Islam Edit Bureau
24 May 2016
Global Message to Fight ISIS
Is Influencing Egypt: The Elites Or The Masses?
Humanitarian Summit and Turkey
Bulent Aras,Fuat Keyman
a Better Future for Syrians in Turkey
Should Learn From Refugees
Lieberman Deal Meant To Derail French Plan
By New Age Islam Edit Bureau
Message to Fight ISIS
24 May 2016
of all families, communities and governments today is the radicalization of our
youth and the spread of violent extremism. Representatives from 170 cities
around the world met in Antalya on Turkey’s, Mediterranean coast to discuss
best practices to fight violent extremism and prevent the radicalization of
first Strong Cities Network (SCN) Summit held on May 11-12, a global network of
mayors, municipal-level policy makers and practitioners shared their
experiences in building community resilience and social cohesion to counter
violent extremism in all its forms. According to SCN experts, “cities are on
the front line of building resilience to violent extremism and they can develop
crucial preventive measures against violent extremism”.
concluded that educational institutions, sports clubs, effective use of social
media and national authorities need to work together to create an effective
strategy to prevent young people from joining radicalized movements, illegal
gangs or others. They stressed the importance of every city building community
resilience to fight radicalization and violent extremism.
stressed that “the fight against violent extremism begins in our own
neighbourhoods and in classrooms and workplaces and houses of worship and
homes. Teachers, counsellors, imams and parents are on the front lines of
identifying the warning signs of extremist influences”.
must show more social cohesion and resilience to eliminate religious strife and
the obstacles that stand in the way of building a strong and peaceful
stated that “it is in local communities where policies touch people, where
basic services can be delivered, human needs can be met, and where families
first begin to look for security, and particularly where boys and girls begin
to navigate that path to adulthood, to identity, to meaning, and to respect.”
world today is in crisis. A more serious and effective strategy is needed to
fight deviant ideas that justify violence and terror. The lack of an effective
religious authority has allowed deviant organizations such as ISIS and other
terrorist organizations to grow. Islamic scholars and intellectuals have failed
to address the rage and violence that has erupted because of terrorist
must show more social cohesion and resilience to eliminate religious strife and
the obstacles that stand in the way of building a strong and peaceful
environment. Parents and civil society must pay more attention to the needs of
young people and provide them with guidelines that protect them from devious
approach of accepting and respecting the differences between all faiths and
different ethnic groups is critical. More determined efforts by religious
scholars can counter ISIS ideology and terrorist propaganda that threaten the
nation’s stability. It is important to maintain tolerance in order to protect
our society’s social cohesion.
political analysts stress the need for qualified and experienced lawmakers who
are innovative and can devise constructive policies to reform the educational
sector. Social scientists conclude that some extremist teachers have misguided
our youth with a militant jihadist ideology. They reject other cultures and
people who do not subscribe to their views. The government must scrutinize the
performance of educators and the roles of officials in the field.
radical jihadists are a threat to all Muslims and are the real enemies of
Islam. More and more militants have taken up arms to conquer Arab and Muslim
lands. Every city must accept that it is responsible for confronting the enemy
within and global instigators who are out to destroy the peace and harmony of
Muslim societies around the world.
and guiding our youth is the national and religious responsibility of all
members of society. Today our youth are either disillusioned by extremists or
disappointed by the failure of reformers. Hence, they remain confused and easy
targets for radicalization and violent extremism going against the true Islamic
values of peace and tolerance.
approach and more stringent measures are essential to support a universal
Muslim attitude that is humane and moderate so that Muslims everywhere can live
with the true principles of Islamic and universal ideals of peace, tolerance
and justice for all.
support the SCN initiative and join forces with world cities to reiterate their
message that “the ethnic and religious differences that help to define us are
not as powerful as the things that actually unite us and bring us together. We
are not all the same – that is for sure – but we are absolutely joined together
and unified in our commitment and our determination to have a world of decency
in which we respect and love peace itself, and where we can raise our children
in safety with respect for the rights and dignity of every single human being.”
and united message from global cities should inspire us to use best practices at
home to protect our youth from radicalization and violent extremism that
remains a threat and a major concern for us all.
