certifired_img

Books and Documents

Islamic Ideology (08 Oct 2016 NewAgeIslam.Com)



The Quran and the Golden Rule: ‘Do unto Others as You Would Have Them Do unto You’



By Naseer Ahmed, New Age Islam

08 October 2016

In my article Religion as a Civilizing Influence which I wrote three and a half years ago, I had argued that it is the moral principles from religion that have civilized us and without them; we would never have made the transition from living like savages to becoming civilized. The article however did not identify what the first moral principle may have been that helped man make the transition. What we know from modern scholarship is that the very first moral principle may have been what we have come to know as the Golden Rule which is found to exist in every civilization and common to every religion. Charles Gibbon was the first to use the term “Golden Rule” in 1604.The most familiar version of the Golden Rule says, “Do unto others as you would have them do unto you.”The rule also comes in the form of a negative injunction: “One should not treat others in ways that one would not like to be treated”

As savages, we lived in small communes separated from other communes, had great mistrust of others, which often lead to raids and ambushes, resulting in a high death-rate. It is easy to see how the Golden Rule transformed such people. Once this rule was accepted and practiced by a wider group under a common religion, cooperation and trust between them developed giving them obvious survival advantages. Peace within a large group comes from shared values as is the case when people share the same beliefs or religion. To this day, people trust their coreligionists and distrust people from other faiths. This is why inter-faith dialogues are necessary to bring out what is common and shared across people from different religions.

The rule is found in the Talmud, Torah and the Bible and in every other religion and civilization.

Egypt:

"Now this is the command: Do to the doer to make him do." (c. 2040 – c. 1650 BC)

A Late Period (c. 664 BC – 323 BC) papyrus contains the Golden Rule: "That which you hate to be done to you, do not do to another."

Greece

"Avoid doing what you would blame others for doing." – Thales (c. 624 BC – c. 546 BC)

China

"Never impose on others what you would not choose for yourself." — Confucius c. 500 BC)

"Regard your neighbour’s gain as your own gain, and your neighbour’s loss as your own loss." — Laozi (c. 500 BC)

India

One should never do that to another which one regards as injurious to one’s own self. This, in brief, is the rule of dharma. Other behaviour is due to selfish desires. — Brihaspati, Mahabharata

What the Scholars say:     

“…numerous studies show that it (Golden Rule) has been endorsed in all of the major and most minor religions.” (Neil Duxbury)

The golden rule is shared by virtually all the world's religions. (Jeffrey Wattles)

Interestingly Jeffrey Wattles calls it "the principle of the practice of the family of God." which sounds like Vasudhaiva Kutumbakam.

The Golden Rule in the Quran

The Golden Rule differs from the maxim of reciprocity and is a unilateral moral commitment to the well-being of the other without the expectation of anything in return. In the Quran the Golden Rule is presented in its most refined form. We are asked to repel evil with what is good. It is conceivable that when wronged, we may think that the person who has caused us injury, or we ourselves in the same position, will not expect to be treated well, and may act according to such reasoning. The Quran gives no scope for such reasoning and instructs us to repel evil with what is good.

41:34. Nor can goodness and Evil be equal. Repel (Evil) with what is better: Then will he between whom and you was hatred become as it were your friend and intimate!

35. And no one will be granted such goodness except those who exercise patience and self-restraint,- none but persons of the greatest good fortune.

36. And if (at any time) an incitement to discord is made to you by the Evil One, seek refuge in Allah. He is the One Who hears and knows all things.

The Quran acknowledges that behaviour of such a high moral standard is difficult but shows the way to achieve such a standard and encourages us to follow the rule. The objective is to make even an enemy an intimate friend. This is more than even forgiveness since forgiveness does not require returning what is good for the evil.

Confirmation that the same message was given to the apostles before

41:43. Nothing is said to you that was not said to the apostles before you. Verily your Lord has at his Command (all) forgiveness as well as a most Grievous Penalty.

“This Qur´an is not such as can be produced by other than Allah; on the contrary it is a confirmation of (revelations) that went before it, and a fuller explanation of the Book - wherein there is no doubt - from the Lord of the worlds.” (10:37)

The Signs that the same message was delivered to all people

41:52. Say: "See ye if the (Revelation) is (really) from Allah, and yet do ye reject it? Who is more astray than one who is in a schism far (from any purpose)?"

