawaiah on the score of Hazrat Ali's failure to take "Qassas" against the persons responsible for the killing of Hazrat Uthman, while he was the Governor of Egypt was the turning point in the history of Islam.

    The rest is history....what followed thereafter was heart rendering where Hazrat Hussain was killed accidentally in the infamouse so called battle of Karbala. His killing happened in melee while Hazrat Hussain was negotiating with the Governor of Kufa. But the followers of Hazrat Hussain have concocted a story that he was denied water, the chilren were brutally killed etc. This story is still being circulated every year during Moharram by the Shias. While the truth was different. Anyway both the Zaalim and Mazloom are dead and gone and are now with Allah, who will decide their fate. But then, the entire Muslim nation is divided on this issue and it would continue till the dooms day. Such a historic split in Islam came right after the death of our beloved Prophet, was nothing but unfortunate.

    That is why Islamic history was a chequered one. Notwithstanding this, Islam continued to spread far and wide in the world and it is the second largest Religion in the world. Thank God. Let;s not waist time in analysing who was right and who was wrong; whether it Hazrat Ali or Hazrat Maawia. There is no point in trying to resurrect history of Islam. It is the past and in the present all Muslims should unite to fight the common enemy of hunger, poverty, lact of education, representation in the all arms of the Govt..

    Whether Deobandis are Wahhabis or not, it does not matter for a common Muslims. What matters most in the present circumstances, where the very name of Islam is at stake due to radicalisation, was the extremists activities. These Wahhabis are dreaming to impose something that is impossible, that is the Islamic Rule in India. When there was no Islamic Rule in the very Islamic countries, how can one dream of imposing it here in India.

    These jamats whether it was Jamate Islami or Tableeqe Jamat, they have done more harm than good to Islam. They have been instrumental in misguiding the youth of Muslims and it is a dangerous trend. All Muslim parents can do a service if they give their children modern education and dissuade them from going extreme. This would be the greatest service to Islam in the present circumstances.


    By A.N.Jamsheed Basha, Chennai, India -



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