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Islamic Ideology (14 Mar 2018 NewAgeIslam.Com)


The Enlightening Commentary on the War Related Quranic Verses- Part 3 on 4:89

 

By Ghulam Ghaus Siddiqi, New Age Islam

14 March 2018

If there is anything in this world that we can term as the biggest source of terrorism, it is misuse of war-related verses of the Quran and Sunnah, as not only does it lead to killing innocent civilians but also establishing a ground for youth to become terrorists and defame Islam. Muslim Ulema [plural of Alim], therefore, need to interpret these verses in modern context, explaining how these terrorists are harming Islam, Muslims, non-Muslims, their countries and interests. I do not consider myself ‘Alim’ but as a student of Islam, I am humbly trying to present an enlightening commentary on the war-related verses, maintaining the accepted methodological approach to interpreting the Quran. In the previous two parts, we commented on two verses 2:190 and 22:39. In this part, we will discuss the verse of Surah Nisa 4:89, which is also oft-quoted mistakenly by the radical groups for brainwashing the youth and committing terrorist crimes.  

Allah Almighty says,

4:89: “They wish that you reject Faith, as they have rejected (Faith), and thus that you all become equal (like one another). So take not Auliya' (protectors or friends) from them, till they emigrate in the Way of Allah (to Muhammad peace be upon him). But if they turn back, take (hold) of them and kill them wherever you find them, and take neither Auliya' (protectors or friends) nor helpers from them.”

In order to better understand this verse, it is essential to identify those people who have been referred to in this verse. Why the Quran commanded to kill those people? It is also as much necessary to know how come the holy Quran be unjust, while it asks the believers to accept the peace proposal of disbelievers [8:61], fight only against those who oppress people [42:42] uphold justice and kindness [16:90] prefer forgiveness as an option against retaliation [42:40/16:126-128] and which considers killing of one person tantamount to that of all mankind [5:32]? Such are the questions need to be taken into mind, prior to moving forward.

To understand the motif of the verse 4:89 in its entirety, let us now read it along with its both preceding and succeeding verses and we can then find out all answers to the above questions. Allah Almighty says, 

4:88: “Then what is the matter with you that you are divided into two parties about the hypocrites? Allah has cast them back (to disbelief) because of what they have earned. Do you want to guide him whom Allah has made to go astray? And he whom Allah has made to go astray, you will never find for him any way (of guidance).”

4:89: “They wish that you reject Faith, as they have rejected (Faith), and thus that you all become equal (like one another). So take not Auliya' (protectors or friends) from them, till they emigrate in the Way of Allah (to Muhammad peace be upon him). But if they turn back (from Islam), take (hold) of them and kill them wherever you find them, and take neither Auliya' (protectors or friends) nor helpers from them.”

4:90: “Except those who join a group, between you and whom there is a treaty (of peace), or those who approach you with their breasts restraining from fighting you as well as fighting their own people. Had Allah willed, indeed He would have given them power over you, and they would have fought you. So if they withdraw from you, and fight not against you, and offer you peace, then Allah has opened no way for you against them.”

Reason for Revelation of the Verse 4:89

This verse is not difficult to understand, especially after reading its reason for revelation [Shan e Nuzul]. According to ‘Ruh ul Bayan’, a famous and widely-accepted classical book of Tafsir, this verse was revealed concerning those hypocrites who did not find the existing conditions in Madina to their liking but left with the holy Prophet (peace be upon him) to participate in the Battle of Badr. On the way they deserted Muslims and went to Makkah in order to join the ranks of the polytheists. There was a difference of opinion amongst the Muslims concerning this group, whether they are hypocrites or as clear infidels, and at an opportune moment, [that is, during fighting] should they be put to death for their treachery or not. In response to this question the above verse was revealed. Hence there is no inconsistency, with regard to the contents of this verse. (Tafsir Ruh ul Bayan)

According to the report mentioned in the book of Tafsir “Ruh ul Ma’ani”, this verse refers to those people who emigrated from Makkah to Madinah and then turned apostates. They requested the beloved prophet [peace be upon him] for permission to return to Makkah, so that they may gather their trading stock and resume business. The Muslims were divided about these people. Some called them hypocrites while others considered them to be Muslims. To resolve their division, Allah revealed the above verse, exposing their hypocrisy and ordering their execution.

