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Islamic Ideology (28 Aug 2019 NewAgeIslam.Com)

Why the Message of the 7th Century Quran Is Eternally and Universally Valid

By Naseer Ahmed, New Age Islam

28 August 2019

Animals of the species homo first appeared about 2.5 million years ago. Except for the estimated last seventy thousand years, they did not stand out from other animals such as monkeys, cats or cows. This period before history or before there could be a meaningful history, is mentioned in verse (76:1) of the Quran as:” Has there not been over Man a long period of Time, when he was nothing - (not even) mentioned? “. This long period of undistinguished existence is a story unlike that of every other living organism. 

The behaviour of animals is determined to a large extent by their genes and to a very small extent by conditioning and idiosyncrasies. Different social behaviours found among different species and sub-species is genetically determined. For example, chimpanzees live in hierarchical groups headed by an alpha male. Bonobos live in more egalitarian groups dominated by female alliances. The two closely related sub-species are incapable of learning from the behaviour of the other or by social conditioning. Changes in behaviour that would make a chimpanzee behave like a bonobo or vice versa can occur only if their DNA changed. For similar reasons, pre-historic humans did not change during the very long pre-historic period. Two million years ago, genetic mutations resulted in the appearance of a new human species called Homo erectus. This species distinguished itself by developing and using tools made out of stone. Homo erectus did not undergo further genetic alterations for 2 million years because of which its stone tools remained the same. Significant changes in social behaviour among all other species except modern humans are possible only with genetic mutations.

What Noah Harari calls “the Cognitive Revolution “occurred 70,000 years ago with the creation of Adam. This creation is so different from any other species that it can be considered a new species. The progeny of Adam have been able to change their behaviour quickly, transmitting new behaviours to future generations without any need of genetic or environmental change. While the behaviour patterns of pre-historic humans remained fixed for millions of years, the progeny of Adam could transform their social, political and economic structures several times within one’s lifetime. Yuval Noah Harari, in his book “Sapiens” gives the following example: “Consider a resident of Berlin, born in 1900 and living to the ripe age of one hundred. She spent her childhood in the Hohenzollern Empire of Wilhelm II; her adult years in the Weimar Republic, the Nazi Third Reich and Communist East Germany; and she died a citizen of a democratic and reunified Germany. She had managed to be a part of very different socio-political systems, though her DNA remained exactly the same.” This is how different the progeny of Adam is from every other creation.

While the social behaviour of animals is instinctive or built into their DNA, in the case of the progeny of Adam, it is learned. Humans have enormous capacity to transform through learning and unlike every other creation; they are not complete slave even to their instincts. Allah’s revelations through the ages have played an exclusive role in the learning to control instincts to behave as “moral agents”. Humans are the only species with the cognitive ability to choose what they believe to be right over what gives them pleasure or what avoids pain. The transformation from the creation of Adam to reaching a level of maturity when compulsion was no longer necessary to make man behave as a moral agent, took roughly 70,000 years and culminated with the revelation of the Quran to Muhammad (pbuh) the last and the seal of the prophets. The Quran contains the “perfected and complete religion”(5:3). There are parts that are confirmation of what came before and indeed the Quran can be looked upon as a collection of the best practices of all its prophets and People of Virtue.

“….and guide you to the [good] practices (Sunana) of those before you” 4:26.

Nothing is said to you that was not said to the apostles before you 41:43.

“This Qur´an is not such as can be produced by other than Allah; on the contrary it is a confirmation of (revelations) that went before it, and a fuller explanation of the Book - wherein there is no doubt - from the Lord of the worlds.” (10:37)

If the Quran contains the perfected and the complete religion as per verse 5:3, then what is found in the previous scriptures but not in the Quran is abrogated.

