By Ghulam Ghaus Siddiqi, New Age Islam
03 October 2017
The rulings of classical Islamic Sharia are based on
four main sources; the Quran, the Sunnah, Ijma (Consensus) and Qiyas
(analogy).All the last three sources of Islamic rulings must be in essential accord
with the holy Quran, the most basic source of Islamic knowledge. When the holy
Quran itself does not talk directly, or in details about any certain matter,
only then do the classical Islamic scholars turn to alternative sources of
Islamic rulings. In my classical Islamic studies, I reach a conclusion that all
these sources of Islamic rulings reject violent extremism and injustice;
however in this article, I am quoting only the Quranic verses for this purpose.
The number of such verses has reached sixteen. As for their English translation
from the Arabic text, I have done it on my own taking into consideration the
most famous English translations, such as Saheeh International, Pikthall, Asad,
Yusuf Ali, Shakir and Sarwar etc. in order to make it the most appropriate.
مِنْ أَجْلِ ذَٰلِكَ كَتَبْنَا عَلَىٰ بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ أَنَّهُ مَنْ
قَتَلَ نَفْسًا بِغَيْرِ نَفْسٍ أَوْ فَسَادٍ فِي الْأَرْضِ فَكَأَنَّمَا قَتَلَ
النَّاسَ جَمِيعًا وَمَنْ أَحْيَاهَا فَكَأَنَّمَا أَحْيَا النَّاسَ جَمِيعًا ۚ
وَلَقَدْ جَاءَتْهُمْ رُسُلُنَا بِالْبَيِّنَاتِ ثُمَّ إِنَّ كَثِيرًا مِنْهُمْ
بَعْدَ ذَٰلِكَ فِي الْأَرْضِ لَمُسْرِفُونَ
On account of this, We ordained (this commandment in
the Torah sent down) for the Descendents of Israel that whoever kills a person,
except as punishment for murder or for (creating) disorder in the land – it
shall be as if he had killed all mankind. And whoever saves one – it shall be
as if he had saved all mankind. And indeed, our messengers came to them with
clear proofs. Yet, [even] after that, majority of them are indeed oppressors in
وَلَا تَقْتُلُوا النَّفْسَ الَّتِي حَرَّمَ اللَّـهُ إِلَّا بِالْحَقِّ ۗ
وَمَن قُتِلَ مَظْلُومًا فَقَدْ جَعَلْنَا لِوَلِيِّهِ سُلْطَانًا فَلَا يُسْرِف
فِّي الْقَتْلِ ۖ إِنَّهُ كَانَ مَنصُورًا
And do not kill the soul which Allah has forbidden,
except by right. And whoever is killed unjustly - We have given his heir
authority (of retribution as per the legal procedure), but he should not exceed
the just limits in [the matter of retributive] killing. Indeed, he is to be
3. Quran - 25:68
وَالَّذِينَ لَا يَدْعُونَ مَعَ اللَّـهِ إِلَـٰهًا آخَرَ وَلَا
يَقْتُلُونَ النَّفْسَ الَّتِي حَرَّمَ اللَّـهُ إِلَّا بِالْحَقِّ وَلَا
يَزْنُونَ ۚ وَمَن يَفْعَلْ ذَٰلِكَ يَلْقَ أَثَامًا
And those who do not worship any other god apart from Allah, and do not unjustly kill
any living thing which Allah has forbidden [to be killed] except by right, nor
commit illegal sexual intercourse; and [know that] whoever does this shall get
4. Quran -
وَمِنَ النَّاسِ مَن يُعْجِبُكَ قَوْلُهُ فِي الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا
وَيُشْهِدُ اللَّـهَ عَلَىٰ مَا فِي قَلْبِهِ وَهُوَ أَلَدُّ الْخِصَامِ ﴿٢٠٤﴾
وَإِذَا تَوَلَّىٰ سَعَىٰ فِي الْأَرْضِ لِيُفْسِدَ فِيهَا وَيُهْلِكَ الْحَرْثَ
وَالنَّسْلَ ۗ وَاللَّـهُ لَا يُحِبُّ الْفَسَادَ ﴿٢٠٥﴾
“And among men is one whose conversation may please
you in the life of this world, and who calls Allah to witness to that which is
in his heart, whereas [in truth] he is the most quarrelsome! (2:204) And when
he turns away [from you], he goes about the earth to create turmoil in it [i.e.
