By Ghulam Ghaus Siddiqi, New Age
28 March 2019
The extremist Islamists believe that
Muslims have abandoned implementation of God’s Hakimiyyah (roughly translated
as ‘dominion’ or ‘sovereignty’) in their countries, specifically the rule of Islamic
law, and accepted implementation of man-made law; which is an act of shirk
(polytheism). They hold the view that loyalty to any authority or sovereignty
other than God’s Hakimiyyah is polytheism and paganism and that any Muslims
supporting this ‘polytheism’ should be killed and defeated through ‘Jihad’.
This idea resulted into mass destruction throughout Muslim countries,
especially Syria and Iraq.
In his Arabic book titled “Al-Haqq Al-Mubin
Fi al-Radd Ala Man Tala’ab bi Al-deen (The Lucid Truth In Refutation Of Those
Who Manipulate The Religion)”, Sheikh Usama Al-Sayed Al-Azhari (an Azhari
scholar, preacher, expert in Hadith, Logic, Islamic Creed, a Senior Fellow of
Kalam Research and Media, and a teacher in the Faculty of Usul Al-Din and
Da’wah at Al-Azhar University, Egypt) writes,
الفكرة المحورية التي تأسست عليها بقية مفاهيم
التيارات الإسلامية هي فكرة الحاكمية، فإنها هي الجذر الذي نهضت على أساسه منظومتهم
الفكرية بكل مقولاتها ومفاهيمها وفروعها ومنها تولدت بقية مفاهيمهم: فانبثقت منها فكرة: شرك الحاكمية وتوحيد الحاكمية
عند سيد قطب وأخيه محمد قطب ، وتولدت من ذالك فكرة العصبة المؤمنة وفكرة الوعد الإلهي
لهذه العصبة المؤمنة وفكرة الجاهلية التي هي حالة بقية المسلمين ، وفكرة المفاصلة والتمايز
الشعوري بين الفئتين وفكرة الاستعلاء من العصبة المؤمنة على الجاهلية وأهلها وفكرة
حتمية الصدام بين الفئتين عند سيد قطب لإقامة الخلافة ، وفكرة التمكين إلى آخر شجرة
المفاهيم التي نتجت من قضية الحاكمية والتي تتكون من مجموعها نظرية متكاملة داخل عقل
central idea on which the rest of the concepts of extremist Islamist movements
were founded is the idea of Hakimiyyah. It is the root on which their
intellectual system was established, with all its sayings, concepts and
branches. It is from this idea that Sayyid Qutb and his brother Muhammad Qutb
extracted the concept of Shirk al-Hakimiyyah and Tauheed al-Hakimiyyah. This
idea gave rise to the necessity of “al-Usbah al-Muminah” (‘a selected body of
Jihadist believers’) and the idea of divine promise [of victory] for this
‘Usbah Muminah’. It declared that the common Muslims are living in the state of
Jahiliyyah (ignorance). This also led to the idea of separation and subliminal
distinction between the two groups (Muslims and West), the idea of dominance of
‘Usbah Muminah’ over the people of Jahiliyyah, the idea of inevitable clash
between the two groups at the time of Sayyid Qutb so as to establish the
caliphate, and the idea of ‘tamkin’ associated with all other concepts that
emanate from the concept of Hakimiyyah and that consists of a comprehensive
theory integrated within the mind of these extremist movements”
The extremist movements held the concept of
‘Hakimiyyah’ to mean that dominance should be exercised over ‘the Muslims
living in the state of Jahiliyyah’ and that fighting against such Muslims
should be waged.
Where did this concept of Hakimiyyah come
from and how it exacerbated other problems for Muslims? Sheikh Al-Azhari opines
that such concepts came from Sayyid Qutb’s book of Tafsir, “Fi Zilal al-Quran”
(In the Shade of The Quran) and other books of him, such as “Ma’alim fi
al-Tariq” stem their roots from “Fi Zilal al-Quran”.
Dr. Yusuf Qardhawi also holds the view that
the concept of doing Takfir of Muslims today does not emanate only from
‘Ma’alim fi al-Tariq’ but rather its foundational principle is deeply rooted in
the books, such as ‘Fi Zilal al-Quran’ and “Al-‘Adalah al-Ijtimaiyyah fi
al-Islam” (Y. al-Qaradawi, Ibn al-Qarya wal-Kuttab, Malamih Sira wa-Masira,
vol.3, p.69, Dar al-Shuruq, Cairo 2008)
Salih Sirriya, in his book ‘Risala
al-Iman’, does takfir of the Muslim rulers, describes common Muslims as
Jahiliyyah community and declares their state ‘Dar al-Harb’. He further says,
“The present governance in all Muslim countries is undoubtedly the infidel
governance and the communities in all these countries are Jahiliyya
(ignorant).” This book stems its root from Sayyid Qutb’s ‘Fi Zilal al-Quran’.