According to Hadrat Dhahhak, the verse refers to those people who remained in Makkah. Although they claimed to be Muslims, they did not migrate. Consequently, the Muslims were divided about them. Some considered them to be hypocrites and severed all ties with them. Others maintained their relationship with them. The verse was then revealed to clear the dispute and instructed the Muslims not to associate with them until they migrate.

Having reported these two narrations, the author of ‘Ruh ul Ma’ani’ records the following narration of Bukhari, Muslim, Tirmidhi, Nasai and Ahmad. It is reported that when the Muslims were marching towards Uhud, a group of hypocrites [Munafiqin] turned back. The Muslims were divided about their condition. Some wanted them killed, while others did not. The above verse was revealed on this occasion, in which Allah says, “Then what is the matter with you that you are divided into two parties about the hypocrites? Allah has cast them back (to disbelief) because of what they have earned. Do you want to guide him whom Allah has made to go astray? And he whom Allah has made to go astray, you will never find for him any way (of guidance” (4:88)

Thereafter, Allah makes mention of the evil schemes of the hypocrites (Munafiqin). Allah says, “They wish that you reject Faith, as they have rejected (Faith), and thus that you all become equal (like one another). So take not Auliya' (protectors or friends) from them, till they emigrate in the Way of Allah (to Muhammad peace be upon him). But if they turn back (from Islam), take (hold) of them and kill them wherever you find them, and take neither Auliya' (protectors or friends) nor helpers from them.” (4:89)

..... “But if they turn back (from Islam), take (hold) of them and kill them wherever you find them....” When considering all the three verses together, it becomes clear that the verses referred to all three types of hypocrites mentioned in the above three narrations. However the execution order did not apply to all of them because the hypocrites of Madinah were not executed.

The order for execution and separation applied to all the hypocrites (Munafiqin) “Except those who join a group, between you and whom there is a treaty (of peace).” [Anwarul Bayan]

Excluded from the instruction of execution are also those who “approach you with their breasts restraining from fighting you as well as fighting their own people. Had Allah willed, indeed He would have given them power over you, and they would have fought you. So if they withdraw from you, and fight not against you, and offer you peace, then Allah has opened no way for you against them.” This means that, in this case, the Muslims are not allowed to fight them.

The aforementioned three verses guided the Arabian Muslims of the early period of Islam not to be divided into two groups about the Arabian hypocrites. These verses signified that these hypocrites, because of their misdeeds, were deprived of blessing of guidance. They were those people who hypocritically pretended to be the followers of Islam and friends of Muslims, but inwardly hated and wanted the then Muslims to reject their faith. Some of these hypocrites used to support the Arabian oppressors in war and propaganda against the Muslims. It was therefore God Almighty commanded the Muslims to fight and kill such destructive hypocrites, if they were found in the state of war. Fighting was allowed against those hypocrites who turned oppressors by supporting the Makkan oppressors and not against those hypocrites who joined the group with peace-treaty and restrained from fighting.

In today’s context, when Muslims and non-Muslims including hypocrites are living peacefully, these verses (4:88-90) can’t be applied. It is not an individual’s duty to decide as to who are hypocrites. In the case of the early period of Islam, when the Muslims who were holy companions [Sahaba] were not all sure as to who were then hypocrites and who were not, how come today’s common Muslims categorically call others ‘hypocrites’? Even if we hear some of today’s scholars calling someone ‘hypocrite’, how can one make justification for killing him, while he is living in the state of peace or peace-treaty? The first mistake of today’s radical groups is their applying the war-related verse 4:89 to today’s peaceful environment, in order to kill those who, according to them, are non-Muslims or ‘hypocrite Muslims’, while their second mistake is their intentionally ignoring the next verse 4:90 which says, “those who join a group, between you and whom there is a treaty (of peace), or those who approach you with their breasts restraining from fighting you..” should not be killed. The last part of the same verse again and emphatically says, “So if they [hypocrites] withdraw from you, and fight not against you, and offer you peace, then Allah has opened no way for you against them.” [4:90] In short the misuse of war-related verse 4:89 by terrorist ideologues is categorically a great crime, for which they shall have to be accountable on the Day of Judgment.