the earth] and destroy crops and lives; and Allah does like turmoil and
ابْتَغِ فِيمَا آتَاكَ اللَّـهُ الدَّارَ الْآخِرَةَ ۖ وَلَا تَنسَ
نَصِيبَكَ مِنَ الدُّنْيَا ۖ وَأَحْسِن كَمَا أَحْسَنَ اللَّـهُ إِلَيْكَ ۖ وَلَا
تَبْغِ الْفَسَادَ فِي الْأَرْضِ ۖ إِنَّ اللَّـهَ لَا يُحِبُّ الْمُفْسِدِينَ
“And seek the abode of the Hereafter with what
(wealth) Allah has given you, and do not forget your portion of the world, and
do good (to others) as Allah has done good to you, and do not seek to cause
turmoil in the earth; indeed Allah does not like those who violate peace.”
تِلْكَ الدَّارُ الْآخِرَةُ نَجْعَلُهَا لِلَّذِينَ لَا يُرِيدُونَ
عُلُوًّا فِي الْأَرْضِ وَلَا فَسَادًا ۚ وَالْعَاقِبَةُ لِلْمُتَّقِينَ
(As for) This home of the Hereafter – We make it for
those who do not wish exaltedness in the land nor turmoil; and the (best)
outcome is only for the pious [muttaqin].
وَالَّذِينَ يَنقُضُونَ عَهْدَ اللَّهِ مِن بَعْدِ مِيثَاقِهِ
وَيَقْطَعُونَ مَا أَمَرَ اللَّهُ بِهِ أَن يُوصَلَ وَيُفْسِدُونَ فِي الْأَرْضِ
أُولَٰئِكَ لَهُمُ اللَّعْنَةُ وَلَهُمْ سُوءُ الدَّارِ
And those who break the covenant of Allah after its
ratification, and sever what Allah has commanded to be joined, and spread
turmoil in the earth – upon them is the curse and they shall have the evil
إِنَّ اللَّهَ يَأْمُرُ بِالْعَدْلِ وَالْإِحْسَانِ وَإِيتَاءِ ذِي
الْقُرْبَىٰ وَيَنْهَىٰ عَنِ الْفَحْشَاءِ وَالْمُنْكَرِ وَالْبَغْيِ ۚ يَعِظُكُمْ
Indeed Allah decrees the commands of justice and
kindness, and of giving to relatives, and forbids immorality and bad conduct
and rebellion; He advises you so that you may receive admonition.
إِنَّمَا السَّبِيلُ عَلَى الَّذِينَ يَظْلِمُونَ النَّاسَ وَيَبْغُونَ فِي
الْأَرْضِ بِغَيْرِ الْحَقِّ ۚ أُولَٰئِكَ لَهُمْ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ (42) وَلَمَنْ صَبَرَ
وَغَفَرَ إِنَّ ذَٰلِكَ لَمِنْ عَزْمِ الْأُمُورِ (43)
“The way (to persecute) is only against those who
oppress people, and wrongfully spread rebellion in the land. It is they for
whom there is a painful punishment. (42:42) And indeed whoever patiently
endures and forgives – this is surely of the acts that demand great courage and
10. Quran –
وَجَزَاءُ سَيِّئَةٍ سَيِّئَةٌ مِثْلُهَا ۖ فَمَنْ عَفَا وَأَصْلَحَ
فَأَجْرُهُ عَلَى اللَّهِ ۚ إِنَّهُ لَا يُحِبُّ الظَّالِمِينَ
“The retribution of a harmful deed is the harm equal
to it; so whoever forgives and amends, he shall have his reward from Allah;
indeed He does not love the unjust” (42:40)
قُلْ لِلَّذِينَ آمَنُوا يَغْفِرُوا لِلَّذِينَ لَا يَرْجُونَ أَيَّامَ
اللَّهِ لِيَجْزِيَ قَوْمًا بِمَا كَانُوا يَكْسِبُونَ
Tell the believers to forgive those who do not fear
the days fixed by Allah, so that He may give a nation the reward of what they
used to earn.