The blessed Verse in question is saying:

You see for yourself that the revelation is really from Allah and yet you reject it! Who is more astray than one who knows the Truth but still denies it and opposes it with such vehemence? Such a person has gone to extreme in his opposition and enmity to God Almighty and all without purpose.

41:53. Soon will We show them our Signs in the (furthest) regions (of the earth), and in their own being, until it becomes manifest to them that this is the Truth. Is it not enough that your Lord does witness all things?

We do find the Golden Rule in the furthest regions of the earth from the earliest civilizations and these are the Signs that the revelation is from Allah and sent to all people in all parts of the world. This truth will become manifest to every person and God will be a witness to it. If anyone disbelieves after this, it will be after the truth has become manifest to them.

The Surah was revealed in the 7th century when people had no knowledge that the same rule was common to every civilization. This is a discovery of the 16th century. The Surah:

1.       Gives us the most refined version of the Golden rule

2.       Confirms that the same was given to all previous prophets

3.       Predicts that God will show us Signs in the furthest regions of the earth which will be evidence that this revelation is really from Allah.

 

Was a wait of more than a thousand years showing the Sign soon?

Verily a Day in the sight of your Lord is like a thousand years of your reckoning. (22:47)

For Allah, it is only like a day or thereabouts. Moreover, if this was made known in the 7th century itself, it would have served no purpose as it was not verifiable then.

There are several other verses of the Quran which repeat the message that every nation on the earth was sent a Prophet for their guidance.

And for every Ummah (a community or a nation), there is a Messenger; (10:47)

And verily, We have sent among every Ummah (community, nation) a Messenger (Qur'ân 16:36)

"And there is not a people but a warner has gone among them." (35:24)

Of some messengers We have already told you the story; of others We have not; (4:164)

And, indeed We have sent Messengers before you (O Muhammad(P)); of some of them We have related to you their story and of some We have not related to you their story, (40:78)

Commentary by scholars on these verses:

The meaning of 41:53 “Soon will We show them our Signs in the (furthest) regions (of the earth), and in their own souls, until it becomes manifest to them that this is the Truth.” was to be made clear by Allah only in the future, and therefore the commentaries by scholars on this verse are speculative and completely off the mark. We find this to be true even of ayat Al Nur as discussed in my article: An Exposition of the Verse of Light (Ayat al-Nur). It was God’s intention that the meaning of certain verses was to be made known only in the future at the appropriate time.  At a time when it has become an axiom of western education that religion is only a construct of the human mind and there is no such thing as God, this is the appropriate time for the Quran to manifest once again, the truth of:

41:52. Say: "See ye if the (Revelation) is (really) from Allah, and yet do ye reject it? Who is more astray than one who is in a schism far (from any purpose)?"

However, nothing much may have changed, and going by the past, the great majority of people may initially disbelieve until a small band of core believers transform the world once again.

My article “An Exposition of the Verse of Light (Ayat al-Nur) shows that Imam Ghazali’s famous treatise Mishkatal-Anwar (The Niche of Lights) is in error which he should have known and which should have been obvious even to a kid. While the correct interpretation was not possible for any scholar of his times, the incorrectness of his explanation is obvious and is falsified by the very next verse from which it is apparent that the Light is external to man. What made Ghazali give an erroneous explanation without acknowledging the flaw or shortcoming? He is also the scholar who is responsible for advocating the end of Ijtehad in Islam when his inability to come to grips with a single verse or Ayat was proof that man was far from discovering every truth. Verse 41:53 is a verse which makes it clear that more truths are going to be made manifest in the future. It is appropriate that such a scholar should fall from his pedestal paving the way for the end of Taqleed (blind imitation) of all such scholars and opening the doors of Ijtehad. No scholar of the past or even the present has shown the intellectual honesty to throw doubt on Imam Ghazali’s interpretation and they have all more or less followed it. Nobody has been critical of it. No wonder with such poor scholarship and blind imitation of the same, both bigotry and extremism thrive. Hopefully, this realization will pave the way for sweeping clean all the muck from the past. With more people realizing the reality of the stagnant cesspool that Islam has become, we may be able to build a brave new world free from bigotry and all forms of extremism. This needs to be based on an understanding of the Quran free from the polluting influence of every other source of “Islamic” literature.

How the majority are likely to react - from the same Sura

41: 5. They say: "Our hearts are under veils, (concealed) from that to which thou dost invite us, and in our ears in a deafness, and between us and you is a screen: so do thou (what thou wilt); for us, we shall do (what we will!)"