A regular Columnist with NewAgeIslam.com, Ghulam Ghaus Siddiqi Dehlvi is an Alim and Fazil (Classical Islamic scholar) with a Sufi background and English-Arabic-Urdu Translator.

Part Two of the Article:

The Enlightening Commentary on the War Related Quranic Verses- Part 2

http://www.newageislam.com/islamic-ideology/ghulam-ghaus-siddiqi,-new-age-islam/the-enlightening-commentary-on-the-war-related-quranic-verses--part-2/d/114418

URL: http://www.newageislam.com/islamic-ideology/ghulam-ghaus-siddiqi,-new-age-islam/the-enlightening-commentary-on-the-war-related-quranic-verses--part-3-on-4-89/d/114590

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TOTAL COMMENTS:-   36


  • Tolerant has inbuilt form hatred which you follow and accuse other of hating is merely hypocrisy Muslims had adopted.
    By Aayina - 4/6/2018 12:50:46 PM



  • You can call a spade a spade but it is the hate in your heart aimed at moderate Muslims that defines you.


    By Ghulam Mohiyuddin - 4/5/2018 2:20:23 PM



  • Naseer Saheb, how would you interpret the clear verse of Quran (4--89).

    SAHIH INTERNATIONAL

    They wish you would disbelieve as they disbelieved so you would be alike. So do not take from among them allies until they emigrate for the cause of Allah . But if they turn away, then seize them and kill them wherever you find them and take not from among them any ally or helper.'


    By Sultan Shahin - 4/5/2018 4:54:05 AM



  • you think lying is moderation, deceit is decency, euphemisms are ennobling, and getting hurt is a strategy.

    and you want to reform islam.

    if you cannot call a spade a spade, maybe you think taqiyya is the best.

    By hats off! - 4/5/2018 4:44:52 AM



  • what hatts-off is telling is right every Khutbh start with hating Jews and idol worshippers and victory on them.

    Hypocrates atleast have some same when exposed.

    By Aayina - 4/5/2018 1:03:26 AM



  • Hats Off is right there applauding the neo-Nazi and xenophobic hate groups of the West seeing justification in what all decent and civilized westerners condemn as being a most heinous activity. Every incident of abuse of Muslims brings joy to Hats Off's heart!


    By Ghulam Mohiyuddin - 4/4/2018 11:18:31 PM



  • Hating others will do a lot of unsettling to the hater, but very little to the hated.
    By Z. Z - 4/4/2018 8:10:04 PM



  • Hats off
    Muslims have yet not learnt from from your comment. 
    The Quran has well said they will not be pleased with you until you leave your religion. 

    By Z. Z - 4/4/2018 8:07:50 PM



  • hating a muslim day is an excellent opportunity for muslims to understand things from a kuffar's point of view.

    the kuffar have merely taken a page from the Qur'an. with nearly sixty percent of its text devoted to somehow or the other denigrate, condemn and lambast the kuffar why are you acting surprised?

    that is exactly how muslims deal with the kuffar. then they have tons of hadees that encourages the momeen to have hatred for the kuffar in the heart.

    why so touchy? while muslims can do all the hating inside their heart and the kuffar cannot reciprocate? how unjust!

    in nearly every khutba jews, idol worshippers and munafiqs are berated and ridiculed and suddenly everyone is acting so innocent when the shoe is on the other foot.

    this is how muslims throughout their history treated the polytheists and idol worshippers.

    By hats off! - 4/4/2018 4:53:53 PM



  • Dr. Mike Ghouse beautifully wrote in  one of his LinkedIn posts : 

    "April 3 is designated as a hate a Muslim day. A handful of misguided individuals have set the date to harm a Muslim on this day. Forgive them, lord, for they know not! Hating others will do a lot of unsettling to the hater, but very little to the hated. There is no need to hate anyone or love anyone either. Just live your life and let other’s living theirs."

