Books and Documents

Islam and Human Rights (29 Nov 2014 NewAgeIslam.Com)

Tablighi Jama’at: Focus on Huququllah, not the least on Huququl Ibaad

By Syed Jamaluddin Waqar

(Translated from Urdu by Ghulam Rasool Dehlvi, New Age Islam)

In view of the number of activists and geographic expansion, the movement of Tableeghi Jama’at is seen as the largest proselytizing Islamic movement in the world. Founded in 1920 in Mewat in north India, the Jama’at embarked on its mission in almost every country where of Muslims live in considerable numbers. No doubt, the Jama’at has played a pivotal role in spreading the teachings of Islam and raising religious awareness at the grassroots level.  Some years ago, I came into contact with some Tableeghi activists in Mumbai, a city of India. They exhorted me to take time off to travel for tableegh (Islamic preaching works). Later on, I took several Tableegh trips, travelling to remote villages and small towns, where I came across Muslim communities who knew of nothing about Islam. I also met some Muslims who did not even know the fundamental doctrine of Islam: “I bear witness that there is no god but Allah and Muhammad is the messenger of Allah”. However, the Tableeghi activists taught them the basic tenets of Islam such as the kalima shahada, the rules of prayers and fasting and so on. I took cognizance of the commendable role that the Tableeghi Jam’at was playing. They were helping the sections of the Muslim community whom no other Muslim organization or movement had reached out to.

Although I appreciate the important work that the Tablighi Jama’at is engaged in, I would say that the movement could play a more constructive role in the affairs of the community if it had incorporated certain corrections in its methods of working. But I know that some sections of the Tableeghi leadership are vehemently opposed to any changes, considering them as antithetical to their vested interests.

The Tablighi movement has a widespread network all over the country. The Tableeghi activists are massively active within India and abroad. In the course of their work, they come across vast numbers of people. One can imagine how deep impact this network could have left if it was aimed at promoting social awareness, the importance of modern education, women empowerment and the message of communal harmony, in addition to the basic Islamic beliefs and practices. On the contrary, the Tableeghi activists do not concern themselves with any such thing. Besides preaching the basic tenets of the Islam, their only work is to tirelessly repeat to their captive audiences fanciful tales and concocted stories which they falsely attribute to the Prophet (pbuh). Fazail-e-Amal, the basic Tableeghi curriculum written by the founding Tablighi ideologue, Maulvi Muhammad Zakariya, is replete with weak and fabricated Hadiths. This is the fact that several Muslim scholars have pointed out.

 Fazail-e-Amal is the book which the Tableeghis place at a pedestal above the holy Qur’an in practice, if not in theory. The crux of this book is the exhortation for disdain and hatred for this world. The Tablighis often preach: “The world is like a toilet or a prison”. They take great pride in loudly claiming that they “speak only about what is in the heavens above or in the grave below and nothing at all about the world in between”. In other words, the motto of the Tableeghi movement is to promote the rahbaniyat (monasticism) which is explicitly prohibited in the Qur'an.

The Tableeghis’ hatred for the world causes them to remain oblivious to other people's sufferings. Typically, the Tableeghis explain people's sufferings as God's punishment for their misdeeds, which then conveniently absolves them of any responsibility to do anything to reduce human pain. Thus, they turn a blind eye to the actual source of oppression, playing into the hands of oppressors. For instance, I have heard numerous Tablighis explain the brutal killing of Muslims in Palestine, for instance, as a result of their having strayed from the path of Islam. To tackle the Zionist imperialism, Tablighis offer just one simple solution: If the Palestinian Muslims simply perform their daily prayers, brush their teeth with the Islamic tooth-brush (miswak) and go for regular Tableeghi tours, their sufferings will immediately vanish. No wonder then that while other Islamic movements are so harshly suppressed in Israel, the Israeli authorities give a cold shoulder to the Tablighis, who work to promote apathy and indifference among the Muslims.