Shukri Mustafa and his group of Islamicists
“Al-Takfir wal Hijra”, which became a modern version of the Kharijites, took
inspiration from Sayyid Qutb’s ‘Fi Zilal al-Quran’.
Mohammad Abdul Salam Farag, who was one of
the main figures of extremism and Jihadism and a former member of the Muslim
Brotherhood, wrote a short book titled “Al-Farida al-Ghaiba” in order to
strengthen his “Jihadist movement” against the modern Muslim state. Salam Farag
was greatly inspired by Sayyid Qutub’s ‘Fi Zilal al-Quran’.
Similarly the modern Kharijite outfit
‘ISIS’ got its inspiration from Sayyid Qutb’s ‘Fi Zilal al-Quran’. Touching
upon this subject, Turki ibn Mubarak al-Binali wrote a book titled “Al-Lafz
al-Sani fi Tarjimat al-Adnani” about the second leading man of ISIS, Abu
Muhammad al-‘Adnani. In this book al-Binali writes,
took influence from Sayyid Qutb’s book of Tafsir “Fi Zilal al-Quran” which was
one of his favourites. He studied it systematically for twenty years. During
one of the lessons he went through the Tafsir of the Quranic verse, “Whoever
does not judge with what Allah has revealed; those are the infidels” (Surah
Maidah:44). He asked one of his colleagues, what are the sources of the Syrian
constitution? What is the legislative authority? What is the executive and
judicial authority? When the colleague replied, Adnani then asked: so our
government is infidel? The cleric left. That was his way of debating issues”.
Adnani later joined ISIS and became one of its leading spokesmen.
It becomes crystal clear from the above
that ISIS is a new wave of Takfirism greatly inspired by Sayyid Qutub’s “Fi
Zilal al-Quran”. Sheikh Usama Al-Azhari writes, “Sayyid Qutb took inspiration,
while holding this concept of Hakimiyyah, intrinsically from the concept of
Abul ‘Ala al-Maududi’ (the founder of Jamat-e-Islami). Sayyid Qutb dedicated
all his efforts to promotion of this concept through his writings and speeches,
and made it a complete ideology of Takfir”.
Sheikh Al-Azhari further writes, “Following
in the footsteps of Sayyid Maududi, Sayyid Qutb established the concept of
Hakimiyyah, as a result of wrong understanding of the Divine statement “Whoever
does not judge with what Allah has revealed; those are the infidels” (Surah
Maidah:44)”, From this verse, Sayyid Qutb deduced the meaning that the person
who does not implement the Islamic Laws is a Kafir, even though he believes in
the creed of righteousness of Islamic laws based on the Divine revelation and
even though he is unable to implement them for any reason whatsoever.”(Al-Haqq
Al-Mubin Fi al-Radd Ala Man Tala’ab bi Al-deen, Arabic, p.27).
In his book “Al-Adalah al-Ijtimayyiah
(Social Justice)”, Sayyid Qutb writes, “Islamic society today is not Islamic in
any sense of the word. We have already quoted a verse from the Quran that
cannot in any way be honestly applied today: “Whoever does not judge by what
Allah has revealed is a Kafir (5:44)”
Thus, Sayyid Qutb and Sayyid Maududi set a
dangerous precedent, rejecting the validity of a Muslim’s belief in Islam
because one simply fails to implement the Islamic laws. Sheikh Azhari opines
that this concept of Sayyid Qutb and Maududi is very strange and leads to
extremism, narrowness and Takfirism, because it describes the implementation of
Hakimiyyah as a new article of faith and does the Takfir of the people who
simply fail to implement it for any reason; this is the theology of Kharijites.
In one of his comments, Mr. Sultan Shahin,
Founding Editor of New Age Islam writes, “Even Sayyid Qutb was inspired by
Maulana Maududi’s work on Hakimiyyah and his concept of Iqamat e Deen as an
essential religious duty for Muslims. He used terms like Taghut and Jahiliyah
too, which have both become very popular in Islamist extremist circles. He forced the secular modern state of
Pakistan to say Shahada through the objectives resolution that was largely a
fruit of his writings. He considered Irtidad (apostasy) as treason
because he considers Islam as a State. For him Islam and State are synonymous.
