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The War Within Islam (08 Sep 2018 NewAgeIslam.Com)


The Concept of Takfir – Declaring a Muslim a Disbeliever – Is a Very Modern Propaganda Weapon of Al-Qaeda and Daesh Having Its Roots in 7th Century – The Khawarij And Murji’a Groups



By Francesco Bergoglio Errico

September 6, 2018

The concept of Takfir – declaring a Muslim a disbeliever – is a very modern propaganda weapon of al-Qaeda and Daesh. But its origins are to be found in distant times. Indeed, in order to better understand this concept, it is essential to travel all the way back to the 7th Century roots – the Khawarij and Murji’a groups.

The Khawarij emerged from the battle of Siffin in 657 AD, where the fourth caliph ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib and his successor Mu’awiya bin Abi Sufyan clashed. During the battle, Mu’awiya’s troops, outnumbered and facing almost certain defeat, called on ‘Ali and his troops to accept arbitration between the two parties. ‘Ali took up the offer, but some of his own troops rejected it. They thought that ‘Ali had been swayed by Mu’awiya rather than divine guidance and that such an action should actually be seen as an affront to God’s order. These troops then seceded from ‘Ali’s camp and became the Khawarij group, the name they also applied to themselves.

The group’s first distinctive tenet concerned the possibility of revolt against Muslim rulers who had been deemed insufficiently pious. When ‘Ali agreed to arbitration with Mu’awiya, the separatists, the people later known as Khawarij, reportedly shouted “La Hukm Illa Li-Llah”, “judgement is God’s alone”. Only God has the authority to arbitrate, they held, not human beings. Not even the caliph ‘Ali, in fact.

Later on, the slogan came to represent their broad view that all judgements and rulings should be left to God. Applying Qur’anic rulings very strictly, they fought Muslims who were deemed guilty of major sins and expelled them from their community.

The consequences could not be more serious. Since they believed sinful Muslims to be Kuffar (disbelievers), they immediately applied Qur’anic lines concerning jihad against non-Muslims. This meant that, according to the Khawarij, the application of jihad was not just limited to ordinary people. If necessary, it could even include the caliph. Indeed, they assassinated ‘Ali in 661 AD.

The second tenet of Khawarij ideology addressed their conception of Iman (faith) and disbelief. In particular, what is faith? And when does a Muslim become a Kafir, a disbeliever? One of the greatest questions was whether A’mal, or deeds, acts or works, were an integral part of the faith or not. Some theologians of Islam’s early years, including Abu Hanifa, believed they were not a part of it. As a result, he equated Iman with the belief residing in the heart and its profession by tongue.

Conversely, other scholars, including Mu’tazilites and Hanabalites, believed that deeds, acts or works were indeed an integral part of Iman and that this Iman would not be complete without them.

Among other outcomes, this dispute led to what may be called the orthodox Sunni view, as well as almost all Salafi views, according to which Iman consists of assent to the Iman in the heart, its verbal confirmation by the tongue, and corresponding acts with the limbs. Respectively, Tasdeeq Bi-L-Qalb, Iqrar Bi-L-Lisan and A’mal Bi-L-Jawarih

As for the Khawarij themselves, even though they too believed that Iman consisted of these three elements and others, they placed more emphasis on A’mal than mainstream Sunnism does.

The question of what actually constitutes Iman is very important when defining enemies as unbelievers. On the one hand, if A’mal is not an integral part of Iman, sinful acts cannot undermine that Iman by themselves. On the other, if A’mal is an integral part of the Iman, sinful acts can definitely compromise faith.

Moreover, while Sunni scholars have separated major sins, Kaba’ir, from less severe ones, the Khawarij have included A’mal among major sins, such as killing one’s child, adultery and especially polytheism and idolatry, or shirk.

Scholars later separated shirk from other Kaba’ir, establishing that only an act of shirk would immediately turn a Muslim into an unbeliever, or Kafir, and therefore justify his or her excommunication from Islam, Takfir. Additionally, any further proof of a person’s unbelief through verbal confirmation was not necessary. Other major sins were certainly still considered serious and deserving of punishment, but they were not enough to turn a believer into a disbeliever – further proof was needed.

The Khawarij disagreed with this last point since, according to their beliefs; a Muslim culpable of any Kaba’ir should be avowed a Kafir, with or without further proof. This creed thus heightened ordinary major sins to the level of Kufr, making its adherents swifter to apply Takfir than those endorsing the movement later known as Sunnism.