Influencing Egypt: The Elites Or The Masses?
believe that being part of the privileged social elite naturally leads to
steering and influencing the less privileged members of society. Regrettably,
this is not the case, at least not in Egypt where the ruling regime cleverly
makes use of the needs and dynamics of different social segments to create
divisions among them, eventually making it easier for the state to rule the
country effectively and to better manipulate its citizens, at the expense, obviously,
of true progress.
elites appear to be enjoying driving their luxury cars on the country’s
congested roads. In reality, they are scared to death of being hit by the heavy
trucks or mindless minibuses that literally control Egyptian thoroughfares.
for the sake of further enhancing citizens’ appreciation of its role – the
traffic police whose function is to regulate traffic is deliberately absent,
leaving all kinds of vehicles to wrestle one another in a free-for-all.
Egyptian traffic police will interfere occasionally to collect fines (to
replenish the state’s coffers; not to enforce the law).
the January 25 revolution, the relationship between the elites and the masses
was well defined and accepted by both sides. The streets belonged to the
masses, and the elites (protected by the state and served by the masses) hid
inside their gated communities. The masses relied on the elites to hire them,
and the state favored the elites by offering them exclusive business opportunities
to enable them to accommodate the expanding masses. In the meantime, the elites
also had another, implicit, mission: to control and restrain the masses, who
understood that to encroach upon ‘the realm of the elites’ was strictly
Brotherhood, which has never bothered to appeal to Egypt’s elites, is known to
be the group that dominates over the masses
movies portrayed elites as individualistic, laidback, cowardly citizens who met
at their exclusive clubs and engaged in destructive discussions, whereas the
masses were depicted as patriotic, energetic, heroic citizens, willing to offer
their lives in the service of their country.
segments of society were completely isolated from one another, enabling the
state to govern Egypt more easily – for better or for worse! The 25 January
revolution, however, allowed the elites and the masses to join forces and
revolt against the state and its ruler.
revolution’s failure has adversely affected the economic condition of Egypt’s
elites and masses, respectively. Nevertheless, the educated elites, quickly and
incontestably, reached an understanding with the state, agreeing to abandon the
idea of revolution in return for being allowed to keep their wealth and to
regain the protection of the state.
essentially nothing to lose, however, the illiterate masses haven’t settled
down yet; they want to hang on to the tiny foretaste of civil rights that they
experienced during the revolution – obviously gained at the expense of the
elites, and by undermining the power of the state.
often enables the masses to express their potential “cruel threats” towards the
elites, while at the same highlighting possibly corrupt transactions allegedly
undertaken by the elites, thus fuelling each social segment against the other.
Maintaining and fomenting social tension, the state applies these same methods
to various segments of society; creating fractions among Egyptians helps to
empower the state – at the expense of the nation and its citizens.
Brotherhood, which has never bothered to appeal to Egypt’s elites, is known to
be the group that dominates over the masses! It often works on recruiting the
Egyptian middle class, which is talented in manipulating the masses, and
capitalizes on the poor performance of different Egyptian governments.
Potentially capable of using the masses to revolt against the state, the Muslim
Brotherhood will therefore always constitute a disgraceful element in the eyes
of the elites, and the number one enemy of the state.
Egypt is left with elites that have willingly accepted their own
marginalization and who explicitly bless the state’s use of the harsh measures
it deems appropriate in dealing with the masses. Whereas the mindless masses,
with nothing to lose, continue to grow in number, making it substantially more
difficult for the state to again leash out at them with its outdated methods,
rigid mindset and repressive policies. This situation evidently detracts from
any attempts to democratize and modernize our country.
23 May 2016
There are two
important reasons for convening the first ever World Humanitarian Summit in
Istanbul on May 23 and 24. The first is the need to revise and improve the
structure of humanitarian aid within the framework of the United Nations.
the transition of the UN structure from emergency aid to humanitarian aid falls
short when it comes to creating solutions for the increasing number of
reason for holding the summit in Istanbul is "rhythmic diplomacy",
one of the founding principles of Turkish foreign policy in the post-2002 era,
Turkey's approach to humanitarian diplomacy adopted in recent years, and the
fact that it is home to 2.7 million Syrian refugees.
and Humanitarian Diplomacy
between humanitarian diplomacy and rhythmic diplomacy is mobilising
international organisations and structures in connection with humanitarian
crises - while elevating Turkey's profile as much as possible. The cooperative
vision of the UN and Turkey is what brought the summit to Istanbul.