None of Our revelations do We abrogate or cause to be forgotten, but We substitute something better or similar: Knowest thou not that Allah Hath power over all things? (2:106)

God created Adam, distinct from every other creation, with astounding cognitive abilities, and guided this creation through revelations, from an existence not very different from that of animals, to a stage when the final,perfect, and complete religion could be revealed in accordance with the full human potential determined by the genetic make-up of this species, which has not changed since the creation of Adam and will not change till doomsday. This is why the Quran is eternal and unchanging and will remain so till the end of time.

Naseer Ahmed is an Engineering graduate from IIT Kanpur and is an independent IT consultant after having served in both the Public and Private sector in responsible positions for over three decades. He is a frequent contributor to NewAgeIslam.com

URL:  http://www.newageislam.com/islamic-ideology/naseer-ahmed,-new-age-islam/why-the-message-of-the-7th-century-quran-is-eternally-and-universally-valid/d/119587

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  • As is his long-standing habit, Naseer sb. begins a vicious personal attack whenever he loses an argument, thus demolishing his own credentials as a serious scholar.

    He says, "the Quran speaks of the existence of human beings for an unspecified but very long period of time before the creation of Adam and Eve." The Quran does not say that.  As I said before, Naseer sb. extracts meanings from Quranic verses which are his own inventions. So let me ask him once again: When are you going to stop lying, Naseer sb.?

    By Ghulam Mohiyuddin - 9/14/2019 1:31:39 PM

  • GM sb is reduced to blubbering nonsense. He contradicts himself in his comment. On the one hand he berates me for saying that the Quran speaks of the existence of human beings for an unspecified but very long period of time before the creation of Adam and Eve. He also indulges in the straw man argument as if I have also said the very opposite - that Adam and Eve were the very first human beings!

    He has lost the argument and is now trying confuse everyone as he always does. A man without honour and without integrity. Shameless as he is, he will continue to argue and waste everyone's time.

    By Naseer Ahmed - 9/14/2019 3:27:33 AM

  • Naseer sb. does not seem to understand that Mitochondrial Eve  and the Y-chromosomal Adam are hypotheses that have nothing to do with the evolution vs. creationism controversy. As with "Mitochondrial Eve", the title of "Y-chromosomal Adam" is not permanently fixed to a single individual, but can advance over the course of human history as paternal lineages become extinct. We must emphasize  the fact that the position of mt-MRCA is neither fixed in time (as the position of mt-MRCA moves forward in time as mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) lineages become extinct), nor does it refer to a "first woman", nor the only living female of her time, nor the first member of a "new species".

    How much more clear do you want me to make it? Do you understand anything at all?

    But your worst transgression is your taking meanings from Quranic verses which clearly those verses do not convey. This has been your pattern through the long string of articles that you have posted in NAI. As I said before, "Trying to derive your own meaning from them in order to reconcile them with scientific theories is a deception and an abuse of the Holy Book."

    This discussion started with my pointing out that Naseer sb. was misquoting Harari, a Darwinist. Now I must state that his taking unintended and unimplied meaning from Quranic verses make him an unreliable guide for us.

    By Ghulam Mohiyuddin - 9/12/2019 1:41:23 PM

  • GM sb now rejects Science, which has established that all of us living today, have  descended from one woman and one man going back an estimated 50,000 to 200,000 years, whom they have called the "Mitochondrial Eve"  and the "Y-chromosomal Adam" !
    The man is full of nonsense and the one indulging in self-deception and trying to deceive everyone
    By Naseer Ahmed - 9/12/2019 3:29:00 AM

  • Naseer sb.,

    Refering to your earlier article that you cited, neither 76:1, nor 2:30, nor 2:31 say what you think they say. Your claim that they are referring to earlier humans is a bogus claim. Trying to derive your own meaning from them in order to reconcile them with scientific theories is a deception and an abuse of the Holy Book.

    You are right in saying the Quran does not tell us how long ago Adam existed. According to a Sahih Hadith,  there are 10 qarn or generation or centuries between Adam and Noah... This would mean that humanity started on earth around a couple of thousand of years ago! According to a revelation received by Mirza Ghulam Ahmad, the founder of the Ahmadiya community, the Adam mentioned in the Quran was born 4,598 years before Muhammad. But, as you said, this datum is not important as far as the Quran is concerned.