وَإِنْ عَاقَبْتُمْ فَعَاقِبُوا بِمِثْلِ مَا عُوقِبْتُمْ بِهِ ۖ وَلَئِنْ
صَبَرْتُمْ لَهُوَ خَيْرٌ لِلصَّابِرِينَ (26) وَاصْبِرْ وَمَا صَبْرُكَ إِلَّا
بِاللَّهِ ۚ وَلَا تَحْزَنْ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلَا تَكُ فِي ضَيْقٍ مِمَّا يَمْكُرُونَ
(27) إِنَّ اللَّهَ مَعَ الَّذِينَ اتَّقَوْا وَالَّذِينَ هُمْ مُحْسِنُونَ (28)
And (O believers) if you give punishment, then punish
with an equivalent of that with which you were harmed. But if you are patient,
it will certainly be best for those who are patient. (16:126) And O Beloved
(Mohammed – peace and blessings be upon him) patiently endure – and your
patience is only because of Allah’s grace – and do not grieve for them, and do
not be disheartened because of their deceits. (16:127) No doubt, Allah is with
those who fear and do good. (16:128)
13. Quran 2:256
لَا إِكْرَاهَ فِي الدِّينِ ۖ قَدْ تَبَيَّنَ الرُّشْدُ مِنَ الْغَيِّ ۚ
فَمَنْ يَكْفُرْ بِالطَّاغُوتِ وَيُؤْمِنْ بِاللَّهِ فَقَدِ اسْتَمْسَكَ
بِالْعُرْوَةِ الْوُثْقَىٰ لَا انْفِصَامَ لَهَا ۗ وَاللَّهُ سَمِيعٌ عَلِيمٌ
There is no compulsion in Din (Religion); surely the
right path has become very distinct from error; and whoever rejects faith in
the devil (false deities or false gods) and believes in Allah has grasped such
a firm handhold that will never loosen. And Allah is All Hearing, All Knowing.
وَلَوْ شَاءَ رَبُّكَ لَآمَنَ مَنْ فِي الْأَرْضِ كُلُّهُمْ جَمِيعًا ۚ
أَفَأَنْتَ تُكْرِهُ النَّاسَ حَتَّىٰ يَكُونُوا مُؤْمِنِينَ
Had Your Lord willed, surely all those who are in the
earth, every one of them – would have believed; so will you (O dear Prophet
Mohammed – peace and blessings be upon him) compel the people till they become
نَحْنُ أَعْلَمُ بِمَا يَقُولُونَ ۖ وَمَا أَنْتَ عَلَيْهِمْ بِجَبَّارٍ ۖ
فَذَكِّرْ بِالْقُرْآنِ مَنْ يَخَافُ وَعِيدِ
We know best what they say (O dear Prophet Mohammed –
peace and blessings be upon him), and you are not one to compel them; therefore
advise him with the Quran, whoever fears My threat.
فَذَكِّرْ إِنَّمَا أَنْتَ مُذَكِّرٌ (21) لَسْتَ عَلَيْهِمْ بِمُصَيْطِرٍ (22)
So admonish (O dear prophet Muhammad- peace and
blessings of Allah be upon him); indeed you are an admonisher. (21) You are not
(imposed) upon them (as) an oppressor and persecutor.(22)
Taking into consideration all the afore-mentioned sixteen
verses of the Quran, it is vividly clear that Islam does not allow violent-extremism,
terrorism and injustice. But rather, Islam has made it equally forbidden for
anyone to kill any innocent, Muslim or non-Muslim living in minority or
majority. Therefore, anyone who says Islam encourages terrorism obviously has either
not understood its lessons on counter-violent extremism or he is hypocrite.
A regular Columnist with www.NewAgeIslam.com , Ghulam Ghaus
Siddiqi Dehlvi is an Alim and Fazil (Classical Islamic scholar) with a Sufi
background, Islamic writer and English-Arabic-Urdu Translator.