41:40. Those who pervert the Truth in Our Signs are not hidden from Us. Which is better?- he that is cast into the Fire, or he that comes safe through, on the Day of Judgment? Do what ye will: verily He seeth (clearly) all that ye do.

 

 The rewards for bringing out the truth and supporting it

(39:32) who, then, doth more wrong than one who utters a lie concerning Allah, and rejects the Truth when it comes to him; is there not in Hell an abode for blasphemers?

(33) And he who brings the Truth and he who confirms (and supports) it - such are the men who do right.

(34) They shall have all that they wish for, in the presence of their Lord: such is the reward of those who do good:

(35) So that Allah will turn off from them (even) the worst in their deeds and give them their reward according to the best of what they have done.

 

The rewards for bringing out the universal truths and supporting them are great for obvious reasons. These truths can revive and renew a dormant and misguided people. May Allah guide us to the truth and make us support it. Allah knows the truth best and may Allah guide us all to His Light.

Naseer Ahmed is an Engineering graduate from IIT Kanpur and is an independent IT consultant after having served in both the Public and Private sector in responsible positions for over three decades. He is a frequent contributor to NewAgeIslam.com

URL: http://www.newageislam.com/islamic-ideology/naseer-ahmed,-new-age-islam/the-quran-and-the-golden-rule-‘do-unto-others-as-you-would-have-them-do-unto-you’/d/108800

New Age IslamIslam OnlineIslamic WebsiteAfrican Muslim NewsArab World NewsSouth Asia NewsIndian Muslim NewsWorld Muslim NewsWomen in IslamIslamic FeminismArab WomenWomen In ArabIslamophobia in AmericaMuslim Women in WestIslam Women and Feminism

 




TOTAL COMMENTS:-   10


  • Man is not self-sufficient and there indeed is a gap that man is incapable of covering on his own as far as knowing the Creator, knowing His powers, knowing who to worship and knowing about the Day of Judgement are concerned. Even a moral and ethical human being will need guidance to know the grandeur and the beauty of the Creator.

    That of course does not mean that a moral and ethical person who does not believe in God deserves our condemnation. Good deeds speak for themselves whereas faith is a private affair.


    By Ghulam Mohiyuddin - 10/11/2016 12:28:00 PM



  • Reposting previous comment as all formatting was removed from my previous comment which makes it difficult to read. The previous comment may be deleted and this comment put in without removing the formatting.

    My previous comment is about learning. What a baby learns by the time it is six months old and continues to learn through adolescence and upto maturity until which time his/her moral sense is incomplete and immature which is why our laws are also different for the juvenile. We do spend a lot of time teaching and correcting the behaviour of children. The learning continues until death through the experiences and vicissitudes of life. The scriptures are full of lessons that are taught not only to the grown-ups but to an entire nation and by example to future generations and to all those who can profit from these lessons.

     

    The Meccan period Quran is replete with lessons from the people of the past as a warning to the Meccans that if they did not heed the message and change themselves and profit from such warning, their fate would be similar to the fate of the people of these prophets. The stories of the prophets Noah, Lut, Moses, Hud, Saleh and Shoeb are found in 32 of the 86 Meccan Surahs. There could not have been a clearer warning. Read my articles:

     

     The Story of the Prophetic Mission of Muhammad (pbuh) From the Qu’ran (Part 2): The Clear Warning to the Meccan Pagans

     

    The Story of the Prophetic Mission of Muhammad (Pbuh) In the Qu’ran (Part 3): Important Pointers from the Stories of the Prophets

     

    The revelation of the entire Quran has a context and is an example of experiential and interactive learning. Every lesson is taught through what the people were going through at that point in time or experiencing. Many of the verses are answers to questions posed. “They ask you…… Say to them”

     

     

    (6:42) Before you We sent (messengers) to many nations, and We afflicted the nations with suffering and adversity, that they might learn humility.

    (43) When the suffering reached them from us, why then did they not learn humility? On the contrary their hearts became hardened, and Satan made their (sinful) acts seem alluring to them.

    (44) But when they forgot the warning they had received, We opened to them the gates of all (good) things, until, in the midst of their enjoyment of Our gifts, on a sudden, We called them to account, when lo! they were plunged in despair!