Even at a very local level, where efforts to prevent sufferings do not run any risk of life or wealth, I have found Tablighis disinterested and completely alienated. However, there may be exceptions, but they share this attitude in common. To better understand my viewpoint, take the case of the Alami Markaz (the global headquarters) of the Tablighi Jama’at, based in the Basti Hazrat Nizamuddin in New Delhi. Scores of physically disabled people, leprosy patients and drug addicts assemble outside the Markaz every day, pathetically begging for alms. I asked a Tablighi leader who spends most of his time at the Markaz what the Tablighi leaders were doing to help the suffering people living at their very doorstep. He gave me a tough look and said: “What nonsense! Can't you see that we are gifting the people the greatest wealth possible? We are teaching them the basics of Islam, which will bestow them direct entry into heaven after death. There, they will rejoice all bounties and pleasures living in big palaces with plenty of servants and will have thousands of houris as their wives. What more wealth can one give them?”

I rendered patient hearing to his outburst, but then reminded him of some verses of the Quran as well as the Prophetic traditions that stress the need to help the poor in material terms, not simply building pies in the sky and imaginary castles in heaven for them. He rudely interrupted me and said: “You want us to start a school for them, set up a business to help them? Things that the Christian missionaries do?  But we believe that all this is of no value at all. We bestow them the wealth of the hereafter, compared to which what the Christians offer is a pathetic pittance.

The Tablighis consider the region of Mewat, the birthplace of their movement, as their most successful experimental ground. The land of the Meo tribe, Mewat, is a culturally distinct area that includes parts of the Gurgaon, Faridabad districts of Haryana, the Alwar and Bharatpur districts in Rajasthan. The Tablighi movement has been actively engaged in the region since the mid-1920s. As a result of the movement's work, the Meos have undergone considerable change. They have given up their local customs and beliefs and established numerous mosques and madrasas in the region. This speaks volumes of the untiring efforts of the generations of Tableeghis.

While the Tablighi Jama’at has brought about radical reforms at the religious level among the Meos, it has made no tangible achievement at the social level. Meo women continue to toil hard like chattel in the fields. They don’t receive their religious right and share in property. Dowry is rampant. The literacy rate among the Meos is a mere 10 per cent and only two among a hundred Meo girls are literate. In fact, the community as a whole is steeped in poverty and illiteracy. But the Tablighis, rather than playing a role in ameliorating the pathetic plight of the community, have only worsened their conditions with their preaching of hatred for worldly affairs. Even now when a number of NGOs have reached out to Mewat to promote literacy and economic development, Tablighis have shown no interest at all. Interestingly, the Mewati Tablighis often speak out that the Meos were righteous and God-fearing when they were poor and illiterate, but now when some of them are better off they have forgotten God. Although it may be the case with the Meos, it also shows how the Tablighis view the religion of Islam. They consider Deen (religion) as something diametrically different from and vehemently opposed to Dunya (the world). To my view, it is obviously an un-Islamic way of thinking about religion as well as secular worldly affairs.

Islam gives paramount importance to the service of the poor, as we all know. Merely preaching the virtues of Islam and the comforts of heavenly abode is not sufficient enough. The Tableeghis, who are particularly obsessed with the pleasure of houris in heaven, should assist the poor in financial terms too. For Islam exhorts Muslims not only to fulfil their duties to God (Huquq Allah) but also their duties towards God's creatures (Huquq al-Ibad).  It is appreciable the Tablighis are doing a wonderful job by preaching the former, but they are turning a blind eye to the latter. They do preach the virtues and obligations of helping others as enshrined in Islam, but miserably fail to do anything of the sort in practice.  Imagine the impact on its image if the Tablighi Jama’at at its global headquarters in Delhi could set up a model school disseminating secular as well as Islamic education, or a hospital for the poor or an industrial training centre for the unemployed. Hundreds of thousands of Tablighi members who visit the Nizamuddin Markaz every year could witness social and ethical Islamic teachings being actually practiced. They would be encouraged to engage with similar projects when they would go back home. However, as I mentioned earlier, Tablighi leaders at Nizamuddin headquarters have no such interest at all. It clearly suggests that they simply don’t concern themselves with the pathetic plight of the community as well as the humanity living just next door to them.

My own study of the Qur’an and the life of the Prophet (pbuh) apprised me of the reality that the path to salvation in Islam does not simply lie in endless prayers and supplications (as the Tablighis do). Rather, while fulfilling the ritual duties, we need to work for the material as well as spiritual betterment of the poor, Muslims and non-Muslims alike. However, it does not imply that we should distribute charity to the poor who don’t strive to remove their poverty, but only reinforce it further. In fact, service to the poor in Islam means to help them stand on their own feet so that they, too, move on to serve people more needy than themselves in times to come. However, this logic seems totally alien to the Tablighi mindset. According to many Tablighi members, the path to salvation or heaven is secure if one regularly goes on Tablighi tours, grows a long beard, regularly counts one's beads and uses the miswak (Islamic tooth-stick) to brush one's teeth as the Prophet is reported to have done. They are in a misconception that merely imitating the external forms of the Prophetic sunnah in trivial matters of personal life will earn them an abode in heaven.