Age Islam, Islam Online, Islamic Website, African Muslim News, Arab World News, South Asia News, Indian Muslim News, World Muslim News, Women in Islam, Islamic Feminism, Arab Women, Women In Arab, Islamophobia in America, Muslim Women in West, Islam Women and Feminism
Ghulam Ghaus Sb,
Why would there be a
verse in the Quran that says: "Kafir does not mean disbeliever"? Is
there a verse in the Quran that says "Kafir means disbeliever"?
I have not asked you to
reject the entire body of ahadith. I asked you to reject one hadith that says:
The Tafseer of
Ibn Kathir on verse 2:193 and 8:38 quotes a Hadith collected in
the two Sahihs of Bukhari and Muslim in which the Prophet (pbuh) is alleged to
«أُمِرْتُ أَنْ أُقَاتِلَ النَّاسَ، حَتَّى يَقُولُوا: لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا اللهُ، فَإِذَا قَالُوهَا عَصَمُوا مِنِّي دِمَاءَهُمْ وَأَمْوَالَهُمْ، إِلَّا بِحَقِّهَا، وَحِسَابُهُمْ عَلَى اللهِ عَزَّ وَجَل»
(I was commanded to fight against the people until they proclaim,
`There is no deity worthy of worship except Allah.' If and when they say it,
they will preserve their blood and wealth from me, except for its right
(Islamic penal code), and their reckoning is with Allah, the Exalted and Most
The implication of this
hadith is clear. The battle was against disbelief and until disbelief exists.
Do you reject this hadith as false? If no, then how do you reconcile it with
what you have said in your article?
As I expected, you do not reject this hadith. Therefore I
ask you ‘what does your article amount to if according to the hadith the
Prophet was commanded to fight people for their disbelief and until they
believed’? And certainly you are not unaware of the translations and Tafseers of leading lights of every sect on verse 8:38 and 2:193 who have "interpreted" these verses in the light of the quoted hadith.
If you do not reject this, then your showing me the opinions of other scholars on the subject in support of your article only means that one version is for public consumption and the opposite version is your belief.
You are the one who is fooling people Ghaus sb and not me.
I am forthright in whatever I say. I agree with your article because I reject the above hadith. If like you, I did not reject the hadith, I would not write articles to fool the people.
long as a commentator’s question is straight and he does not inadvertently or
otherwise puts words into my mouth, it is a pleasure for me to reply as this enables me
to hone up my knowledge and to share it with the readers, even if they don't like it.
I said and Ghulam Ghous Sahab said is combined in my duly authenticated work as
“While some of the Prophet’s companions compiled their own
manuscripts (masahif), Zayd bin
Thabit, the foremost among the Prophet’s scribes collated all the original
sheets (suhuf) within two to three
years of the Prophet's death (632). These were retained originally by the first
Caliph, Abu Bakr (632-634), then by the second Caliph, ‘Umar Ibn al-Khattab
(634-644), then by Hafsah bint ‘Umar, one of the Prophet’s widows, and finally
authenticated by the special committee set up by the third Caliph, ‘Uthman Ibn
Uthman's commission cross checked Hafsah's original sheets (suhuf) with each of these manuscripts as
well as with the memorized litany, and arrived at a ‘singular' text, which had
the concurrence of all the companions of the Prophet, and was declared
authentic without doubt (mutawattir).
Some of Uthman’s manuscripts are preserved. He made five copies and sent one
copy each to Egypt, Syria and other dominions of Islam. “
Ghulam Ghous Sahab can give the hadith references - the earliest record on compilation of the
Qur’an. European historians relied on Islamic records only for constructing the
history of the Prophetic mission and cannot be quoted for their secondary
character as historical record.
More than tafsir
and hadith there is importance of fiqh in classical Islamic theology.
The Science of
tafsir [ilme tafsir] tells you about the Quranic verses, their reasons and
circumstances of revelation [shane nuzul], knowledge of abrogation, muhkam,
mutashabih, etc and about Makki and Madani verses, their general and specific application,
In the Science of
Hadith, you learn which hadith is authentic, which is weak, which is abrogated,
which has general or specific or application or exception etc...............