    (45) Of the wrong-doers the last remnant was cut off. Praise be to Allah, the Cherisher of the worlds.

    (46) Say: "Think ye, if Allah took away your hearing and your sight, and sealed up your hearts, who - a god other than Allah - could restore them to you?" See how We explain the signs by various (symbols); yet they turn aside.

    (47) Say: "Think ye, if the punishment of Allah comes to you, whether suddenly or openly, will any be destroyed except those who do wrong?

    (48) We send the messengers only to give good news and to warn: so those who believe and mend (their lives),- upon them shall be no fear, nor shall they grieve.

    (49) But those who reject our signs,- them shall punishment touch, for that they ceased not from transgressing.

    (50) Say: "I tell you not that with me are the treasures of Allah, nor do I know what is hidden, nor do I tell you I am an angel. I but follow what is revealed to me." Say: "can the blind be held equal to the seeing?" Will ye then consider not?

    (51) Give this warning to those in whose (hearts) is the fear that they will be brought (to judgment) before their Lord: except for Him they will have no protector nor intercessor: that they may guard (against evil).

    (52) Send not away those who call on their Lord morning and evening, seeking His face. In naught art thou accountable for them, and in naught are they accountable for thee, that thou shouldst turn them away, and thus be (one) of the unjust.

    (53) Thus did We try some of them by comparison with others, that they should say: "Is it these then that Allah hath favoured from amongst us?" Doth not Allah know best those who are grateful?

    (54) When those come to thee who believe in Our signs, Say: "Peace be on you: Your Lord hath inscribed for Himself (the rule of) mercy: verily, if any of you did evil in ignorance, and thereafter repented, and amend (his conduct), lo! He is Oft-forgiving, Most Merciful.

    (55) Thus do We explain the signs in detail: that the way of the sinners may be shown up.

     

    Those who think they and mankind in general are self-sufficient

     

    Surah 96 -The very first verses/surah revealed

     

    (96:1) Proclaim! (or read!) in the name of thy Lord and Cherisher, Who created-

    (2) Created man, out of a (mere) clot of congealed blood:

    (3) Proclaim! And thy Lord is Most Bountiful,-

    (4) He Who taught (the use of) the pen,-

    (5) Taught man that which he knew not.

    (6) Nay, but man does transgress all bounds,

    (7) In that he looks upon himself as self-sufficient.

    (8) Verily, to thy Lord is the return (of all).

    (9) Do you see the one who forbids-

    (10) A votary when he (turns) to pray?

    (11) Do you see if he is on (the road of) Guidance?-

    (12) Or enjoins Righteousness?

    (13) Do you see if he denies (Truth) and turns away?

    (14) Does he not know that Allah does see?

    (15) Let him beware! If he desist not, We will drag him by the forelock,-

    (16) A lying, sinful forelock!

    (17) Then, let him call (for help) to his council (of comrades):

    (18) We will call on the angels of punishment (to deal with him)!

    (19) Nay, heed him not: But bow down in adoration, and bring thyself the closer (to Allah)!

            

    Surah 92

    (1) By the Night as it conceals (the light);

    (2) By the Day as it appears in glory;

    (3) By (the mystery of) the creation of male and female;-

    (4) Verily, (the ends) you strive for are diverse.

    (5) So he who gives (in charity) and fears (Allah),

    (6) And (in all sincerity) testifies to the best,-

    (7) We will indeed make smooth for him the path to Bliss.

    (8) But he who is a greedy miser and thinks himself self-sufficient,

    (9) And gives the lie to the best,-

    (10) We will indeed make smooth for him the path to Misery;

    (11) Nor will his wealth profit him when he falls headlong (into the Pit).

    (12) Verily We take upon Ourselves to guide,

    (13) And verily unto Us (belong) the End and the Beginning.

    (14) Therefore do I warn you of a Fire blazing fiercely;

    (15) None shall reach it but those most unfortunate ones

    (16) Who give the lie to Truth and turn their backs.

    (17) But those most devoted to Allah shall be removed far from it,-

    (18) Those who spend their wealth for increase in self-purification,

    (19) And have in their minds no favour from anyone for which a reward is expected in return,

    (20) But only the desire to seek for the Countenance of their Lord Most High;

    (21) And soon will they attain (complete) satisfaction.