The last relevant point about the concepts of Iman and Kufr concerns the effects of sinful acts on a person’s Iman. Not considering sins as equal to shirk, many scholars believed faith to be diminished by sinful acts and increased by good ones. This led to an understanding of Iman as flexible. The Khawarij, by contrast, believed that iman could not fluctuate. It was either present or lost as a whole through major sins. This made the Khawarij radically different from other groups, and this was reflected in their use of jihad against other Muslims holding what the Khawarij saw as aberrant ideas of iman, which made them legitimate targets, up to and including the rulers and the caliph.

Another important group criticized the beliefs of Khawarij – the Murji’a. According to most scholars, the genesis of the Murji’a can traced back to the conflicts between the third caliph, ‘Uthman bin ‘Affan, and his successor ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib. At that time, the Murji’a refused to take sides and opted for postponement of judgement, irja’, in such matters. In their view, only God could decide on these subjects. Before taking the name of Murji’a, this group were called Ahl-Al-‘Adl Wa-L-Sunna, or “the people of justice and Sunna”.

The Irja’ “postponers” concept was later dated back to the Qur’an itself by the Murji’a, in particular by referring to Sura 9:106. This verse provided them with a conceptual basis for avoiding taking sides in the conflict. In time, the Irja’ term became the most important tenet of the Murji’a.

In that regard, there are two important relevant points. The first is the development of the term Irja’. While it was initially applied to political conflicts such as the battle between ‘Uthman and ‘Ali, between the 18th and 19th Centuries it acquired a theological meaning. In particular, Irja’ was applied to people’s Iman; in other words, judgments on anyone’s faith was postponed and left to God. For that reason, unlike the Khawarij, adherents were generally loyal to rulers and only rarely supported riots against them.

The second point regards their conception of what constitutes faith and disbelief. Once again, unlike the Khawarij, they felt that Iman only consisted of the belief residing in the heart and its confirmation by the tongue, not concrete acts. Consequently, acts alone do not establish whether an individual is a believer or a disbeliever. When the takfir of such an individual was justified, then, they could ask.

In fact, from the Murji’a perspective, the Kaba’ir intrinsically could not throw someone out from Islam, except in the case of a sinner verbally confirming his disbelief, including shirk. Additionally, unlike the Khawarij and orthodox Sunni, they didn’t believe that faith could be altered by sinful acts and therefore excluded A’mal from Iman.

All of this contested history of the Takfir concept flows down to our own times.  Al-Qaeda and Daesh both use the ancient concept to justify their goals and their jihadi attacks on Muslims they see as disbelievers, including rulers. In their view, these people are enemies who are destroying the true Islam and the whole Ummah (community of believers), so jihad is warranted, indeed mandated. They defend this position by manipulating many passages of the Qu’ran and Hadith.

It is very important to underline this, because an increasingly high number of people now take the manipulations as truth, radicalizing themselves, embracing jihad, and becoming fascinated and indoctrinated by terrorist propaganda that promises salvation of the soul and access to paradise to those who embrace the “true way” or the “true Islam”.

This makes it crucial to understand what Takfir is and how the concepts of Takfir and jihad are used by the terrorist groups, not only to better comprehend how they justify their existence and their bloodshed, but also, above all, in fact, to improve strategies of disengagement and deradicalisation.

Related Article:

Demolish Kafir/ Mushrik/ Munafiq-Manufacturing Factories, Says Sultan Shahin, Defending New Age Islam against Talibani Onslaught

Source: eeradicalization.com/the-road-to-daesh-the-history-of-the-takfir-and-its-interpretations/

URL: http://www.newageislam.com/the-war-within-islam/francesco-bergoglio-errico/the-concept-of-takfir-–-declaring-a-muslim-a-disbeliever-–-is-a-very-modern-propaganda-weapon-of-al-qaeda-and-daesh-having-its-roots-in-7th-century-–-the-khawarij-and-murji’a-groups/d/116321




TOTAL COMMENTS:-   110


  • Thanks Hats Off for exposing the farcical nature of the discussion that Ghulam Mohiyuddin carried out. 


    For those who are willing to learn more about the active role the FBI plays in acts of terrorism in the US, read: The Report of The Human Rights Institute, Columbia Law School https://www.hrw.org/report/2014/07/21/illusion-justice/human-rights-abuses-us-terrorism-prosecutions


    This is a report of incidents since 911. The first bombing of the WTC in 1993 was also with the active involvement of the FBI. An excerpt from the report:


     All of the high-profile domestic terrorism plots of the last decade, with four exceptions,30 were actually FBI sting operations—plots conducted with the direct involvement of law enforcement informants or agents, including plots that were proposed or led by informants.