But as far as the Science
of Fiqh is concerned, this is more the matter of importance in understanding
any critical issue. All the sciences of Islamic theology are gained only by the
blessing of Allah Almighty, but the Science of Fiqh is so important that there is
a report in a hadith that the beloved Prophet (peace be upon him) said, “If
Allah intends goodness for someone, he gives him understanding [fiqh] of the
Din (i.e. the religion of Islam).”
In this world, there
are hardly any experts in Science of Fiqh. Expert in Fiqh is known as ‘Faqih’. A
faqih has juristic insight into all verses of the Quran, all ahadith. He ponders
over the necessities of the time, to check as to how much changing can be done
in accordance with the Quran and Ahadith. This is so comprehensive field of
study that a lay man like me cannot even justly express the culmination of its importance
the verses that you quoted in your comments to forcefully prove your definition
of kufr and kafir do not support your viewpoint.
say that kafir does not mean disbeliever? No verses say so.
I do not want
to waste my time while discussing you. Neither do I read your articles nor your
comments related to kufr and kafir definition.
You can fool
others by your definition of kufr and kafir. Even non-Muslims do not accept
your definition of kufr and kafir.
When you write
"kafaru", it shows your ignorance of Arabic. I did not want to say
it, but what to do now?
source of your learning Quran is based on the English translations but at the
same time you reject these English translations.
If you think
your definition of kufr and kafir is so perfect, then why non-Muslims are not
silent against the use of kufr and kafir mentioned in the Quran.
In one of your comments,
you asked me to refute your definition of kufr and kafir. But I did not bother
to refute you. The definition of kufr and kafir is so clear that it cannot be
rejected by repeated comments.
This sort of
debate with you is totally futile.
As for you
quoting one hadith to urge me to reject the entire hadith source, you must take
into your mind that whenever you suggest me such things, the only idea that
enters into mind is that you are ignorant; and nothing else. Your repeated
comments have forced me to express this thing, otherwise i prefer humbleness. Now
I request you to work hard to understand Islamic sources.
say is all very well and comforting but not enough when there exist sources and
interpretations that cover up the peaceful verses.
The Tafseer of Ibn Kathir on verses 2:191 to 193 and 8:36
to 8:38 quotes a Hadith collected in the two Sahihs of Bukhari and Muslim in
which the Prophet (pbuh) is alleged to have said:
(I was commanded to fight against the
people until they proclaim, `There is no deity worthy of worship except Allah.'
If and when they say it, they will preserve their blood and wealth from me,
except for its right (Islamic penal code), and their reckoning is with Allah,
the Exalted and Most Honoured.)"
The implication of this hadith is clear. The battle was against
disbelief and until disbelief exists. Do you reject this hadith as false? If
no, then how do you reconcile it with what you have said?
While translating verse 8:38, while the correct meaning of the verse is: “Tell those religious
persecutors/oppressors (kafaru) that if they desist (from their religious
persecution), that which is past (their various acts of persecution) will be
For 12 translators the meaning of
kafaru is disbelievers, who must desist from their “Unbelief” or its
equivalent. They are: Yusuf Ali (from Unbelief), Al'-Muntakhab (renounce
infidelity, desist from evil purpose and turn to Allah), Ali Unal: (to
disbelieve themselves and prevent others from entering the fold of Islam),
Muhammad TaqiUsmani (from infidelity), Syed Vickar Ahamed (from
disbelief),Farook Malik (from unbelief), Dr Munir Munshey (their
skepticism),Dr. M Tahir ul Qadri (from their blasphemous acts),Ali Quli Qarai
[faithlessness], Dr Kamal Omar (from their blasphemous acts),Thanvi (Kufr),
Raza Ahmad Khan Barelvi(Kufr
Se Baaz Aye Aur Islam Laye).
