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Islam and Science

Sciences whose knowledge is deemed Fard Kifāyah comprise [all] sciences which are indispensable for the welfare of this world such as: medicine which is necessary for the life of the body, arithmetic for daily transactions and the divisions of legacies and inheritances, as well as others. These are the sciences which, because of their absence, the community would be reduced to narrow straits....

 

Ghazālī makes this very clear in the introduction to the Tahāfat al-Falāsifa: he is not contradicting philosophers on points of semantics and definitions, nor does he disagree with them on issues that have no religious significance (such as eclipses). His major disagreements pertain to questions with three fundamental theological implications: (a) has the universe existed forever? (b) Does God know all particulars? And (c) is bodily resurrection possible? It is in this topic and its likes, not any other, that one must show the falsity of their doctrine....

Related Articles:

Science and Religion

Deen-e-Islam or the Moral Way of Living in Islam

 

History of Arabic-Islamic Science and Fuat Sezgin
Hakan Arslanbenzer

Though Fuat Sezgin had started with the Islamic aesthetics and hermeneutics, "Geschichte des Arabischen Schrifttums" concentrates on natural sciences undertaken by Muslims for more than seven centuries. However, the 17 volumes' study introduces poetry, history, Quran and Hadith studies, Sufism, Islamic theology together with natural sciences including medicine, pharmacology, zoology, chemistry, mathematics, botanic, astronomy, meteorology and such....

 

The Muslim Journey of Scientific Inquiry Inspired Awe and Humility; the European Brand Was Its Polar Opposite
Shad Moarif

For Muslims, science was essential for cognitive and spiritual advancement. Since the glory of divine creation was superior to the lesser triumph of worldly discoveries, Muslim scientists delved into mysteries of divine creation to unravel un-manifested aspects of reality. This spirit of discovery contrasted starkly with mediaeval Europe where scientific inquiry was clawing out of the dark ages...

Did God Use Evolution To Create Universe?
Harun Yahya

Especially during the last fifty years, developments in various scientific fields such as palaeontology, microbiology, genetics and comparative anatomy, and new discoveries show that the theory of evolution is untrue and living beings appeared on earth all of a sudden in their distinct and perfect forms. Therefore, there is no reason to suggest that God employed the process of evolution in Creation. God created every species individually and at one moment, with His command of “Be!” This is a certain and explicit fact....

In fact, the believer’s critique of modern science can be nothing short of “radical”. Full scale attacks have thus been launched against this brand of science, “which has shown itself unable to coexist with anything”. In the criticisms of many scholars, many common themes can be found revolving around the proper position of science, reason, and man in the worldwide scheme of things. They also focus on the evils of a godless science that demurs not to the Divine, but to the vicious desires of godless men....

 
Reconciling Faith and Sciences
Dr Muhammad Maroof Shah

In his analysis of the nature of prophecy, he reminds us of Ibn Arabi, Al-Farabi, Shah Wailiullah and Iqbal on the nature of prophecy that largely bridges – in practice/consequences – the division between saints/sages and prophets. He defends, like Shah Wailiullah in case of Islamic Sharia, rationale of every detail of the Sharia of Moses, its universality and its essentially unchanging foundations and deeper structure without sounding rather unduly apologetic...

The Deferred Promise of Islamic-World Science
Ehsan Masood and James Wilsdon

But amid the talk of paradigm shifts, as we know now, many brave women and men were crushed, often brutally, as existing regimes sought to reassert control. With the exception of Tunisia, their cries for freedom have largely fallen silent. And the subsequent rise of ISIS meant that many regimes parked other priorities – including science – in favour of spending on security, defence and deradicalisation.....

Even if Muslims had been developing science for centuries, their science could not have been exactly classified as modern: their practice was fused with a spiritual and religious understanding of the world, of man’s position as the vicegerent of God on earth. They didn’t share in the later European conceptions of nature as a raw force to be conquered and endlessly exploited to serve man’s needs….

 
Science and Technology in Islam
Mohammad Hashim Kamali

Science and Technology in Islam
Mohammad Hashim Kamali

Some of the Maqasid, especially in the Zaruriyaat (essential purposes) category, are taken from a general reading of the Quran and Sunnah, and are, therefore, textually based. There are five essential Maqasid of Shariah — protection of life, faith, intellect, property and lineage — and a sixth is added according to a variant reading. A minority opinion adds protection of honour to the list.....

Science and the ‘Sinful’ Eclipse
Nawar Fakhry Ezzi

The “heavens” and “celestial objects” have intrigued human beings on different intellectual levels throughout history. Mathematicians, physicists and astronomers have been interested in unravelling their scientific mysteries while ancient cultures attempted to understand them through myths and legends....

 

Talking further about human creation in terms of time, Quran tells us; “He is, Who has created you (human) from clay, then he spent a term of time (away from you), and (it is) a specific term he determined. Yet, you doubt (his ability)!” (6:2) Thus, the word ‘Then’ (Fa) prefixed to each stage represents a period of time between the stages. The question is what were the durations of time-periods between those stages? Being a divine book, the Quran talks in cosmic time which is different from how we perceive time. That is why, in places, it uses the term Kun Fia Kun which in scientific terminology is a time-space Warf, where time and space and the physical laws which govern them lose their existence.....

