Abu Musa' reported that Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) said:
Basit - Hussari - Minshawi - f
Latajidanna ashadda alnnasi AAadawatan lillatheena amanoo alyahooda waallatheena ashrakoo walatajidanna aqrabahum mawaddatan lillatheena amanoo allatheena qaloo inna nasara thalika bianna minhum qisseeseena waruhbanan waannahum layastakbiroona
Topics discussed in this Verse: [Compassion and Mercy in their hearts:love for the Believers] [Jews:enmity of] [Kabah] [Monasticism of Christians] [Pagans and polytheists:enmity to Believers] [People of the Book:relationship to Muslims]
5:82 (Asad) Thou wilt surely find that, of all people, the most hostile to those who believe [in this divine writ] are the Jews as well as those who are bent on ascribing divinity to aught beside God; and thou wilt surely find that, of all people,  they who say, "Behold, we are Christians," come closest to feeling affection for those who believe [in this divine writ]: this is so because there are priests and monks among them, and because these are not given to arrogance. -
Muslims, we cannot generalize, and put all Jews and Christians in the same box
‘because the Qur’an is critical of them’. In fact we should be the last to
generalize and stereotype a whole religion and group of people, much the same
way we don’t want to be stereotyped. (Remember the golden rule?)”
Doesn't this paragraph mean we can generalize some Jews and Christians, if not all of them.
these some Jews and Christians?
distribute translations which interpret the Quranic words “wa ladhdhallin” as
Christians and Jews, while the address of the Quran is general for all those
who are misguided but Saudis make it specific for Christians and Jews.
progressive and rational scholar asked me the same question to check my
not able to present my opinion to him for the reason that he himself is a scholar
and the subject is extremely comprehensive. For this we need to take into
consideration all verses which speak of what is the path of misguidance and
then can reach the actual meaning of what is meant by “….wa ladhdhallin….”
understand this verse, we also need to make our mind free from the notion of
peace, hatred, or anything else which does not let us reach the divine meaning.
If we preconceive the idea of hatred or peace, we cannot reach the actual
meaning of divine statement. Thus we should understand the Quran, making our
mind from preconceived thoughts. Actually very often we select some topics in
advance and try to justify them, as if we were making forceful arguments.
of the Quran praise the Christians and Jews who believed in God, Hazrat Moses
(peace be upon him) and all other Prophets. These verses are selectively used
by the human rights activists.
of the Quran dislike the acts the Christians who distorted their religion, and
Jews who distorted their own religion and when God sent other prophets to
correct their distortion, they killed those Prophets sent to them. The Quran
also refers to the state of the People of the Book who were impatiently waiting
for the Last Prophet and that when he came, they denied because of their envious
attitude. Verses refer to their status that for their business purpose, they
used to distort the verses of Torah and changed the meaning of the praiseworthy
words used for the Last Prophet.
as an example,
unto those who write the book with their hands, then say, “This is from God,”
that they may sell it for a paltry price. So woe unto them for what their hands
have written and woe unto them for what they earn.” (2:79)
among the People of the Book) were those whose hearts had hardened, as the
your hearts hardened thereafter, being like stones or harder still. For indeed
among stones are those from which streams gush forth, and indeed among them are
those that split and water issues from them, and indeed among them are those that
crash down from the fear of God. And God is not heedless of what you do”. (2:74)
those who broke the covenant killed their own people, as the Quran says, “And
when We made a covenant with you, “Do not shed the blood of your own, and do
not expel your own from your homes.” Then you ratified it, bearing witness.”
“And indeed We gave unto Moses the Book and
caused a succession of messengers to follow him. And We gave Jesus son of Mary
clear proofs, and strengthened him with the Holy Spirit. Is it not so that
whenever a messenger brought you something your souls did not desire, you waxed
arrogant, and some you denied and some you slew?” (2:87)
those who used to recognize the Last Prophet as they had read in Their
Scripture. They used to seek help from Allah through the waseela of the Last
Prophet (yet to come) but when he came, they did not believe, as the Quran
refers to this, “And when there came to them a Book from God, confirming that
which they had with them—and aforetime they used to ask for victory over those
who disbelieve—so when there came to them that which they recognized, they
disbelieved in him. So may the curse of God be upon the disbelievers.” (2:89). those
who disbelieved in the last Prophet after he came to Arabs, are referred to as
disbelievers here in this verse.
point to note is that selective attitudes are used when speaking of the Quranic
treatment of the People of the Book. Human rights activists use their selective
nature and others use their selective nature to deal with the People of the
Book as the ones condemned in the verses above.
to Human Rights Activists, all People of Book have not been condemned in the
to Ulama and scholars, there were some people of the Book who were disliked due
the reasons mentioned in the Quran.
groups blame each other.
recently seen a quote used in an article in which Maulana Shafi from Deobandi
school of thought does tafsir of the verse “Not of those who have incurred your
wrath, nor of those who have gone astray (wa ladhdhallin).”
He says, “Those who have incurred Allah's wrath are
the people, who inspite of being quite familiar with the commandments of Allah
willfully go against them out of a calculated perversity or in the service of
their desires, or, in other words, who are deficient in obeying divine
injunctions. This, for example, was the general condition of the Jews who were
ready to sacrifice their religion for the sake of a petty worldly gain, and
used to insult and sometimes even to kill their prophets.
“As for (those who go astray), they are the people
who, out of ignorance or lack of thought, go beyond the limits appointed by
Allah, and indulge in excess and exaggeration in religious matters. This, for
example, has generally been the error of the Christians who exceeded the limits
in their reverence for a prophet and turned him into a god. On the one hand,
there is the rebelliousness of the Jews who not only refused to listen to the
prophets of Allah but went on to kill them; on the other hand, there is the
excessive zeal of the Christians who deified a prophet.
“Thus, the essential meaning of the verse is that, in
praying for the straight path, we do not ask for the path of those who are the
slaves of their desires, perverse in thought and action, and deficient in
performing their religious obligations, nor the path of those who are ignorant
or unmindful or misled, and indulge in excess and exaggeration in religious
matters, but wish for a path between these two extremes, which inclines neither
towards excess nor towards deficiency, and which is as free of the promptings
of desires as of doubts and confusions and of erroneous beliefs.
“In short, the prayer for the straight path is the
essence of the Surah Al-Fatihah. Since knowing and following the straight path
is the real knowledge and the real achievement in this mortal world, a mistake
in picking it up right takes peoples and nations to ruins; otherwise, there are
even non-Muslims who claim to be seeking God and undertake stupendous labours
to attain this end. The Holy Quran has, therefore, defined the straight path so
explicitly from a positive as well as eliminative point of view.”
Such interpretation is very common in all sects of
Muslims, Deobani, Barelvi, Salafi, Shia, to name a few.
Now the readers should decide what should I do?