Kaniz Fatma, New Age Islam
Taqlid denotes ‘deeming a person’s verdict
(Qaul) and action (Fe’il) to be lawful and obligatory upon
another’. The detailed definition can be seen here: What are Taqlid,
Muqallid and Non-Muqallid?
Taqlid can be classified into two groups;
(1) Taqleed-e-Shar’i and (2) Taqleed-e-Ghair-Shar’i. Taqlid-e-Shari’
means to follow someone with related to the rules of Islamic Jurisprudence
without knowing the evidence. For example, the following the four imams; Imam
Abu Hanifa, Imam Shafi’, Imam Malik and Imam Hambal in the detailed rules
related to the prayer, fasting, Zakat, pilgrimage, public dealings etc.
following someone in the worldly matters. For instance, doctors, Boo Ali
Seena/Ibn Sina/Avicenna, Louis Pasteur, Jean Martin Charcot, Edward Jenner etc.
are followed in medicine. Poets such as Daagh Dehlvi, Dr. Iqbal, William
Shakespeare, Homer, Dante Alighieri etc. are followed in poetry. Similarly
following any distinguished craftsmen is Taqlid. These are instances of
the Ghair-Shari’ Taqlid or to say the worldly Taqlid.
scholars say, Taqlid-e-Ghair Shari’ which opposes the Islamic Sharia is
forbidden while the one which does not oppose it is permissible.
evidences of forbiddance of Taqlid-e-Ghair Shari’ can be taken from the
Quran and Sunnah. God Almighty says,
“And do not follow the ones whose hearts We
have made bereft of Our remembrance (Zikr) and who has followed his desire and
whose behaviour has exceeded the limits” (18:28)
“And if they force you to make you associate
with Me that of which you have no knowledge, do not obey them but accompany
them in [this] world with appropriate kindness and follow the way of those who
turn back to Me [in repentance]. Then to Me will be your return, and I will
inform you about what you used to do”. (31:15)
context this verse is interpreted this way that in matters of contravention of
the faith, a Muslim should not follow his parents. But when it comes to the
worldly matters, such as serving the parents physically or financially, he
should not fall short about it. He should respect and deal with his parents in
mundane matters as per the approved custom.
of this verse denotes that a Muslim should not follow the one who calls him to
those matters which oppose Islamic injunctions. But in the worldly matters, he
should treat the people with kindness and in peaceful ways.
when it is said to them, "Come to what Allah has revealed and to the
Messenger," they say, "Sufficient for us is that upon which we found
our fathers." Even though their fathers knew nothing, nor were they
of this verse is explained this way that when the Arab pagans were commanded to
follow the injunctions revealed by Allah Almighty though His Messenger, they
refused to do so and insisted that they would rather obey their customary
practices that they inherited from their fathers because, as they assumed,
their models were divinely appointed to follow the way they adopted. God
Almighty refutes this position of theirs by asking how could they go on
following the ways of their fathers, under all conditions, to the exclusion of
all other ways, even if their fathers did not understand much about the Islamic
faith, nor were they blessed with guidance given by their Lord? (Maarif al-Quran
afore-mentioned verses and others command Muslims not to follow Taqlid
which goes against the Islamic Sharia. Islamic scholars explain under this
verse that this verse does not forbid the obedience of the four Imams, as the
four Imams deduce their opinions from the Quran and Sunnah in matters which are
not apparent for the common lay Muslims. Therefore, declaring Taqlid of
any four imams to be Shirk (polytheism) based on this verse is completely