Islam and Science
Dr A Q Khan
The Quran places great emphasis on individual and collective research. It gives great importance to ‘men of understanding’ – scientists and engineers – whom it frequently refers to as ‘men who are wise’, ‘people of knowledge’, ‘the ones who consider’ and ‘those who understand’. No wonder Islam’s inspiration for scientific investigation served as a catalyst for the Muslim spirit of enquiry in the heyday of their civilisation. They made revolutionary contributions to scientific thought and activity at a time when the pursuit of science was considered taboo and punished like witchcraft elsewhere in the world.....
unanimity among philosophers and researchers that Muslim world is currently
lagging behind in key scientific and economic areas. The question can be raised
why the second most populous human community of world is not able to contribute
in science irrespective of the fact that many countries have immense natural
resources. The sad part of the story is that the Muslim World, which once was
at its peak in scientific endeavours...
While Europe was in an intellectual coma, the Islamic empire which
stretched from Moorish Spain, to Egypt and even China, was entering their
“Golden Age”. Astronomy was of particular interest to Islamic scholars in Iran
and Iraq and until this time around 800 AD, the only astronomical textbook was
Ptolemy’s Almagest, written around 100 AD in Greece. This venerable text is
still used as the main reference for ancient astronomy in academia to this day...
There is certainly no reason to admire a science which counts insects
and atoms but is ignorant of God; which makes an avowal of not knowing Him and
yet claims omniscience by principle. It should be noted that the scientist,
like every other rationalist, does not base himself on reason in itself; he
calls “reason” his lack of imagination and knowledge, and his ignorance are for
him the “data” of reason. He sarcastically
remarks that “too many “believers” consider that it is time that religion
should shake off “the dust of the centuries”, which amounts its “liberation”
from its very essence and from everything which manifests that essence.”...
I recall the first verse that was revealed to our beloved Prophet from
the holy Quran. This opening verse came with a direct message urging us to seek
knowledge and keep on challenging ourselves and surroundings. I no longer have
doubts regarding my scientific career as the Almighty; Allah (swt) has said in
His Holy Book that the works of the righteous people will never go to
Other borrowings from Muslim genius included ribbed vaulting, rose
windows and dome-building techniques.
Europe’s castles were also adapted to copy the Islamic world’s — with
arrow slits, battlements, a barbican and parapets. Square towers and keeps gave way to more
easily defended round ones. The
architect of Henry V’s castle was a Muslim.....
Most people believe that Islamic cultures’ contributions to science
ended after the Islamic Golden Age. Since most Islamic countries are
notoriously fundamentalist, it’s an easy presumption to have. However, Islam is
not a monolith. With the globalization of over 1.6 billion Muslims, Islamic
culture has spread beyond the Middle East to join the various tapestries of
countries across the Earth...
Empire for more than 1,000 years remained the most advanced and civilized
nation in the world. This is because Al-Islam stressed the importance and
respect of learning, forbade destruction, and developed in Muslims the respect
for authority, discipline, and tolerance for other religions. The Muslims
recognized excellence and hungered intellectually. The teachings of Qur’an and
Sunnah drove many Muslims to their accomplishments in sciences and medicine....
Sheikh Umar Ahmad
There should be
grass root efforts across the Muslim world to stimulate curiosity about science
among students of all ages operating without much government support. Ahmed Djebbar
an emeritus science historian at the University of Lille in France has
constructed an online pre-university-level course called ‘The Discoveries in
Islamic Countries’ available in three languages, which relates science concepts
to great discoveries and stories from the Islamic Golden Age....
Now, how about our brain function during intermittent fasting in
Ramadhan? Although it is hard for humans to concentrate during fasting,
according to Farooq et al in Journal of Academy Nutrition and Dietetic, in the
fourth week of Ramadhan fasting, performance on the spatial planning, working
memory task and working memory capacity test increased significantly....
Compounding scientific ignorance is prejudice. Most students have been
persuaded into believing that Muslims alone invented science. And that the
heroes of Muslim science such as Ibn-e-Haytham, Al-Khwarizmi, Omar Khayyam,
Ibn-e-Sina, etc owed their scientific discoveries to their strong religious
beliefs. This is wrong.....
Faisal J. Abbas
But that’s not
to say religious clerics are off the hook. While the media shouldn’t
deliberately mock religion for the sake of mocking and getting hits, scholars
should also refrain from expressing views in areas they don’t fully understand
and are not their fields of expertise.....
Are we now at a
stage where Islam no longer contributes to science because its adherents fear
that understanding the ways of God’s unseen creations are somehow attacks on
science and Ibn Khaldun agree: The nature transforms one species to another.