    You said, "If one insists on only sticking with the Theory of Evolution, then it supports evolution of a new species in quantum leaps that begins with one pair and propagates downwards."

    That is wrong.  DNA evidence indicates that humans descended from a large population because we, as a species, are so genetically diverse in the present day that a large ancestral population is needed to transmit that diversity to us. To date, every genetic analysis estimating ancestral population sizes has agreed that we descend from a population of thousands, not a single ancestral couple.

    If we descended from a population of thousands, then your whole argument about Mitochondrial Eve become moot.

    If by "new species" you mean  man did not descend from earlier species, you are just talking nonsense. You are talking the language of the Old Testament.

    The idea of reconciling scriptures with science may sound good but such a reconciliation would require a lot of self-deception and stretching of the truth.

    By Ghulam Mohiyuddin - 9/11/2019 2:41:48 PM

  • This is my last comment.

     So far, it is GM sb who has made a fool of himself with his stray man arguments. He neither understands "The Theory of Evolution", its strengths and weaknesses nor the Scriptures. He does not know the difference between the Biblical version of the story and the Quranic. He uses weak arguments of others that have been answered (for example the weak version of creation from the Bible), while ignoring what I have said. Examine closely and you will find that he has not answered even one of my questions although pretending to do so, because he cannot, while I have addressed all his questions and comments comprehensively.

     Let us discuss below why the mere existence of “Mitochondrial Eve” and the “Y-Chromosome Adam” supports the story of creation in the Quran. If one insists on only sticking with the Theory of Evolution, then it supports evolution of a new species in quantum leaps that begins with one pair and propagates downwards.

     How can/cannot the “Mitochondrial Eve” move forward in time?

    Let us call the woman who occupies the position of the present day “Mitochondrial Eve" Martha, and the "Y-chromosomal Adam”, Jonas. Let us also assume that Martha had only one daughter who in turn had only one daughter and who in turn had two daughters. Then all of the 7 billion people today, trace their ancestry to one of these two great, great, granddaughters of Martha. Now if one of these two great great granddaughters is to become the “Mitochondrial Eve", then the lineage of the second great great granddaughter must become extinct. What chance that a lineage that is nearly as old as the age of the "Mitochondrial Eve" estimated to be between 50 thousand to 500,00 years old becomes extinct? Although theoretically, this is possible, it is extremely improbable. Lineages that run deep also spread wide and have the least probability of going extinct. There is therefore little chance based on probability that the position of the "Mitochondrial Eve" and "Y-chromosomal Adam" will move forward.

    Why is it more likely that the Mitochondrial Eve and the Y-Chromosome Adam were a new species?

    Studies of the nuclear DNA indicate that the size of the ancient human population never dropped below tens of thousands.  Martha and Jonas therefore had at least 10,000 brothers and 10,000 sisters. Then what explains that the lineage represented by the approximately 10,000 or more sisters/female cousins of Martha,  have gone extinct but the lineage of Martha has grown to 7 billion? The only explanation is that Martha enjoyed some great genetic superiority not shared by her remaining sisters/cousins, or to speak plainly, the fact that Martha, the "Mitochondrial Eve" was a different species. The more probable explanation is that every other lineage (species) has become extinct because this lineage (superior species) of Martha and Jonas, wiped out every other lineage (species) just like they wiped out many of their own species also. This is true even if inter breeding produced fertile children. In such a case, it means that only children from the lineage of both Martha and Jonas had superior survival skills and not other lineages including the mixed ones.

    Why the Mitochondrial Eve and the Y-Chromosome Adam can move forward in time only with the creation of a new species starting with a single pair and propagating downward and not through gradual and widespread evolution.