To start with, it challenges our intelligence about our existence in pre-life form when it says, “Do not man remember that We created him before, while he was naught (nothing, non-existent)?” (19:67). T his verse clearly points at existence in non-life form. What was that non-life form? Quran puts it in chronological order by saying: (1) “He created you of dust,” (30:20) corresponding to the initial phase of earth when its atmosphere was filled only with dust. (2) “We created man from sounding (noisy) clay,” (15:26)....

A Light for Science, and Cooperation, in the Middle East
Dennis Overbye

In what they hope will be a spark of light in years of darkness, a group of scientists circulated a beam of electrons around a ring in Allan, Jordan, in January. The group, called Sesame, is made up of physicists from several countries that rarely talk to one another — Cyprus, Egypt, Iran, Israel, Jordan, Turkey and Pakistan — and also from the Palestinian Authority, but whose scientists are determined to collaborate.....

 

Muslims and Science: Quran Places Great Emphasis on Individual and Collective Research
Dr A Q Khan

The Quran places great emphasis on individual and collective research. It gives great importance to ‘men of understanding’ – scientists and engineers – whom it frequently refers to as ‘men who are wise’, ‘people of knowledge’, ‘the ones who consider’ and ‘those who understand’. No wonder Islam’s inspiration for scientific investigation served as a catalyst for the Muslim spirit of enquiry in the heyday of their civilisation. They made revolutionary contributions to scientific thought and activity at a time when the pursuit of science was considered taboo and punished like witchcraft elsewhere in the world.....

 

There is unanimity among philosophers and researchers that Muslim world is currently lagging behind in key scientific and economic areas. The question can be raised why the second most populous human community of world is not able to contribute in science irrespective of the fact that many countries have immense natural resources. The sad part of the story is that the Muslim World, which once was at its peak in scientific endeavours...

How Islamic Scholarship Birthed Modern Astronomy
Shannon Stirone

While Europe was in an intellectual coma, the Islamic empire which stretched from Moorish Spain, to Egypt and even China, was entering their “Golden Age”. Astronomy was of particular interest to Islamic scholars in Iran and Iraq and until this time around 800 AD, the only astronomical textbook was Ptolemy’s Almagest, written around 100 AD in Greece. This venerable text is still used as the main reference for ancient astronomy in academia to this day...

There is certainly no reason to admire a science which counts insects and atoms but is ignorant of God; which makes an avowal of not knowing Him and yet claims omniscience by principle. It should be noted that the scientist, like every other rationalist, does not base himself on reason in itself; he calls “reason” his lack of imagination and knowledge, and his ignorance are for him the “data” of reason.  He sarcastically remarks that “too many “believers” consider that it is time that religion should shake off “the dust of the centuries”, which amounts its “liberation” from its very essence and from everything which manifests that essence.”...

I recall the first verse that was revealed to our beloved Prophet from the holy Quran. This opening verse came with a direct message urging us to seek knowledge and keep on challenging ourselves and surroundings. I no longer have doubts regarding my scientific career as the Almighty; Allah (swt) has said in His Holy Book that the works of the righteous people will never go to waste.....

 

How Muslim Inventors Changed the World
Paul Vallely

Other borrowings from Muslim genius included ribbed vaulting, rose windows and dome-building techniques.  Europe’s castles were also adapted to copy the Islamic world’s — with arrow slits, battlements, a barbican and parapets.  Square towers and keeps gave way to more easily defended round ones.  The architect of Henry V’s castle was a Muslim.....

Most people believe that Islamic cultures’ contributions to science ended after the Islamic Golden Age. Since most Islamic countries are notoriously fundamentalist, it’s an easy presumption to have. However, Islam is not a monolith. With the globalization of over 1.6 billion Muslims, Islamic culture has spread beyond the Middle East to join the various tapestries of countries across the Earth...

The Islamic Empire for more than 1,000 years remained the most advanced and civilized nation in the world. This is because Al-Islam stressed the importance and respect of learning, forbade destruction, and developed in Muslims the respect for authority, discipline, and tolerance for other religions. The Muslims recognized excellence and hungered intellectually. The teachings of Qur’an and Sunnah drove many Muslims to their accomplishments in sciences and medicine....

Muslim Countries and Science Outreach: A Steep Decline and Way Forward
Sheikh Umar Ahmad

There should be grass root efforts across the Muslim world to stimulate curiosity about science among students of all ages operat­ing without much government support. Ahmed Djebbar an emeritus science historian at the University of Lille in France has constructed an online pre-university-level course called ‘The Discoveries in Islamic Countries’ available in three languages, which relates science concepts to great discoveries and stories from the Islamic Golden Age....

 

Fasting: Regiment For Healthy Body and Brain
Tommy Dharmawan

Now, how about our brain function during intermittent fasting in Ramadhan? Although it is hard for humans to concentrate during fasting, according to Farooq et al in Journal of Academy Nutrition and Dietetic, in the fourth week of Ramadhan fasting, performance on the spatial planning, working memory task and working memory capacity test increased significantly....

 

Is It Science Or Theology?
Pervez Hoodbhoy

Compounding scientific ignorance is prejudice. Most students have been persuaded into believing that Muslims alone invented science. And that the heroes of Muslim science such as Ibn-e-Haytham, Al-Khwarizmi, Omar Khayyam, Ibn-e-Sina, etc owed their scientific discoveries to their strong religious beliefs. This is wrong.....

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