Pre-Darwin Muslim scholars believed human family was created from the ape family.
But now we know human species was not evolved from monkey but ape family and
human family have a common ancestor. Ape and human species are distant cousins.
Secondly, the sentence, “At this point we come to the first stage of man (after
the world of monkeys),” suggests that the pre-Darwin Muslims knew about the
existence of other hominid species. Thirdly, physical observation of the nature
led Muslim to the idea of evolution of life. That is why Ibn Khaldun states:
“This is as far as our (physical) observation extends.”….
Historians currently conclude the Islamic golden age of science began to decline during the 12th Century but this stance ignores the major contributions made during the Ottoman Empire up until the 14th Century. In Sardar’s opinion, Ibn Khaldun was the last great scholar of the age; he died in 1406 CE.
The report produced by the Muslim World Science Initiative is an attempt at targeting just this tension, one that is plaguing the university campus in much of the Muslim world. It may not be possible to magically or suddenly eliminate it, but the report gives some suggestions of small steps forward.
Islam and Education
Hamid Naseem Rafiabadi
On educational front, efforts of Nursi’s contemporary and successor visionaries of Islam like Shibli, Maududi, Sir Syed and Ismail Raji Faruqui have met but with very less success in convincing the traditional Muslim clergy about the tenacity of modern sciences like religious sciences. But Madrasah Zahra model presented by Nursi stands for “in¬tegration of knowledge”,...
Close your eyes and begin to observe yourself. Move your mind down your body, from head to toe. Do you really feel you are simply a motley collection of bits of inert matter that make up the various parts of your body, as atheist evolutionists insist you are? Your consciousness instinctively recoils at the idea! You intuitively know, without having to consult any ponderous biology textbook, that you simply cannot be reduced to your body, as atheist evolutionists insist you must. .....
Irfan Habib has
argued how a literalist interpretation of the Quran and the Hadith has led to
obscurantism and hampered original and eclectic scientific research in Muslim
countries. Generally, his analysis, however, raises several significant issues,
which need to be addressed in order to give a more comprehensive and yet
balanced overview of this very important theme....
There are neo-con Christian Science and the Muslim
(Islamic) Science groups who claim that the Divine Messengers could communicate
with the Creator in Heavens. No Holy Book or the Divine Messenger ever
questioned God’s imperfect human creation. The Prophets of all faiths
promised carefree living for their followers, but after death, in un- specify
heavenly abode, called Moksha or Paradise. But the history
of World Religions makes it clear that no God Incarnate or
Avatar ever felt it necessary to Fly or pray for growing
the Wings on the human body.....
Syed Kamran Hashmi
The Arabic word zarrah from the Quran, which means particle or weight of a red ant, becomes atom, to prove the Bohr atomic model. If Nebula was our concern in astronomy or the understanding of a supernova caught our interest, then again we found the word al-dukhan in the Quran and Hadith as an explanation, which means ‘the smoke’ and is a close equivalent of the above-mentioned scientific terms....
Azis Anwar Fachrudin
Ascension to heaven alive, for example, is not unique to Christianity and Islam. Judaism has Enoch and Elia (shared also by Christianity and Islam); Hellenism has Hercules; Hinduism has Yudhisthira; Zoroastrianism has Arda Viraf. Stories of humans entering speaking to God, and/or God-incarnate are common among indigenous religions throughout the world. Now, in the 21st century, when science has advanced and modern cosmologists have been able to measure the earth and the universe, the question becomes: how do we reconcile religious miracles with science?....
Science allows us to question and discover how the world works and the Quran provides the moral guidelines for doing so. If an apparent contradiction arises between a scientific finding and an interpretation of the Quran, then we can turn to both science itself (which is evolving) and the interpretation of the Quran (which is not impartial, because it is a human exercise) to account for the discrepancy. This is an ongoing and fluid process, and is part and parcel of the purpose of life for Muslims....
The solar calendar was adopted on 15 March 1079 as the
Jallali Calendar in recognition of the royal patronage of Sultan Jalaluddin
Malikshah I and was given its Islamic character as it was retroactively
reckoned from the year of Prophet Muhammad's migration to Medina, making 622 CE
as the year zero and its first year as the year 457 AH....
God-Realization and Modern Science
Maulana Wahiduddin Khan for New Age Islam
Maulana Wahiduddin Khan for New Age Islam
Modern science has provided us with a new framework to understand the reality of things. This framework has made it possible for us to understand things on a rationally-accepted basis, things that people earlier thought of as mysteries. This change of age has opened up new, unending expanses of knowledge for the realization of God and increasing one’s faith....