    Let us imagine that today, one couple produce a male and a female that is genetically superior to all other humans and a new species. This new species cannot produce offspring with other humans except between themselves although they are alike physically and in many other ways. The siblings who we call Beth and John mate and multiply and their progeny co-exist with other humans for say 30,000 years, after which their population grows large enough to control the entire population of humans. At this point, they carry out a systematic genocide over the next 10,000 years to completely wipe out every lineage except their own. Beth and John now become the "Mitochondrial Eve" and  "Y-chromosomal Adam" of the entire population displacing the earlier one over a short period of 10,000 years of genocide.

    However, if we assume a slow, uniform and spread out process of evolution, then every lineage of Martha and Jonas evolve simultaneously and therefore Martha and Jonas remain the "Mitochondrial Eve"  and "Y-chromosomal Adam" of every human being even after this new phase of evolution that makes every human being much superior to any man that exists today.

    Weakness in the Theory of Evolution

    The very fact that the "Mitochondrial Eve" and the "Y-chromosomal Adam" do not go as far back as the first appearance of the species of the genus Homo or even to the first appearance of Homo Sapiens, is therefore proof of their being a new species and the story of slow, gradual, spread out evolution over thousands of years, simply hogwash. This is also the reason why apes still exist even if the first man and woman evolved from them. However, what is not explained is why did the apes escape the fate of other less evolved human beings and not get wiped out by the more evolved human beings? Our genetic memory also does not make us either more hostile or more compassionate towards the apes in comparison with other animals which also belie the theory of evolution from the ape. The very clear and categorical verses of the Quran which say that some rebellious people were transformed into apes and swine make more sense. The fact that apes and swine genetically resemble us the most may therefore not be either mere coincidence or because we evolved from either of these animals.

      Mutations within a species go on continuously without producing a new species. A new species is a quantum leap in genetic mutation which starts with just one couple. It does not matter whether you say this is as a result of the evolutionary process or creation by God. Even if the story of creation in the Quran is allegorical, it points to creation of a new species in quantum leaps and not as a result of continuous mutation, while continuous mutation to adapt with our changing environment and for survival is a fact. The very idea of just one pair starting a new species is anathema to the theory of evolution as it fails to explain why the remaining stock from which this pair evolved failed to evolve likewise or why there are apes even today while some evolved into human beings.

    Much to learn from both Science and the Scriptures

    There are many things to learn from the Theory of Evolution and from Noah Harari without subscribing to their blind spots as well. These blind spots exist only because they are ideologically and dogmatically opposed to the idea of creation and the Creator. For a person who is open to all knowledge from Science as well as the Scriptures, it is easy to reconcile the two. The Quran does command that we use Science to discover the truth of what the Quran says and I am doing exactly that. All the Prophets without exception were also ridiculed for what they said based on the revelations. GM sb is just another shallow disbeliever in the Scriptures.

    By Naseer Ahmed - 9/11/2019 1:51:05 AM

  • There is more than one verse that implies existence of other humans. The Quranic verses regarding creation are discussed in my article:

    Was Allah Unjust in Creating Adam and Favouring His Progeny Over All His Creation?

    GM sb says Quranic Adam existed 6000 years back. From where did he get this number 6000? The Quran scrupulously avoids mentioning any number - not even the number of people in the "People of the Cave" apart from pointing out the numbers that people speculate on.

     (18:22) (Some) say they were three, the dog being the fourth among them; (others) say they were five, the dog being the sixth,- doubtfully guessing at the unknown; (yet others) say they were seven, the dog being the eighth. Say thou: "My Lord knoweth best their number; It is but few that know their (real case)." Enter not, therefore, into controversies concerning them, except on a matter that is clear, nor consult any of them about (the affair of) the Sleepers.

     Why does the Quran not give the precise number? Because the precise number is irrelevant to the moral of the story and in any case, people will not cease to argue and differ even if the Quran were to give the correct number.

     The estimate of the age of the “Mitochondrial Eve” and the “Y-chromosome” Adam also differs widely from researcher to researcher and keeps getting revised based on further research. This will go on and on and therefore there will be many more revisions and never perhaps agreement on the final number.