impact of rhythmic diplomacy in foreign policy can be seen by looking at the
summits scheduled for the near future.
the Least Developed Countries (LDC) summit held in Istanbul in 2011 had similar
the World Humanitarian Summit different is that the LDC summit included regions
in which Turkey was attempting to expand its influence, while this gathering in
Istanbul is focused on problems next door and even inside of Turkey.
directly involved in the refugee issue, which is at the top of the list of
problems the World Humanitarian Summit hopes to resolve.
aims to relieve suffering and to solve problems with interventions in regions
where the crises and dramas are unfolding - in other words, the objective is to
create a "humanitarian space".
are talking about humanitarian crises that have dislocated 60 million people,
about allegedly safe regions being under constant threat and attack,
inaccessible to aid and about a situation that requires $20bn worth of funds
and disasters increase, and the humanitarian space consequently needs to expand
proportionately or even more rapidly, we are seeing shrinking humanitarian
space and deadlock regarding solutions to these problems.
This is the
setting of the summit, with the purpose of restructuring the humanitarian
system, which needs to shape the current problematic structure.
chairman and chief executive of the International Rescue Committee, David
Miliband, outlined the problem that forms the backdrop to the summit in a
speech he gave a month ago at Georgetown University, where he used the phrase
"humanitarian sector" instead of "humanitarian system".
is directed by the UN, the International Red Cross - and Red Crescent - and
large international NGOs. The hegemonic structure maintained by the most
powerful actors of the system is rigid, and there is a noticeable leadership
significant problem is the fact that the expectations of those who receive the
aid cannot be me within [the current humanitarian aid] framework. One of the
most important dilemmas in the field of humanitarian aid is the general sense
of dissatisfaction in regions that receive aid.
that the World Humanitarian Summit must overcome right from the start is to
define the UN position, and to outline the principles and boundaries of
humanitarian aid coordination. Every new actor that enters the system or sector
may encounter doubts even if it is just a summit.
demonstrates the limits of structural transformation. The primary reason for
convening the summit and opening the sector up to debate is a visible failure
in the field.
widely held by individuals and organisations is that there is a need for a
proper transition from international organisations and large NGOs to local and
does not seem like this will be an easy transition. There is a mental barrier
and a structural element that is difficult to overcome.
example, only 0.2 percent of total humanitarian assistance was made available
for use by local and national NGOs in 2014.
of meaningful work on this issue is the fact that the UN High Commission on
Refugees (UNHCR) announced that it will use 20 percent of its funds in 2020
through local NGOs - and the Charter4Change coalition, consisting of 27
international NGOs, will do the same in 2018.
gradual change is projected, it looks like it will be difficult to achieve a
transition towards local actors in the short term.
One of the
important goals of the summit is to gain systemic acceptance for a
"no-one-left-behind" approach. We can predict that this will be a
difficult objective to achieve for a structure that provides no place for local
actors to render assistance.
naturally want to control the money they offer. It seems unlikely that they
will relinquish this control. They want to control the channelling of funds
into the system through channels they trust and are familiar with.
significant problem, however, is the fact that the expectations of those who
receive the aid cannot be met within this framework. One of the most important
dilemmas in the field of humanitarian aid is the general sense of dissatisfaction
in regions that receive aid.
an international humanitarian aid and development policy that it implements
through state and civilian capacities - within a framework of humanitarian
diplomacy. This is an approach that can be seen more clearly in its Africa
opening and its Somali policy.
first the LDC and then the the World Humanitarian Summit, it has become a
candidate for playing a decisive role within a framework that will be
restructured in what is - in one sense - a global system. In the meantime, a
follow-up meeting of LDC will be held in Antalya at the end of May.
to its policies, Turkey takes an approach that can be described widely as
peacebuilding with a broad framework that relies on integrating the tools of
diplomacy, humanitarian aid and development.
approach allows NGOs to reach the masses while organisations such as the
Turkish Cooperation and Coordination Agency, the Department of Religious
Affairs, and the Presidency for Turks Abroad and Related Communities do work
ranging from development and education to infrastructure, while its diplomacy
and mediation efforts aim to resolve disputes.
importance of Turkey is that it is positioned somewhere between the traditional
Western donors and groups of emerging actors such as Brazil, India and China.
recognises the role of the NGOs in a humanitarian system that is different from
China and India, but also extensively cooperates with local organisations in a
way that Western actors cannot.