Recently, I came across a book by a Pakistani Tablighi author who loudly claims, without any reliable source, that if one were to regularly take Tablighi Jama'at tours, he would be assured entry into heaven, where, among other delights, he would enjoy 300,000 beautiful houris as wives. Such petty bribes are held out to common Muslim masses to instigate them to join the Tabligh Jama’at. Understandably, this can be the major reason behind the massive growth of the movement worldwide.

The Tablighis believe entry into paradise is assured by constantly performing the most basic external ritual actions. With heaven being secured so cheaply, naturally few of them take any interest whatsoever in working for the poor and the oppressed, which, I think, is the actual way to secure God's mercy, both in this world and in the hereafter. The Qur'an repeatedly exhorts the believers to follow the ideals of the Prophet (pbuh) to attain salvation.

The Tablighis do not disagree with it, but simply reduce the Prophetic Sunnah to the performance of a few external practices. They insist that one can go straight to paradise simply by following them. Therefore, Tablighi nisabs (curriculums) and other text books are replete with the exhortations for imitating the way the Prophet ate, smiled, washed, brushed his teeth, put on and took off his shoes, clipped his moustache and grew his beard, etc. It seems as if the Sunnah of the Prophet consisted only of these daily routines. By reducing the Sunnah to these external practices, they rob it of its basic spirit.

It is too unlikely for the present Tablighi leadership to show any signs of self-criticism or willingness to change their methods of working. Since the Jama’at’s methods of working (what they call tariqa-e-tabligh) and its foundational text, the Fazail-e-Aamaal, have become its definitional features, the Tablighi ideologues would be reluctant to allow any changes in these, for fear of diluting the identity of the Jama’at. It would, in turn, only undermine their claims to authority. Tablighi leaders and ideologues repeatedly insist that their tariqa-e-tabligh (preaching method) is not a human invention but rather divinely inspired through ilham (divine inspiration) to the Jama’at’s founder, Maulana Ilyas Kandhaulwi. Therefore, they claim that any change in it would be tantamount to the opposition to the Will of God. Obviously, this is the best way to keep away from any introspection, self-criticism or calls for reform.

URL for Urdu article: http://www.newageislam.com/urdu-section/tablighi-jamaat-and-social-aspect-of-religion--تبلیغی-جماعت-اور-دین-کا-معاشرتی-پہلو/d/100005

URL for this article: http://www.newageislam.com/islam-and-human-rights/syed-jamaluddin-waqar,-tr-new-age-islam/tablighi-jama’at--focus-on-huququllah,-not-the-least-on-huququl-ibaad/d/100257



  • Rational says, "no matter how much truth is unpleasant to you, its posting will be continued." . .
    You are distorting the truth to serve your hate war against Sufis and against moderate Islam.

    You say, "The Shari`ah is of fundamental importance to the Sufi path." You forget to mention that Neo-sufis do not require adherence to Shariah. The Universal Sufism movement, founded by Inayat Khan, teaches the essential unity of all faiths, and accepts members of all creeds.

    You say, "GM is dwarf before his knowledge of Islam, Shariah and Sufism." If your  supposed superior knowledge is being put to use to perpetuate a war of hatred against Sufis and moderate Muslims, you will continue to be denounced as a charlatan. 

    By Ghulam Mohiyuddin - 12/5/2014 12:55:09 PM

  • When tablighi extends their hands to shake with Muslims some brailvis say hamara koi jhagda hua hai kiya Jo haath milaa rahe ho.
    Actually these two sects are rivals like others. Brailvis don't want the end of peeeri mureedi business. 
    Both sects suffer with shortcomings as there is nothing perfect.
    Same hadith become strong if quoted by one sect and daeef for its rival sect.
    Sufis/brailvis use the Quran and weakest ahadith to grant sanction to their bidati aamal like qabr parasti, urs, and similar aamal.
    Jamatis sometimes use unfair means like promising high rewards to send people to jamat. Likewise brailvis tell the stories of miracles of dead sufis to send the people to darghas.
    Who doesn't like crowd of followers? 
    If shrine visitors loose their pockets so the tabligbis do. They too spend their own money on travel and food.
    Both circulates fabricated stories of karamaats. Otherwise how people will leave their houses and spend their money.
    Relivions can't survive without blind crowds. 