     The Quran leaves to man what he can discover by himself and the subjects on which he is likely to speculate. This also includes the period it took for the Universe to come about. Although the Quran says 2 days to create the Universe and 4 days to make the earth habitable and support life, it also makes clear that this day is not our 24 hour day. There are three verses that hint at different numbers to what a cosmic day is like. In one context a day is like a thousand years and in another context it is 50,000 years. In the context of creation it could be a different number. So, 6 days means 6 phases of indeterminate number of years.

    By Naseer Ahmed - 9/11/2019 12:20:08 AM

  • Naseer sb. says, "As far as the Quran is concerned, before the creation of Adam, humans have lived for a very long time, and their existence is not even worthy of mention."
    This seems to be the belief mostly of Ahmadiyas based on 2:30, "Just think when your Lord said to the angels: “Lo! I am about to place a vicegerent on earth,” they said: “Will You place on it one who will spread mischief and shed blood."
    Instead of using the word "Vice-regent", other translators have used the words: "representative", or "khalif", or "I am about to establish upon earth one who shall inherit it," or "successor" or "“I am going to place a successive ˹human˺ authority on earth.”
    As Asad says, " The term khalifah - derived from the verb khalafa, "he succeeded [another]" - is used in this allegory to denote man's rightful supremacy on earth, which is most suitably rendered by the expression "he shall inherit the earth" (in the sense of being given possession of it). Some people, especially the Ahmadiyas have derived an alternative meaning from this namely that Adam was to be a Caliph over existing human beings, but this is a minority opinion.
    The angel's reply, "“Will You place on it one who will spread mischief and shed blood," does not  refer to spreading mischief among a pre-existing human society but spreading mischief on earth. This is said in the form of a taunt because they are unhappy with this creation of God.
    Quranic Adam existed about 6000 years ago. That does not agree with  Harari's cognitive revolution or with the theories of Darwinists or anthropologists in general.
    You will continue to raise these dubious and useless points because it is difficult for you to admit that your theories have more holes in them than one can count. At some point you will have to admit that you have just been making a fool of yourself.
    By Ghulam Mohiyuddin - 9/10/2019 2:14:16 PM

  • GM sb is mixing up stories from the Bible and the Quran. As far as the Bible is concerned, Adam and Eve were the first humans. As far as the Theory of Evolution and the Quran are concerned, Adam and Eve were not the first humans. As far as the Quran is concerned, before the creation of Adam, humans have lived for a very long time, and their existence is not even worthy of mention. God then created Adam and Eve with Cognitive powers not given to any other creation. Adam and Eve are the common great grandparents of all the human beings living in the 7th Century, when the Quran was revealed. The Quran is proved right by Science in this respect. Al human beings at the time of revelation, had common grandparents.

    The Concept of "Mitochondrial Eve" and "Y-chromosomal Adam" (or Y-MRCA) are very well understood. Biology relates them to the first humans that appeared 5-7 million years ago, and to the Homo Sapiens that appeared 315000 years ago. As far as biology is concerned, only their lineages survive to day and every other lineage has become extinct. Theoretically, if the "Mitochondrial Eve" and "Y-chromosomal Adam were not a new species, and could breed with other humans, then it is not necessary for them to have ever met. Biology however does not rule out that they could have been contemporaries and mated with each other and produced progeny.

    The estimate of the age of the "Mitochondrial Eve" ranges from 50,000 to 500,000 years ago and that of the "Y-chromosomal Adam" also falls in this range. Biology is not yet able to place the numbers more accurately, but that is not necessary for my argument. Now if humans appeared 5 to seven million years ago, and the anatomically modern humans (Homo sapiens) over 315000 years ago, there must have been at least ten thousand sisters of the "Mitochondrial Eve" and 10,000 brothers of the "Y-chromosomal Adam".  What is the probability, that only one man's and one woman’s progeny have survived today? Does biology favour survival of the progeny through such interbreeding or does it favour the theory that the age of the "Mitochondrial Eve" and the "Y-chromosomal Adam" should be as old as the age of the species? Certainly, biology favours the theory that the age of the "Mitochondrial Eve" and the age of the  "Y-chromosomal Adam" should be as old as the age of the species. The "Mitochondrial Eve" and "Y-chromosomal Adam" are then a new species and not the same as what appeared 5-7 million years ago or even 315000 years ago, although anatomically the same as Homo Sapiens.