even though remarkable progress has been made, it is still too early to say
that this model is now a success story - as it is still being formulated.
sense, the World Humanitarian Summit is an opportunity for Turkey to better
understand its aid system, its shortcomings and the process of restructuring.
will also allow Turkey to express its point of view and contribute to the
evolution of the humanitarian aid system and sector.
the summit has not received the attention it deserves due to factors such as
domestic political developments, consecutive elections and the fact that it is
taking place immediately after the Justice and Development Party congress.
addition, dynamic structures such as the Civil Society Forum and the
Intellectuals Forum that took place around the LDC summit in 2011,
unfortunately, could not be formed for the the World Humanitarian Summit.
of dynamic events allowed individuals such as Richard Falk, Ali Mazrui and
Fantu Cheru to introduce new ideas critical of the UN system in 2011.
substitutes are the Academic Forum of Ministry of Foreign Affairs and side
events of state and civilian organisations.
conclusion, it would be wrong to expect the World Humanitarian Summit to assume
the mission of solving every problem. But all the concerned actors are in the
belief that significant progress will be made.
claims to humanitarian diplomacy are to go beyond hosting summits, it must
contribute to the discussions that will take place there.
global aid system is being restructured, in the meantime Turkey is attempting
to consolidate its own approach, which makes interaction inevitable.
regard, it is possible to say that the summit will take both Turkey and the
humanitarian aid system to a new level.
But we will
have to wait to see what the results of the summit are in order to discuss what
the new era will look like.
A Better Future For Syrians In Turkey
thousands leave Syria for safer lands, images of white tents and perilous boat
journeys have flooded the world's media.
another side to this story. In Turkey, the host of today's World Humanitarian
Summit, only about 10 percent of the approximately 2.75 million displaced
people from Syria live in refugee camps (PDF). The rest live in towns and
cities like many of us.
country's southeast, Syrians are silently trying to make a living and blend in.
this: You have new neighbours that you would like to know, but the language
barrier and customs make it difficult to reach out. Or you want to find
short-term employment, but until recently, obtaining a work permit was nearly
impossible. These are real-life situations faced by hundreds of thousands of
ordinary men and women.
represent more than 50 percent of the population of Kilis and 22.5 percent of
the population of Gaziantep. Over the last five years alone, more than 150,000
babies of Syrian parents displaced by the conflict were born in Turkey.
Road For Integration
crisis on the other side of the border grows in intensity, Turkey has been
implementing much broader measures to help Syrians in need. As of February, the
country had spent $10bn on Syrians under temporary protection, providing them
with free healthcare and allowing them to attend schools, universities and
beginning of this year, the government passed legislation allowing Syrians to
apply for work permits.
international community needs to look beyond emergency aid and invest in the
longer-term planning necessary to create a sustainable and liveable environment
for both Turkish citizens and Syrians living here.
But with no
end in sight to the conflict in Syria, it isn't clear how the situation will
evolve. What is certain is that massive investments will be required in Turkey
to build peace, sustain the economy and ensure adequate public services for
both Turkish citizens and Syrians.
the dignity and quality of life of the displaced, and supporting the
environment in which they live should go hand in hand. That includes boosting
the labour market, skills and capital, social services and local institutions.
to jobs: Competition for low-skill employment is on the increase. For instance,
many Syrians and Turkish citizens work side-by-side in southeast Anatolia in
the construction industry and as manual labourers. The region will need to
create 260,000 more jobs to keep unemployment down and the economy afloat
between now and 2018.
require creating new areas of work so the economy can take off, while training
both displaced and locals in sectors such as agriculture, food processing and
the clothing industry - all of which hold the promise of employing large
numbers of people.
services will also require a rethink. For instance, the 113,000 Syrians living
in camps in Kilis, Gaziantep and Sanliurfa are generating huge amounts of solid
waste. Vehicles are constantly on the road, personnel are overwhelmed, and
sanitary landfill sites are at full capacity. There is an urgent need for
improving rubbish collection and disposal.
addition, the construction of new hospitals and the addition of medical and
non-medical workers to staff them could add some 18,000 jobs locally, while new
schools could help recruit another 20,000.