He became so influential that even a Shia society like Iran converted its state
to Islam. Never before Pakistan and Iran has there been a tradition in Islamic
history of calling a state Islamic. Now this demand is being made even in
Malaysia and Indonesia quite vigorously”.
The Concept of Hakimiyyah among
The doctrine of mainstream Muslim scholars
of all generations including the holy companions of the Prophet (peace be upon
him) is contrary to that of Sayyid Qutb, Sayyid Maududi and Kharijite groups.
The Muslim scholars, Sheikh Azhari opines, went through a number of statements
and directions in order to understand the Quranic verse (5:44). He says, “The
most preferred and accepted view with regard to implication of the verse is
that ‘whoever does not judge by what Allah has revealed, denying its divinity,
faith and truthfulness is indeed a Kafir. As for the Muslim who believes that
this verse is truth, divine revelation and divine command but fails to implement
its message, he is not a Kafir.
Imam Fakhruddin Razi said in “Al-Tafsir
al-Kabir”, “Ikrimah said, the ruling of Takfir, as mentioned in the divine
statement “whoever does not judge by what Allah has revealed is a Kafir”,
applies to the one who denies the truth of the revealed law of Allah in his
heart and by his tongue. As for the
person who believes in the truth of the revealed law of Allah in his heart and
acknowledges by his tongue that it is the revealed law of Allah, however he
acts against it, he will be regarded as the believer of what Allah revealed,
but he will be known simply as a non-practicing believer in this case, and it
is therefore he will not be considered a Kafir according to this verse”. After
quoting this statement, Imam Razi said, “This is the correct answer”. (Imam
Razi, Al-Tafsir al-Kabir, 5:44)
The similar answer has been given by Imam
Ghazali in “Al-Mustasfa” and by Imam Abu Muhammad b. Atiyya al-Andalusi in
“Al-Muharrir al-Wajiz”. Sheikh Usama Al-Azhari writes, “Having studied the
explanations of mainstream jurists, we come to know that Ibn Masu’d, Ibn Abbas,
Barra bin ‘Aazib, Huzaifa bin al-Yaman, Ibrahim al-Nakh’I, Al-Sudai, Al-Dahhak,
Abu Salih, Abu Mujlaz, Ikrimah, Qatadah, ‘Aamir, Al-Sha’abi, ‘Ataa, Taaus and
then Imam Tabari in “Jami’ al-Bayan”, Imam Ghazali in “Al-Mustasfa”, Ibn Atiyya
in “Al-Muharrir al-Wajiz”, Imam Razi in “Mafatih al-Ghaib”, Qurtubi, Ibn Jazi
in “Al-Tashil”, Abu Hayyan in “Al-Bahr al-Muheet”, Ibn Kathir in “Tafsir
al-Quran al-Azeem”, Aalusi in “Ruh al-Ma’ani”, Tahir bin ‘Aashur in “Al-Tahrir
w al-Tanwir” and Sheikh Sha’arawi in his Tafsir- all such Islamic scholars
unanimously agree with the same commentary of the verse 5:44. (as mentioned
above with reference to Imam Razi’s Al-Tafsir al-Kabir).” .”(Al-Haqq Al-Mubin
Fi al-Radd Ala Man Tala’ab bi Al-Deen, Arabic, p.23)
On the contrary to these mainstream Muslim
scholars, it is Sayyid Qutb who declared that the understanding of these
scholars is deviant and concocted. Both Sayyid Qutub and Maulana Maududi played
a pivotal role in restoring Kharijite theology according to which, Muslim
rulers who did not abide by the Quran were disbelievers and because of their
apostasy, they should be deposed. Azariqa, the most extremist sub-sect of
Kharijites, which followed the leadership of Nafi’ Ibn Azraq, stressed that
apostates should be killed. However mainstream Sunni theologians separated
faith and works, responding to the Kharijite ideology by substantiating the view
that a “grave sinner cannot be excluded from the community” even if his actions
were sinful. Salah Nasr associated Sayyid Qutb’s ideology with extremism of the
Kharijites, depicting him as a severe threat to the stability of state and its
social well-being, as someone who fully disagreed with the wise consensus of
A regular Columnist with NewAgeIslam.com, Ghulam Ghaus Siddiqi Dehlvi is
an Alim and Fazil (Classical Islamic scholar), with a Sufi-Sunni background and
English-Arabic-Urdu Translator. He has also done B.A (Hons.) in Arabic, M.A. in
Arabic and M.A in English from JMI, New Delhi. He is Interested in Islamic
Sciences; Theology, Jurisprudence, Tafsir, Hadith and Islamic mysticism
New Age Islam, Islam Online, Islamic Website, African Muslim News, Arab World News, South Asia News, Indian Muslim News, World Muslim News, Women in
Islam, Islamic Feminism, Arab Women, Women In
Arab, Islamophobia in America, Muslim Women
in West, Islam Women and Feminism
of prayer and charity will lead a person to hell fire.