    It is GM sb who understands neither Science nor the Scriptures but blindly believes in Science and blindly rejects the scriptures.

    Although he is fond of quoting the exhortation of the Quran to pursue the Sciences when it suits him, he recoils as any atheist would, at the very thought that the Quran speaks facts that can be scientifically established.

    By Naseer Ahmed - 9/10/2019 12:40:56 AM

  • no point discussing evolutionary biology with a electrical engineering ulama.
    By hats off! - 9/9/2019 7:00:37 PM

  • Naseer sb.,
    Your using the idea of mitochondrial Eve to support your Adam and Eve theory is simplistic and ill-informed.
    When evolutionary scientists speak of “mitochondrial Eve,” they may be referencing the biblical Eve, but the woman they have in mind isn’t quite the same. Hilariously, some creationists have taken this to mean that science has found the biblical Adam and Eve and evolution has thus been disproven. But mitochondrial Eve and Adam  probably weren't contemporaries and almost certainly never met. They aren't even fixed people; if branches of Adam's male line or Eve's female line die off, the title shifts to whoever currently meets the definition. Creationists willfully misunderstand the entire notion of Mitochondrial Eve. Since the concept was first introduced in 1987 by A.C.Wilson, creationists have been deliberately claiming that she must have been the first woman. They believe this because it says so in the Bible, and such is the addled state of their brains that they need no further proof. It really is most unfortunate that Allan Wilson did not call Eve by some other name. We might then have creationists wittering on about someone called Mitochondrial Doris instead.
    Naseer sb., you must stop catching at straws to breathe life into your unscientific theories. You are not fooling anyone except yourself.
    You seem to think my quote from Harari's book supports the last paragraph of your article. That is totally false. Harari would not agree with even a single word of your last paragraph. Would you ever stop lying and making preposterous claims?

    By Ghulam Mohiyuddin - 9/8/2019 12:55:47 PM

  • GM sb says: Naseer sb. again seeks support in the writings of Noah Harari, a staunch Darwinist! He forgets that Harari clearly said, " Biology sets the basic parameters for the behaviour and capacities of Homo sapiens. The whole of history takes place within the bounds of this biological arena."
    On the contrary, that is precisely the thesis of the article as clearly concluded in the last paragraph.
    God created Adam, distinct from every other creation, with astounding cognitive abilities, and guided this creation through revelations, from an existence not very different from that of animals, to a stage when the final,perfect, and complete religion could be revealed in accordance with the full human potential determined by the genetic make-up of this species, which has not changed since the creation of Adam and will not change till doomsday. This is why the Quran is eternal and unchanging and will remain so till the end of time.
    I am saying very clearly, that biology defines the bounds, and Allah knows what those bounds are, and therefore the potential of human beings and the stage in our civilizational development when the final eternal and universal Message could be revealed. This is what the Quran is and why its Message is both eternal and universal.
    I am not denigrating Science but using it precisely as the Quran commands -  to discover the truth in what the Quran says. I am bringing out the fact that Science confirms what the Quran says and where it differs from what the Quran says, is in the realm of unproven theories and speculation.
    By Naseer Ahmed - 9/8/2019 2:10:53 AM