Do you reject Raza Ahmad Khan Barelvis interpretation and translation of
the verse that means that the war was until they accept Islam and give up
As for me, I have categorically rejected the hadith cited calling it a
concoction of Satan and falsely attributed to the Prophet (pbuh) and correctly translated
the mistranslated verses rejecting every other mistranslation.
Unless you also reject the hadith and the mistranslations, your article means very little since you can choose either of the two contrasting views.
It is GM
sb who is trying to throw dust into everyone's eyes. Who are those modern ulema
who describe the kafir as only the "treacherous oppressors” among the Mushrikin
of the Prophet’s times but not all of them? Can he name any? No, he cannot. He
is only throwing dust in our eyes.
Did he not
himself say in his comment “If the Quran's use of the word kafir is understood
as treacherous people, than obviously mushrikin are not kafirs”?
now he says “Did the Quran use it to mean "non-believer" but
some modern ulema decided that in our modern pluralistic world it would be more
politically correct to change the connotation to 'treacherous oppressors"?
familiar flip flop of a hypocrite!
Do I have
to explain to this mentally challenged person how the Quran has defined kafir
after having covered the subject in an article?
Personal traits of a Kafir
Kafir is an odious word and means a conceited
person whose haughtiness makes him an ingrate rebel against God (2:34, 2:99,
16:83) and a rebel against his benefactors (26:18,19), steeped in self-glory
(38:2). They are also niggardly (4:37) and exploitative (3:130). These are not
the personal traits of a non-Muslim or even of a disbeliever.
What is being covered up here if one wants to
relate the meaning given by the Quran above to the meaning of the root word?
The intellect, the knowledge of right and wrong and the nature for obedience is
covered by an excess of conceit, haughtiness and selfishness. The Quran did not
define the meaning of the root word but used it to define the Kafir in the
context of the Quran. Neither the root meaning means a disbeliever nor has the
Quran defined it as such nor did the Pagan Arabs have any concept of
The behavior of a Kafir
The Kafir being inclined to self-glory,
self-indulgence and injustice, deny the Hereafter or in justice finding
perfection in the Hereafter (12:37, 18:105, 23:33, 32:10, 34:3, 41:7). The
Kafir therefore deny the prophets, scriptures and all the Signs of God (10:2,
13:27, 13:43, 34:31, 40:4, 40:14). The Kafir are opposed to any moral system
and are an enemy of the prophets, of good people, of humanity and of God (8:36,
9:32, 9:40, 14:9, 14:13,15:39, 16:88, 18:56, 21:36, 29:47, 32:10, 34:7, 41:26,
47:32). A Kafir therefore fights in the cause of evil against those who fight
for a good cause (4:76). They spread mischief and disorder and are high handed
oppressors (2:11, 2:27, 2:205, 7:103, 8:73, 9:107, 10:40, 10:91, 13:25, 16:88,
26:183, 27:48, 28:4, 47:22, 89:12). These are not the behaviors that describe a
non-Muslim or even a disbeliever.
Based on the
study of deep Consensus Methodology of understanding the Quran and Hadith, now I
must make it clear for the readers, on behalf of the Consensus, that the
sixteen verses quoted in this write-up are not abrogated for those who are
Ahle-Ahad w Payman, or Ahle Dhimma from among the disbelievers/kuffar or
The terms Ahle
ahad w payman, mostly used in the Classical Islamic Theology, can be translated
in the modern times as those people from among the disbelievers/kuffar or
Mushrikin who have made a contract of living with Muslims in a peaceful environment,
or in other words, those who have made a peace treaty with Muslims.
For example, we
Indians including Muslims and non-Muslims have mutually agreed to a
peace-treaty, conforming to the laws defined in Indian Constitution. In that
sense, every Muslim and non-Muslim is bound to live peacefully. Speaking from Islamic
point of view, it is here incumbent upon Muslims to abide by the rules of the peaceful
coexistence as defined in the Indian Constitution. The point to note here is
that if someone claims that the peaceful verses have been abrogated by other
war-related verses and then blames the Classical Islamic theology or Consensus,
or Methodology of Consensus for nefarious acts of some modern militants, he
will be simply seen as unaware of depth of Classical Islamic theology.
knows the best.