    Today’s terrorism sting operations reflect a significant departure from past practice. When the FBI undercover agent or informant is the only purported link to a real terrorist group, supplies the motive, designs the plot and provides all the weapons, one has to question whether they are combatting terrorism or creating it. Aggrandizing the terrorist threat with these theatrical productions only spreads public fear and divides communities, which doesn’t make anyone safer.34 In many of the sting operations we examined, informants and undercover agents carefully laid out an ideological basis for a proposed terrorist attack, and then provided investigative targets with a range of options and the weapons necessary to carry out the attack. Instead of beginning a sting at the point where the target had expressed an interest in engaging in illegal conduct, many terrorism sting operations that we investigated facilitated or invented the target’s willingness to act before presenting the tangible opportunity to do so. In this way, the FBI may have created terrorists out of law-abiding individuals.

     

    In these cases, the informants and agents often chose targets who were particularly vulnerable—whether because of mental disability, or because they were indigent and needed money that the government offered them. In some cases—which have been particularly troubling for American Muslim communities—targets were seeking spiritual guidance, and the government informants or agents guided them towards violence. Relevant aspects of these cases are described below.

    In the case of the “Newburgh Four,” for example, a judge said the government “came up with the crime, provided the means, and removed all relevant obstacles,” and had, in the process, made a terrorist out of a man “whose buffoonery is positively Shakespearean in scope.”


    By Naseer Ahmed - 10/17/2018 3:33:22 AM



  • Calling me Uncle Tom is consistent with Naseer saheb's habit of making ad hominem attacks. America has fought many wars on false premises but that does not make an impossible plot plausible. Moreover the very idea that America would attack  iconic buildings in its premier city and kill 3000 of its own citizens and make another attack on its military defense headquarters in its capital city, and yet not be found out for 16 years even though the U.S. has some of the most aggressive investigative journalists and some of the most independent media in the world is just too preposterous to be believed even by conspiracy nuts.


    By Ghulam Mohiyuddin - 10/16/2018 11:44:19 PM



  • "GM sb has stood the test and can be awarded the "Uncle Tom" prize for this century."
    Is he really deserving Uncle Tom prize?
    at least you can give more than that "Tom and Jerry" award 


    By Lol - 10/16/2018 11:21:02 PM



  • That there are so called educated people who believe in miracles in this day even when shown the physical impossibility of what is claimed to have happened is definitely more bizarre than believing that the US government which has waged war  on 70 countries on false pretexts  without declaring war is incapable of creating another false pretext for a war that the American people would have otherwise resisted.

    GM sb has stood the test and can be awarded the "Uncle Tom" prize for this century. 


    By Naseer Ahmed - 10/16/2018 11:10:15 PM



  • Hats Off, CAIR membership includes the full spectrum of American Muslim opinion from the most conservative to the most progressive. Your bellyache about CAIR is passe.
    Tell me which of my views are not progressive. Please be specific.

    By Ghulam Mohiyuddin - 10/16/2018 10:45:03 AM



  • Nasee sb., Thank you for giving us your surmise in the last paragraph of your comment. As anyone can see, it is far more bizarre and unbelievable than anything that even a fairy-tale writer can imagine. No wonder the conspiracy theorists are held to so much ridicule.

    By Ghulam Mohiyuddin - 10/16/2018 10:36:16 AM



  • you - a progressive muslim? how many progressive muslims you know are in cahoots with cair?
    By hats off! - 10/16/2018 2:29:44 AM



  • After hearing the recitation of the complete Ramayana, a listener asked, "who is Rama?" GM sb’s question is in the same league!

     

    What has been established is that what the Government is saying happened, defies the laws of physics and is impossible.

                            

    It is for the government to investigate and tell us what the truth is, but the US government has taken every step to prevent the truth from emerging. It legislated laws that make it the sole arbitrator of truth which cannot be questioned in any court of law, and made every kind of litigation by the affected parties impossible, to prevent questions from being asked that demand answers. All affected parties are compensated in accordance with laws enacted after the event and covering the event. Why did the government have to do this? Why did it not allow independent investigations by the insurers? Why did it not allow the family of the passengers killed, to sue the Airlines or the Airport authority for their lapses? Why did it not allow those killed or injured in the collapse to sue their lessors, owners or employers for their acts of omission and commission? Why did it not allow the lessors to sue the company in charge of security and safety of the buildings? In the normal course, all of this would have happened bringing out the complete truth and at least ensuring that proper steps are taken to prevent recurrence. The government knows what the truth is and does not want it to come out. It therefore takes complete charge of every aspect to prevent the truth from emerging.