  • Biology has proved that every human being traces his ancestry to a single woman, whom they call the ‘Mitochondrial Eve’. It is not equally easy to establish that we also trace our lineage to a single father, or to Adam. This is because, although our genomes are a combination of DNA from both our mother and father, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) comes solely from our mother because the female egg contains large amounts of mitochondrial DNA, whereas the male sperm contains just a tiny amount. The sperm use their small amount of mitochondria to power their race to their egg before fertilisation. Once a sperm merges with an egg, all the sperm mitochondria are destroyed.
    Theory of evolution does not predict that a new species comes from a single male and a single female or that only a single lineage will survive. What then explains that only a single lineage has survived and all of us have a common father and mother? What about the evidence of interbreeding? This only proves that the progeny of Adam and Eve also mated with the Neanderthal, the Homo Erectus, the Homo Sapiens etc and produced children and there is a one-way flow of genes.  These mixed lineages have not survived so what is found common in those other species is what has flown from our ancestors. There is no reverse flow of genes as only one lineage has survived.
    That we share common building blocks with other organisms and DNA sequences with other species does not prove that we evolved from them. It only confirms what the Quran says – that Allah has used the same material to create every living organism.
    When Biology itself proves that all of us trace our lineage to a single pair, what does that prove? It certainly proves the story of creation of Adam and Eve in the Quran and not the theory of Evolution.
    GM sb has answered nothing. He has lost his bearings and become abusive.
    By Naseer Ahmed - 9/8/2019 1:22:01 AM

  • Naseer sb. wants to know if I answered his three stupid questions. What he is really pursuing is a derogation of science and an affirmation of the Quranic version of the creation of man. The fact is that he does not understand either science or the Quran. By trying to use the Quran as a weapon against science he is only making a fool of himself and trying to further exacerbate the backwardness of Muslims in the field of science.

    The answers given by science and by religion have their own value and their own place of honor. Our brains are large enough to accommodate both answers. The Quran deals with the issue in the context of a  discussion of the purpose of life and man's relationship to God, whereas science deals with the same issue by observation of nature and development of hypotheses based on analysis of observed findings. There are repeated calls in the Quran itself asking us to observe and reflect upon natural phenomenon.

    Creating a futile argument about whether the Quran or science is right is sheer idiocy. Wise men stay away from such arguments.

    Naseer sb. asks why only some apes evolved into human beings and others didn't.

    The reason other primates did not  evolve into humans is that they're doing just fine. All primates alive today, including mountain gorillas in Uganda, howler monkeys in the Americas, and lemurs in Madagascar, have proven that they can thrive in their natural habitats. Evolution is all about how well organisms fit into their current environments.

    Naseer sb. asks, "Why then the post Cognitive Revolution humans are not a new species?"

    All species evolve from earlier species. God created Adam from dust, so Adam would be called a new species. But we cannot fit that paradigm in modern scientific thinking. Is that a problem? Only for those who seek simplistic answers.

    On the question of whether God converted some Jews into apes and swine, the burden of proof is on you. In my mind, the great, merciful and glorious God would never ever want to do something like that, but I know that you have a different view on the sublect.

    Science is not out to prove Quran incorrect. Such questions arise only in small minds.

    Naseer sb. again seeks support in the writings of Noah Harari, a staunch Darwinist! He forgets that Harari clearly said, " Biology sets the basic parameters for the behaviour and capacities of Homo sapiens. The whole of history takes place within the bounds of this biological arena."

    By Ghulam Mohiyuddin - 9/7/2019 12:58:14 PM

  • GM sb says  “I did say that  animal behavior is no more DNA-controlled than human behavior. Do I have to keep repeating it?”
    He has apparently slided back into stupidity.
    Man is the only creation that can and does go against his DNA/Instinct/Biology based on his beliefs. The only creation that has the freedom to be a moral agent and make a moral choice going against even his instinct.
    No other creation is capable of moral agency and they are complete slaves of their instinct/DNA, Biology.
    “The Cognitive Revolution is accordingly the point when history declared its independence from biology. Until the Cognitive Revolution, the doings of all human species belonged to the realm of biology”, Noah Harahari
    Goes without saying that the doings of all species other than humans continue to belong to the realm of biology alone.
    By Naseer Ahmed - 9/7/2019 3:03:52 AM

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