European Union, the governments of the United States and Kuwait, the United
Nations Development Programme and others are trying to do that. They've
established training programmes to help displaced women and men and those in
local communities find jobs.
include Turkish language courses to boost economic opportunities. They are also
helping cities redesign their public services to cater to large numbers of
people, starting with ambitious waste and recycling programmes.
more needs to be done. The international community needs to look beyond
emergency aid and invest in the longer-term planning necessary to create a
sustainable and liveable environment for both Turkish citizens and Syrians
living here. By the same token, it would help create a more secure and peaceful
environment for all.
world, the average length of time a displaced person spends away from home is
now 17 years. Think about the 10-year-old Syrian girl and her 10-year-old
Turkish neighbour. If this average timeframe holds true, they may still be
neighbours as young adults.
not leave them behind. The Syrian crisis has resulted in huge amounts of
suffering and need. The Istanbul Summit will be an opportunity to help the next
generation get back on its feet.
and should also capitalise on the talent, skills and life experiences of
displaced Syrians to build a bright future for Turkey.
battlegrounds of the Middle East come exemplary stories of courage and resolve
that we must all listen to and learn from.
14-year-old Palestinian refugee, has known conflict and war for much of her
life. During her flight from Syria, her father and brother were killed.
When I met
her in Ain el-Helweh camp in Lebanon, I was moved beyond words. Despite the
trauma, she was the highest performing student in her school. In tragedy, she
preserved dignity and drew energy from despair.
is what gives me hope," she says.
exemplifies how deeply Palestinians value learning and developing skills, often
against all odds, and how they seek to rebuild after so much has been lost.
World Humanitarian Summit begins in Istanbul, there are many lessons that
leaders and participants can draw from Batoul's story.
more important than giving a new lease on life to political action aimed at
resolving armed conflicts. Nothing will make a greater difference to Batoul and
Palestinian refugees - not to mention millions of other civilians - than
bringing about political solutions to end their plight.
experience also highlights the immense value of investing in humanity. The
summit will emphasise the importance of leaving no one behind, and yet, it will
take very hard work to ensure that all children truly realise their right to
education, even in contexts of conflict and crises.
teachers become shelter managers during times of crisis and later return to
on the ground, we are all too aware of the enormity of the challenge. United
Nations Relief and Works Agency (UNRWA) provides education to 500,000
Palestinian girls and boys in 692 schools in Gaza, the West Bank, including
East Jerusalem, Jordan, Lebanon and Syria.
of Batoul is also the story of the specialists, teachers and school principals
that stand on the frontline, delivering the education she values.
I have the
deepest respect for their determination and dedication. They operate in some of
the most challenging environments one can imagine, and we in UNRWA have lost
too many colleagues in recent years: 16 in Syria since the conflict began, with
28 missing, and 11 in Gaza during the 2014 war.
Of Conflict In The Region
Istanbul summit, UNRWA is unveiling a new report with deeply disturbing
findings. Our study, titled Schools on the Frontline, which is due to be
published, reveals that 44 percent of UNRWA's 692 schools across the Middle
East - that's a staggering 302 - have been directly impacted by conflict and
violence in the last five years.
at least 70 percent of 118 UNRWA schools have, at some stage of the war, been
rendered inoperative, either because they were impacted by violence or because
we have used them as centres to house the displaced.
is equally bleak about the impact of conflict on UNRWA schools in the occupied
UNRWA school buildings were damaged during the 2014 Gaza conflict. Ninety UNRWA
schools were used as designated emergency shelters for almost 300,000 displaced
Palestinians, including at least 150,000 children.
these school buildings were struck by artillery shells or other munitions,
causing deaths and injuries. Weapons components were placed by armed groups in
three other schools.
In the West
Bank, UNRWA's delivery of education services after nearly half a century of
Israeli occupation has been facing increasing challenges in a context marked by
Israeli security force operations, including the frequent use of tear gas,
student delays at checkpoints, and school closures.
been exacerbated with the upsurge in violence since last October. I join
Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon in condemning attacks on all civilians.
Lebanon, periodic outbreaks of violence have forced 36 UNRWA schools to suspend
classes for up to a week at a time on different occasions. More than 50 percent
of all our schools in the country have been impacted at one time or another.
we are still able to offer daily classes to some 45,000 students - many of whom
achieve results above the national average.
innovative Education in Emergencies programme, we deliver classes to more than
50,000 children in Syria, Lebanon and Jordan, through UNRWA TV broadcasts and
interactive distance learning modules.
the majority of our schools for quarter-of-a-million children reopened within
weeks of the 2014 war ending.