     

           

     

    The Quran does claim in several verses that the revelations teach what man did not know. (96:5) Taught man that which he knew not. Also see 10:37 and 24:35 explained in my article An Exposition of the Verse of Light (Ayat al-Nur) It also stands to reason that the scriptures cover the gap that man is incapable of covering on his own or else why do we need the revelations?

     

    There is immense learning involved from birth until death. I am glad that it is conceded that moral values are learned mostly except for the nurturing of the young which is instinctive. Otherwise, the impression created from the first two comments was that it was all instinctual, common-sense etc. etc. It is in the nature of man to be ungrateful and consider himself self-sufficient and refuse to acknowledge what he has gained from the scriptures and continue to deny the truth despite the overwhelming evidence which point to the scriptures as the sole source of all moral principles.

     

    (80:5) As to one who regards himself as self-sufficient,

    (6) To him do you attend;

    (7) Though it is no blame to you if he grows not (in spiritual understanding).

     

    The discussion on this subject is closed from my side unless someone is genuinely seeking an answer and not merely arguing or trying to prove a point.


    By Naseer Ahmed - 10/11/2016 3:06:00 AM



  • Denying that man learns wisdom and morals from the vicissitudes of living shows ignorance about man, his survival instincts and his adaptive capacities. Scriptures complement and sanctify this process. There is no religion that claims that man would have been bereft of morals without divine revelations. In order to uphold our religions we do not need to make unnecessary and unbelievable claims in their names.


    By Ghulam Mohiyuddin - 10/10/2016 12:11:50 PM



  • The scriptures do not contain guidance on what is instinctual - for example the nurturing behaviour of a mother towards her child. There is no need to teach anything which is covered by instinct and the scriptures are silent on it. However, the right way to treat dependent parents is not instinctive and needs to be taught. The scriptures provide guidance on this matter in a very effective manner and are covered in my article: Deen-e-Islam or the Moral Way of Living in Islam

    We come equipped with the emotions of happiness, sadness, pleasure, pain, disgust, ecstasy, anger and fear. Emotions and feelings are automatic physiological responses to external stimuli and help us take split second decisions such as fight or flight when facing danger or in simpler contexts like or dislike, happiness or disgust, sadness or ecstasy, fear or anger. What emotion we will feel in a given situation is determined by the moral values that we have imbibed. For example, while one group of people kill cows for food, another group will kill the killers of a cow. As can be seen, such behaviour (killing of the killers of a cow) has nothing to do with instinct while it is certainly based on their acquired concept of what is moral. The irony of “morality” is that perverted concepts of morality can justify killing a human being because a cow is killed! While it is considered moral for people to feel that those who commit immoral acts deserve to be punished or even that it is wrong to “let them get away with it”, it is ironical that most people take pleasure in inflicting the punishment themselves! “The infliction of cruelty with a good conscience is a delight to moralists” (Bertrand Russel). This is very common and ironical although the scriptures do not sanction individuals meting out punishment which is the job of the State. As a matter of fact, the Quran strongly discourages “catching them out” and prescribes punishment for such behaviour. 

    As we have seen above, morality can be perverted where what is immoral is held to be moral and indeed a great deal of immorality can be attributed to religion but this part is not traceable to the scriptures but are human additions or perversion of divine guidance.

    We imbibe moral values the same way we learn our mother tongue. The process is both similar and simultaneous. If a six-month baby is able to display rudimentary moral judgment, this is similar to her ability to recognize a few sounds, words or gestures and respond to these at that age. According to Noam Chomsky, “we are born with a “universal grammar” that helps us to analyze speech in terms of its grammatical structure, with no conscious awareness of the rules in play. By analogy, we are born with a universal moral grammar that helps us to analyze human action in terms of its moral structure, with just as little awareness. The moral sense is as much an innate part of human nature as is our ability to learn a language. However, what moral values we imbibe, or which language we learn, depends on the child’s mother and her environment. Humans learn the concepts of empathy, kindness, generosity, giving, sharing, nurturing, modesty and humility early in their childhood.  If these are not learned early enough, man will grow without the capacity for feelings and moral emotions and will exhibit psychopathic behaviour. The earlier, the moral precepts are learnt, the greater their chances of making an indelible mark on the person. Up to the age of 3 years, a person accepts all that it is taught without filtering. Beyond the age of 3 years, a person filters new messages through what he/she has already learnt. Noam Chomsky’s most powerful single idea is that there is a universal capacity for language but it is expressed in different ways in different cultures. Every baby has the capacity to learn all the world’s languages but what the neurologists call synaptic pruning in the early years reduces that child’s capacity to the languages around her. A songbird which does not hear other songbirds singing at the crucial stage of its development can never sing. That account of language can work for morality too – indeed the two are closely related, depending as they both do on human interaction.”