    By rational mohammed yunus - 12/5/2014 9:04:53 AM

  • While I appreciate what you wrote, and for years I thought the same as what you have written above, I think I understand the tableegh movement a little better now.

    The tagleegh movement exhorts the believers to do Ikramul Musslimeen, which is sacrificing for others.  It has numerous ahadith exhorting us to be kind, caring to family, and other Muslims.

    It encourages studies (ILM) and Zikr (remembrance of ALLAH). That is the foundation of it.  No womder many religious schools have been started by people who joined the movement, and the author of  faza'ele aamal himself has been Shaikhul Hadith, teaching Bukhari all his life. All ahadith in the manual of tableegh are referenced, and NONE of them are fabricated.  Ayat from Quran are first used, then the strong ahadith, then the weak ahadith are given, and the weak ones are identified as weak. This is the way ahl e hadith have used the weak ahadith, only to enhance the strong ones.

    Among the fazael e amaal, Salath and Quran are first, as it make sense, without these there is no Islam. Then they go on to cover zakaath and fasting, salath alan nabee, and they want to develop taqwaa to solve our problems.

    We know that zakaath is a pillar and many Muslims ignore us and hence the poor continue to suffer and the rich also have no sense of accomplishment.  This is our major economic problem today, that the majority does not want to pay zakaath. If we did our poverty would be gone, and the rich will also realize the happiness of giving.  As it is highly emphasized in tableegh, I don't know of any tableeghee who resents paying zakaath.  They love to give, although not accompanied by publicity of any kind (this is the way one should give).

    In this movement there are rich and poor, progessionally educated as well as some religiously educated.  They all inter mingle, they visit people door to door.  They know the people better than those who sit in their homes and don't even say salaam to other Muslims; not to mention shaking hands.

    The tableeghee people greet you with salaam, shake hand with you, remind you they are there, and invite you to the masjid.  That is the foundation of their work. Once people listen, and masjids are filled up,  we will truly have a religious spirit.  That is the way it was when we were strong in religion as well as in material power.  Coming to masjid is a point of distinction.  We will continue to be ignored, sidelined and disrespected, and exploited until our strength is seen in masjid attendance.  Tableegh is working on that.
    It hasn't ignored the other things that mentioned, but it has put the fundamental matters visible. The charity and zakath is in it, visiting the sick is in it, and that comes automatically when one is attached to religion and knows that taqwaa is the criterion.

    By Syed Burhanuddin - 12/5/2014 6:15:19 AM

  • no matter how much truth is unpleasant to you, its posting will be continued.
    no matter what you call it, it will be carried out.

    The Shari`ah is of fundamental importance to the Sufi path. This point is very strongly made by the great Naqshbandi Sufi, Shaykh Ahmad Sirhindi (also known as Imam ar-Rabbani), in his letters. Here is a small excerpt from one of his letters, where he clarifies this topic:
    The Shari`ah has three parts: knowledge, action, and sincerity of motive (ikhlas); unless you fulfil the demands of all these parts, you do not obey the Shari`ah. And when you obey the Shari`ah you obtain the pleasure of God, which is the most supreme good in this world and the Hereafter. The Qur'an says: "The pleasure of God is the highest good." Hence, the Shari`ah comprehends all the good of this world and the next, and nothing is left out for which one has to go beyond the Shari`ah.

    The tariqah ["way"] and the haqiqah ["reality"] for which the Sufis are known, are subservient to the Shari`ah, as they help to realize its third part, namely, sincerity. Hence they are sought in order to fulfil the Shari`ah, not to achieve something beyond the Shari`ah. The raptures and ecstasies which the Sufis experience, and the ideas and truths which come to them in the course of their journey, are not the goal of Sufism. They are rather myths and fancies on which the children of Sufism are fed. One has to pass over them all and reach the stage of satisfaction (rida) which is the final goal of suluk ["travelling", i.e. the Sufi path] and jadhbah ["overwhelming love"]. The purpose of traversing the stages of of tariqah and haqiqah is nothing other than the realisation of ikhlas which involves the attainment of rida. Only one out of a thousand Sufis is graced with the three illuminations (tajalliyat sih ganah) and gnostic visions, given ikhlas and elevated to the stage of rida.