And, as in
Jordan, Lebanon, Syria and the West Bank, hundreds of specifically trained psycho-social
counsellors work with deeply traumatised children to recover and move on with
summit, we will highlight UNRWA's major investment in dignity, human
development and a measure of stability for Palestinian refugees, who represent
40 percent of those in the world's protracted refugee situations.
action and emergency aid are expected to be a big theme at the summit, and live
side-by-side under one roof in UNRWA. Our teachers become shelter managers
during times of crisis and later return to being teachers.
summit, we will join initiatives such as the "Grand Bargain" on
humanitarian financing between donors and humanitarian organisations in a
collective effort to work together more efficiently and effectively, and deepen
the resource base for humanitarian action, including for Palestinian refugees.
underlined that necessary means needed to be mobilised in order to preserve and
improve our investment in education for hundreds of thousands of Palestinian
It is their
future and their humanity that is at stake and, as the UN secretary-general's
report reminds us, there is but "one humanity".
shown the courage to act. We must act equally decisively to help her and
hundreds of thousands of UNRWA students realise the dreams they are working so
hard to keep alive.
French diplomatic machine had a hard time scheduling a conference with US
Secretary of State John Kerry, it will soon find out that its effort to arrange
an international conference on the Israeli-Palestinian conflict will be that
much harder. In a three-day spat, a behind-the-scenes effort by Kerry and
former British Prime Minister Tony Blair to move the Israeli government toward
included Zionist Union leader Isaac Herzog joining the government of Israeli
Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu to give it more muscle against right-wing
settler ideologues. To make it more acceptable, Egyptian President Abdel Fatah
al-Sisi, one of the more popular Arab figures in Israel today, gave a pro-peace
speech and said he was willing to help. Netanyahu and Herzog were supposed to
head to Cairo to meet with Sisi.
instead of adding 25 members to his one-seat parliamentary majority, the prime
minister offered the Defense Ministry to settler Avigdor Lieberman, whose
right-wing Jewish Home party only won six seats in last year’s elections. This
turn of events produced many reactions in Israel, including in the army, but
the biggest potential loser in this cabinet reshuffle will be the French plan
to hold an international conference.
sceptical about the multilateral event, preferring to keep control of peace
talks bilaterally. Palestinians, who have tired of 20 years of direct talks
that produce nothing but photo opportunities, have for some time vowed to shun
a process that gives Israel a PR badge without producing any results.
Israeli cabinet shift further to the right has not lessened French enthusiasm.
A revisit to Kerry’s schedule produced a window on June 3, and the preparatory
meeting is back on, irrespective of the changes in Israel’s government. Israel
and the Palestinians are not invited to the meeting, which aims to consolidate
the will of the international community.
is that while there is general agreement on what needs to happen and the
framework of a solution to the conflict, there is an absence of political will
and muscle needed to force Israel to take the peace process seriously.
the Iran nuclear deal possible was tough sanctions by the international
community. Nothing of the sort is on the table regarding Israel. In fact, the
international community - including France - is fighting tooth and nail against
attempts by their own citizens to divest from companies that deal with Israel
and help perpetuate its occupation and settlements regime.
French are serious about their peace effort, they must not allow yet another
conference without teeth
divestments and sanctions (BDS) are what caused South Africa to end its
apartheid system, but the United States, Canada, Australia and Europe are
violating freedom of expression by trying to criminalize BDS efforts against
absurdity of this position was best exposed in a Twitter exchange between
Palestinian-American Ali Abu Nimeh and an EU official opposed to BDS. The exchange
ended with a logical question to the official: What form of resistance to the
occupation will be accepted by the international community?
French are serious about their peace effort, they must not allow yet another
conference without teeth. Former French Foreign Minister Laurent Fabious had
said if Israel balked at peace, France would recognize Palestine. However, that
statement was retracted by his successor Jean-Marc Ayrault.
take much more than a shy, hesitant threat of recognizing Palestine to make the
forthcoming peace conference work. Paris needs to understand that if occupation
and settlements are illegal under international law, their perpetuation must
have consequences. Until and unless Israel has to pay a price for its actions,
there is no chance for any process to bring about true peace in the Middle