     

    What is known and admitted is that all three agencies the CIA, FBI and the NSA were aware of the possibility of such an incident.

     

    The FBI was even aware of those taking flying lessons and tapped their conversations.

     

    The FBI is known to encourage Muslims to indulge in terrorist acts and even aid them and blackmail them into doing things they would not otherwise do. It has proven capability to make a terrorist plan part of its own plan.

     

    The government has proven ability to carry out any act in complete secrecy through contractors who can ensure perfect secrecy.

     

    What could have upset their plans is if the air force had acted as expected and scrambled their jets to bring down the passenger airlines before they could do the damage. The government has no answer why this did not happen and why even the Pentagon could be attacked hours after the first attack and forty minutes after it was known that the plane that eventually hit it had changed its normal flight path. What is clear and established is that specific acts were undertaken to ensure that the air force did not do anything on this day.

     

    Expert pilots doubt, that those who can fly a Cessna and not even land it perfectly, could have flown these aircraft and executed such perfect manoeuvres. They suspect that the planes were taken control of and flown by remote control. All the aircraft had systems in place for being piloted remotely.

     

     

    Something did go wrong and not as planned. WTC7 was wired up for Controlled Demolition but was not hit by any plane. It was brought down nevertheless as planned, and the fact that it was going to come down was known all through the day. That it had collapsed or was about to collapse was aired by several news channels the first of which was 70 minutes before the collapse. The building was evacuated within the first hour after WTC 2 was hit and the four thousand employees did so using the elevators. The elevators are usually shut down if there is a fire as these could become death traps. There was therefore no serious fire when it was evacuated. According to the NIST report, the fires in WTC7 were seen only about noon. The sprinkler system did not work nor did the firefighters make an attempt to fight the fire. The fire department took a decision to pull out several hours before the collapse.

     

    There is a CIA asset who reports that weeks before the incident, trucks were seen coming at 3 AM after the last Janitorial bus had left and leaving by 5 AM before the first set of people arrived. This activity went on for several weeks. There are photographs of cartons which appear to contain fuses.

     

    A complete power break-down on the week-end preceding the incident is reported ostensibly to change the internet cabling. During this period, the electronic surveillance was down, and all electronically operated doors were open allowing free access. The elevators were obviously down preventing workers from entering.

    The building security and surveillance is contracted to a company owned by Marvin Bush brother of the then President.

    The technology to execute a remotely controlled demolition has existed since WWII. All the first responders comprising personnel of the NYPD and FDNY have reported hearing secondary explosions when the buildings came down.

     

    The news channels, that first showed visuals of the collapsing buildings, also commented that these were coming down in the manner of a perfectly executed demolition job.

     

    That the events that took place as observed/recorded are impossible for the cause attributed to them is proven by science. What is possible is that:

    1. The government made the terrorist plan a sub-plan to their own plan and aided and assisted them

    2. They carried out the complete demolition of the buildings with prior planning to create a spectacle and generate intense horror designed for maximum effect. They created the illusion that this was entirely because of the terrorists crashing planes into the buildings. This horrifying event and spectacle were used to wage war and push through the PATRIOT act that deprives the citizens of the right to privacy.

    3. The US government has a proven/admitted past record of staging events to wage/escalate war and to spread lies knowingly. That the US government did stage a Controlled Demolition and made it look as if the buildings collapsed because of a plane crashing into them, to serve their war agenda is believable from the speed and eagerness with which they attacked Afghanistan and Iraq and pushed through the PATRIOT act. It shows prior planning and readiness.



    By Naseer Ahmed - 10/16/2018 2:07:58 AM



  • Hats Off's demented rant does not deserve a response. He thinks he is entitled to continue his bitter hate war against Islam and against progressive Muslims in NAI!


    By Ghulam Mohiyuddin - 10/15/2018 11:26:33 PM



  • You have never given a coherent description of your understanding of what happened. I take that to mean that you have no logical account of the  incident even in your own mind and that you have been wasting my time with some geek "scientific" loose talk about why some things that happened could not have happened! And please do not come back with URL's to more videos or more articles. Just tell us briefly in simple words what you think happened on 9/11.