    [Quoted from "Sufism and Shari`ah: A study of Shaykh Ahmad Sirhindi's Effort to Reform Sufism," by Muhammad Abdul Haq Ansari, pp. 221-2. Originally from Shaykh Ahmad Sirhindi's letters, Vol. I:36.]

    now which Shariah? Do Sufis have different shariah than what we have?
    they follow the same sharia modern Muslims speak against?
    how tolerant imam sarhindi was, we all are aware of ? what was jehad to him? what was tolerance to him.
    he was not a stray Aalim. he was mujaddid of Islam?
    GM is dwarf before his knowledge of Islam, Shariah and Sufism.

    By rational mohammed yunus - 12/5/2014 4:02:34 AM

  • no matter how much truth is unpleasant to you, its posting will be continued.
    no matter what you call it, it will be carried out.

    By rational mohammed yunus - 12/5/2014 3:50:25 AM

  • Rational, trying to use the actions of some Sufis to defame Sufism is not "truth". It is a low level smearing technique.
    By Ghulam Mohiyuddin - 12/5/2014 3:38:53 AM

  • we must speak the truth whether it looks smearing of Sufism to some ignorants.
    i am not quoting any aira ghaira nathu khaira Sufi.
    of course truth is not your cup of tea.
    most of the sufis were orthodox Muslims as well as scholars.
    Sufism when criticized, it is defended by saying that 'sharia is the heart of Sufism'. same sharia some modern Muslims condemn being obsolete cruel etc.
    Sufis who were liberal were called deviants/heretics. some of them were killed. this is the bitter truth of Sufism which you are not ready to accept.
    Sufism is like other any orthodox sect of Islam.

    By ratioanl mohammed yunus - 12/5/2014 2:19:18 AM

  • Dear afaqsiddiqi - 12/4/2014 11:40:14 AM
    most of the authors of the articles published on this site don't respond to readers. only those who are writing for NAI are responding.
    Devbandis who are villains of this site don't visit this site.
    even moderates don't come to comment sections.
    terrorists have no time to read theses articles and engage in these chats.
    this site to me is a platform where sectarian war is in action with a difference that other party Devbandi is not in the sight.

    By ratioanl mohammed yunus - 12/5/2014 2:06:43 AM

  • Rational, how some Sufis behaved is not a barometer on Sufism any more than how the Nazis behaved is a barometer on Catholicism. Your penchant for smearing and defaming what others cherish, using the flimsiest of evidence, is deplorable.
    By Ghulam Mohiyuddin - 12/5/2014 2:02:25 AM

  • there is no dearth of examples of jehad carried out by Sufis. it was not only jehad bin nafs but jehad bi saif too.
    "Mukhtar, Abdul-Qadir and Shamyl are just three examples of how tasawwuf was not regarded as an obstacle to armed jihad but as an inspiration for it. There are countless other such examples from around the Muslim world, including Shah Waliullah and Shah Abdul-Aziz in the Indian subcontinent, Shaykh Uthman Dan Fodio in Nigeria, al-Hajj Umar Tal in Senegal, and Sayyid Muhammad Abdille Hasan in Somalia. Contemporary Sufi thinkers and scholars must reflect on the tradition they claim to uphold and ask themselves what is lacking in their understanding of tasawwuf that they have failed to become the Lions of the Ummah that their predecessors were."
    By ratioanl mohammed yunus - 12/5/2014 1:25:33 AM

  • following is the example of how Sufis took apostasy. they fabricated apostasy stories to punish the infidels.

    of course truth of Islamic history and of sufism will never be pleasant to modern mullah.

    no matter how much unpleasant it to him, the truth is truth. it is not going to leave him.

    this history is not recorded by non-Muslims but by Muslims.