(ask) of the Sinners:
"What led you into Hell Fire?"
will say: "We were not of those who prayed;
"Nor were we of those who fed the indigent;
"But we used to talk vanities with vain talkers;
By the way verses 5:44 to 47 are about the People of the Book who fail
to judge by their Books. The verses that are addressed to the Prophet/Muslims
(5:48) To thee We sent the Scripture in truth, confirming the scripture
that came before it, and guarding it in safety: so judge between them by what
Allah hath revealed, and follow not their vain desires, diverging from the
Truth that hath come to thee. To each among you have we prescribed a law and an
open way. If Allah had so willed, He would have made you a single people, but
(His plan is) to test you in what He hath given you: so strive as in a race in
all virtues. The goal of you all is to Allah; it is He that will show you the
truth of the matters in which ye dispute;
(49) And this (He commands): Judge thou between them by what Allah hath
revealed, and follow not their vain desires, but beware of them lest they
beguile thee from any of that (teaching) which Allah hath sent down to thee.
And if they turn away, be assured that for some of their crime it is Allah´s
purpose to punish them. And truly most men are rebellious.
(50) Do they then seek after a judgment of (the days of) ignorance? But
who, for a people whose faith is assured, can give better judgment than Allah?
We have sent down to thee the Book in truth, that thou mightest judge between
men, as guided by Allah: so be not (used) as an advocate by those who betray
The correct way to say it is "some believers perform namaz and others don't".
A Muslim is by definition one who obeys the commands of Allah and one who disobeys the commands of Allah is by definition a Kafir. Satan is the best example of a perfect believer who is also a perfect Kafir for disobeying the command of Allah and later resolving to rebel against Allah and misguide people.
A Muslim is the opposite of Kafir and a non-Muslim is indeed by definition Kafir.
Belief is a means to an end but not the end itself. Belief in the Quran/Torah/Bible/ the Scriptures helps us to be guided by Allah's revelations and do what Allah commands and avoid what Allah forbids or to become a Muslim.
وَمَا أَنتَ بِهَادِي الْعُمْيِ عَن ضَلَالَتِهِمْ ۖ إِن تُسْمِعُ إِلَّا مَن يُؤْمِنُ بِآيَاتِنَا فَهُم مُّسْلِمُونَ
(27:81) Nor can you be a guide to the blind, (to prevent them) from straying: only those will you get to listen who believe in Our Signs, and are Muslims ( Those who submit to Allah and His commands).
A believer is one who listens or pays heed to guidance and believes in the Ayats of Allah and when the believer acts on the guidance, he becomes a Muslim.
One who disregards the commands of Allah is Kafir/Zalim/Fasiq etc. even if he is a believer. The following verses are about believers who fail to judge by what Allah has revealed. They are Kafir/Zalim/Fasiq.
(5:44) It was We who revealed the law (to Moses): therein was guidance and light. By its standard have been judged the Jews, by the prophets who bowed (aslamu) to Allah´s will, by the rabbis and the doctors of law: for to them was entrusted the protection of Allah´s book, and they were witnesses thereto: therefore fear not men, but fear me, and sell not my signs for a miserable price. If any do fail to judge by (the light of) what Allah has revealed, they are Kafirun.
(45) We ordained therein for them: "Life for life, eye for eye, nose or nose, ear for ear, tooth for tooth, and wounds equal for equal." But if any one remits the retaliation by way of charity, it is an act of atonement for himself. And if any fail to judge by (the light of) what Allah hath revealed, they are Zalimun.
(46) And in their footsteps We sent Jesus the son of Mary, confirming the Law that had come before him: We sent him the Gospel: therein was guidance and light, and confirmation of the Law that had come before him: a guidance and an admonition to the Muttaqin.
(47) Let the people of the Gospel judge by what Allah has revealed therein. If any do fail to judge by (the light of) what Allah has revealed, they are Fasiqun.