    By Ghulam Mohiyuddin - 10/15/2018 1:04:47 PM



  • there you are! a little squirm.

    so you think your nemesis (the IIT trained ulama) is a conspiracy theorist. well. and sanguine good!

    but pathetically (which is your hall-mark) you are spreading another conspiracy theory that mr. sultan shahin is in cahoots with me.

    you are not pathetic, you are even worse. you are pathological.

    where does that put you against your own accusations against mr. naseer ahmed whom you call a conspiracy theorist!

    so your outdated brain thinks i am in cahoots with the editor. or he is in cahoots with me. so why not that america (your nest which you are desperately trying to foul - talk about ingratitude!) demolished those worthless towers? not conspiratorial enough for jojo? get back to where you once belonged!

    crybaby. that is what you are and you will even be worse. given time. at least mr. naseer ahmed is posting links, sources and other rot. and as for as i know he does not root for cair, isna and other termites.

    you are not even capable of matching him. 'cahoots' with the editor. good god! have you ever heard of marbles and ever heard of losing them? count them before you lose all of them.

    get back jojo!
    get back to where you once belonged.

    get back jojo.

    By hats off! - 10/15/2018 6:35:47 AM



  • Go through the previous comments and watch the videos. You will get your answers. If you cannot, then just resign yourself to your inherent weakness/disability/handicap to understand anything.
    By Naseer Ahmed - 10/15/2018 12:57:36 AM



  • Forget what the NIST said. Just answer my question.


    By Ghulam Mohiyuddin - 10/14/2018 11:59:16 PM



  • Poor Hats Off has gone off the rocker in his struggle to continue to fight his hate war in a supposedly progressive Muslim site! He spews his hate with the confidence of someone who is in cahoots with the editor!


    By Ghulam Mohiyuddin - 10/13/2018 1:55:46 PM



  • The NIST Report makes for interesting reading. The study is in accordance with the law enacted on October 1, 2002, called the National Construction Safety Team Act (NCSTA) with the clear purpose of ensuring better safety for such buildings in the future. The objective of the study is not to establish the cause of collapse of the buildings. The cause is implicitly understood to be the two planes crashing into two towers and the third by debris of the collapsing tower falling onto it. The NIST is therefore under no threat of any action against it for not correctly establishing the causes of failure. The NIST has limited their analysis to establish what may have most probably initiated the collapse so that future designs may prevent such initiation of collapse. The NIST therefore ignores what happened after what they think initiated the collapse and simply say that complete collapse became inevitable once the collapse commenced as though partial destruction and collapse are impossible and unknown! 

    "How do you know that the complete collapse became inevitable?" asked Alice.

    "It must have been," said Mad Hatter, "or the buildings wouldn’t have collapsed completely.”  

     “How did it collapse at free fall speed when that is impossible without Controlled Demolition?” asked Alice wide-eyed

    “Why, sometimes I've believed as many as six impossible things before breakfast.” Answered Mad Hatter

    The evidence was collected from eye-witnesses under Non-Disclosure Agreements. These witnesses cannot therefore disclose to others, the evidence they gave. Also the evidence collected was by means of close ended questions leaving no scope for the witnesses to say what the NIST did not want to hear.

    The NIST began its study a year after the event and much after the site was cleared of all the debris. They are therefore not responsible for any omissions in what was reported by the witnesses since they had no means of independently verifying anything.

    Under the NCSTA act, the Report cannot be used by any party in any litigation against any other party. The NIST also solely and exclusively possesses all evidence collected and are empowered under the act to keep the evidence to themselves and not to disclose it. Independent investigations are therefore impossible and therefore there can be no litigation against any party for their acts of omission and commission.

    The September 11th Victim Compensation Fund (VCF) was created by an Act of Congress, the Air Transportation Safety and System Stabilization Act (49 USC 40101),shortly after 9/11 to compensate the victims of the attack (or their families) in exchange for their agreement not to sue the airline corporations involved. The airlines also cannot be sued.

    The owner of the WTC is  the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey. Larry Silverstein is only a lease holder and he is liable to rebuild. However, the government agency overseeing the project, the Lower Manhattan Development Corp., is only factoring the insurance payout into its plans. So, he does not stand to lose either.

    The only losers are the consortium of insurance and re-insurance companies. In the normal course, the insurance companies do not settle without a proper investigation but the government has made independent investigation impossible through their legislation and unilaterally determined the cause of collapse as the terrorist event and made this determination of cause incontestable in any court. The insurance Cos have no choice but to grin and bear it. Since the government is the owner of the property, and the lease holder is liable to it and the insurance companies to the lease holder, the government has full say on how the claims are settled.

     Every step has been taken to ensure that the government is in full control of every aspect.

    In the normal course,  what we would have had are open investigations for the truth to emerge.

    By Naseer Ahmed - 10/13/2018 7:48:44 AM



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