    "Later on in 1519, Malik Kaji Chak rose to the rank of military commander under Sultan Muhammad Shah. And ‘one of the major commands of Amir Shamsud-Din Muhammad Iraqi carried out by him (Kaji Chak) was the massacre of the infidels and polytheists of this land,’ says Baharistan-i-Shahi. Many of those, converted to Islam by force during the reign of Malik Raina, later reverted to polytheism (Hinduism). A rumor was spread that these apostates ‘had placed a copy of the holy Quran under their haunches to make a seat to sit upon.’ Upon hearing this, the enraged Sufi saint protested to Malik Kaji Chak that,

    ‘This community of idolaters has, after embracing and submitting to the Islamic faith, now gone back to defiance and apostasy. If you find yourself unable to inflict punishment upon them in accordance with the provisions of Sharia (which is death for apostasy) and take disciplinary action against them, it will become necessary and incumbent upon me to proceed on a self- imposed exile.’"

    By ratioanl mohammed yunus - 12/5/2014 1:18:07 AM

  • let us see how Sufis behaved in India. Most of the sufis were orthodox Muslims.
    "Sayyid Ali Hamdani was another famous Sufi saint, who had arrived in Kashmir earlier in 1371 or 1381. The first thing he did was to build his khanqah on the site of ‘a small temple which was demolished...’ Before his coming to Kashmir, the reigning Sultan Qutbud-Din paid little attention to enforcing religious laws. Muslims at all levels of the society, including the Qazis and theologians of those days, paid scant attention to things permitted or prohibited in Islam. The Muslim rulers, theologians and commoners had tolerantly and comfortably submerged themselves in Hindu tradition. Horrified by the un- Islamic practices of Kashmiri Muslims, Sayyid Hamdani forbade this laxity and tried to revive orthodoxy. Sultan Qutbud-Din tried to adopt the orthodox way of Islam in his personal life but ‘failed to propagate Islam in accordance with the wishes and aspirations of Amir Sayyid Ali Hamdani.’ Reluctant to live in a land dominated by the infidel culture, customs and religion, the Sufi saint left Kashmir in protest. Later on, his son Amir Sayyid Muhammad, another great Sufi saint of Kashmir, came during the reign of Sikandar the idol- breaker. The partnership of holy Sayyid Muhammad and Sikandar the Iconoclast succeeded in wiping out idolatry from Kashmir as discussed above. And ‘the credit of wiping out the vestiges of infidelity and heresy from the mirror of the conscience of the dwellers of these lands,’ goes to the holy Sufi saint Sayyid Muhammad, notes Baharistan-i-Shahi."
    By ratioanl mohammed yunus - 12/5/2014 1:10:24 AM

  • Rational says, "So one has to be Sufi to become pious free from vices.". . . . . No!

    Rational adds, "the prophet warned his companions against excesses and these sufis introduced the same excesses into Islam." . . . There is no such thing as an excess of love or an excess of inclusiveness.

    Rational also says, "one example of fruit of Sufism is Muslim Brotherhood." . . .

    If Hassan al-Banna was a Sufi, it does not mean Sufism spawned the Muslim Brotherhood. Al-Banna himself moved away from Sufism during his middle years. The Brothers, Banna insisted, belonged to no sect or school. Rational should stop using such spurious arguments in his hate war against Sufism and against Islam.

    By Ghulam Mohiyuddin - 12/4/2014 11:44:27 AM

  • Dear rational,
    Thanks for your supportive understanding of my post.
    Cher khooban se chali jay Asad
    KuchhNAHIN hai to himaqat hi sahi.....
    We are busy in doing what is redundant from the intellectual point of view.
    BokoHaram,Khalifah umar ,Khalifa Abubakr and the Islamic Brotherhood  all of them are doing something which is affecting the life of the millions who are not directly  in touch with them or with their activities. But what about us who are drawing room entertainers?
    Have any of us left any useful mark on the minds of those whom
    we have been so abusively attacking for their so called Islamic 
    Madness?No.Not at all!
    Then we are simply fishing in the desert.

    By afaqsiddiqi - 12/4/2014 11:40:14 AM

  • one example of fruit of Sufism is Muslim Brotherhood.
    everybody is aware that MB is nursery of Jehad in present time.
    there is no picking from some Sufis. many well known Sufis can be quoted here, but the moderate mullah will call it hyperbolic poetic activity of Sufis.
    one can take some example from the poetry of famous hindi poet Ameer Khusro.
    he he enjoyed the plight of kuffar under the muslim rule.
    By ratioanl mohammed yunus - 12/4/2014 4:28:06 AM

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