    By Ghulam Ghaus Siddiqi غلام غوث الصديقي - 4/4/2018 8:37:54 AM



  • Ghaus sahib,
    I read a hadith which meant that one of the signs of Munafiq is that he misbehaves with the elderly people of Islam, with Alim, and with the kind and just Islamic ruler. 
    Is it authentic hadith ? Can you please tell me its source? 

    By ALISHBA - 4/4/2018 8:12:44 AM



  • "The order for execution and separation applied to all the hypocrites (Munafiqin) “Except those who join a group, between you and whom there is a treaty (of peace).” [Anwarul Bayan]

    Excluded from the instruction of execution are also those who “approach you with their breasts restraining from fighting you as well as fighting their own people. Had Allah willed, indeed He would have given them power over you, and they would have fought you. So if they withdraw from you, and fight not against you, and offer you peace, then Allah has opened no way for you against them.” This means that, in this case, the Muslims are not allowed to fight them."

    Well explanation! 

    But dear Ghaus sahib 

    the man of evil mind will never understand this point of yours.

    Thank you. your article is absolutely enlightening. Let the evil mind speak whatsoever. 


    By Abidi Zafar - 4/4/2018 7:29:52 AM



  • نفاق خدا کو شدید ناپسند ہے یہاں تک کہ منافقین کے بارے میں قرآن میں بتادیا کہ یہ جہنم کے سب سے نچلے طبقے میں ہونگے(سورہ النسا ء آیت ۱۴۵)
    By Zahid Ansari - 4/4/2018 7:18:48 AM



  • @Naseer Ahmed
    صحابی رسول
     صلی اللہ علیہ وسلم کے متعلق بد گمانی وہی رکھ سکتا ہے جو وقت کا بہت بڑا منافق ہے
    ارے ظالم کچھ تو حیا کر حضرت ضحاک کے متعلق بدگمانی کرتا ہے 

    By Abidi Zafar - 4/4/2018 6:49:40 AM



  • One of the main tenets of Abd al-Wahhab’s doctrine has become the key idea of takfir. Under the takfiri doctrine, Abd al-Wahhab and his followers could deem fellow Muslims infidels should they engage in activities that in any way could be said to encroach on the sovereignty of the absolute Authority (that is, the King). Abd al-Wahhab denounced all Muslims who honored the dead, saints, or angels. He held that such sentiments detracted from the complete subservience one must feel towards God, and only God. Wahhabi Islam thus bans any prayer to saints and dead loved ones, pilgrimages to tombs and special mosques, religious festivals celebrating saints, the honoring of the Muslim Prophet Muhammad’s birthday, and even prohibits the use of gravestones when burying the dead.

    Those who would not conform to this view should be killed, their wives and daughters violated, and their possessions confiscated, he wrote.

    Abd al-Wahhab demanded conformity — a conformity that was to be demonstrated in physical and tangible ways. He argued that all Muslims must individually pledge their allegiance to a single Muslim leader (a Caliph, if there were one). Those who would not conform to this view should be killed, their wives and daughters violated, and their possessions confiscated, he wrote. The list of apostates meriting death included the Shiite, Sufis and other Muslim denominations, whom Abd al-Wahhab did not consider to be Muslim at all.

    There is nothing here that separates Wahhabism from ISIS. The rift would emerge only later: from the subsequent institutionalization of Muhammad ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab’s doctrine of “One Ruler, One Authority, One Mosque” — these three pillars being taken respectively to refer to the Saudi king, the absolute authority of official Wahhabism, and its control of “the word” (i.e. the mosque).

    It is this rift — the ISIS denial of these three pillars on which the whole of Sunni authority presently rests — makes ISIS, which in all other respects conforms to Wahhabism, a deep threat to Saudi Arabia.

    https://www.huffingtonpost.com/alastair-crooke/isis-wahhabism-saudi-arabia_b_5717157.html


    By Zaid - 4/4/2018 6:35:09 AM



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