    The parallel between learning a language and developing the moral sense can be seen among growing children. Children and even adolescents, with their as yet not fully developed moral sense, are capable of unspeakable cruelty and cannot therefore be left unsupervised. Urchins on the street are seen to practice cruelty on animals and even stone the mentally handicapped roaming on the streets. Such behaviour is rare among adults. They also exhibit the same confusion as with words. A kid will easily learn to empathize but will take time to learn when this is appropriate and when it is not.  For example, a child may cry because “the trees are getting wet in the rain” and become inconsolable because her parents will not bring them inside the house to save them from the drenching! Another kid may cut up insects with a blade and not feel a thing but when taught that the insects can feel the pain and taught to empathize with the insect’s suffering, will develop feelings of abhorrence for all acts of cruelty.

    There is an interesting novel “Lord of the Flies” published in 1954, by Nobel Prize-winning English author William Golding about a group of British boys stuck on an uninhabited island who try to govern themselves with disastrous results. The book portrays their descent into savagery; left to themselves on a paradisiacal island, far from modern civilization, the well-educated children regress to a primitive state. Although this is only literature and not science, but the insights are amazing and what may be expected to happen with children whose moral sense is not yet fully developed.

    The scriptures cover a gap that cannot be covered any other way. If this was not so, there would have been no revelations. Scriptures do not copy from life nor appropriate to itself the existing moral norms of society. The very idea is the height of a person’s wilful rejection of the Truth in the face of clear evidence to the contrary! There is no cure when a person is bent on rejecting the truth.


    By Naseer Ahmed - 10/10/2016 3:28:21 AM



  • Haquesaab says, "There is intense scope of debate on all these topics."
    I agree! By the way, are personal freedoms Western values or universal values? Is trying to find the most workable and fair legal and political models through experimentation, review and debate good for all societies or only Western societies?

    By Ghulam Mohiyuddin - 10/10/2016 12:52:55 AM



  • "loaded prematurely and somewhat inaccurately" ...?
    By hats off! - 10/9/2016 11:19:20 PM



  • There is an interesting aside to this discussion. I feel the gender equality, freedom of speech and thought, legal and financial  system, and  method of governance  etc are concepts  loaded prematurely and somewhat inaccurately by the dominant West. There is intense scope of debate on all these topics.
    By Manzurul Haque - 10/9/2016 1:41:30 PM



  • The problem lies in change-management. 
    No-changers are helped by inertia. Pro-changers have to 'put in the calculated effort', but quite often the calculation goes wrong.
    A gross mistake is when simple solution is sought,  of a complex problem.
    Before discussing change, the basic assumption should be refined (I see on NAI great changes proposed by ignoramuses). 

    By Manzurul haque - 10/9/2016 1:00:56 AM



  • Do people really need a divine commandment to know it's wrong to hurt people? No. Basic moral rules are common to all cultures.

    We know we can choose on our own to be kind and compassionate. These virtues have intrinsic value, and showing kindness and compassion often leads to kindness and compassion by others. We recognize our responsibility for making the world a better place for everyone.

    For more complex issues, especially ones that touch on public policy, we have science and reason to help guide us. We study different behaviors, and we use facts and data to help determine which behaviors are truly harmful and which ones are actually benign. We decide right and wrong based on real-world experience, not on tradition or what a god wants or doesn't want.


    By Ashok Sharma - 10/8/2016 2:36:08 PM



  • In order for Homo Sapiens to live in groups or societies certain basic rules had to be followed. All human societies instinctually developed such rules. These rules were further reinforced by religions.

    Religions must also adopt and incorporate new rules that human societies have developed in the past several centuries, e.g. gender equality, freedom of speech, freedom of thought, equal rights and protections for minorities including the same taxation laws for all communities, keeping laws updated to meet the requirements of evolving ethos of societies, the creed of nonviolence, separation of religion from the state and equal respect for all belief systems.


    By Ghulam Mohiyuddin - 10/8/2016 11:36:32 AM



Compose Your Comments here:
Name
Email (Not to be published)
Comments
Fill the text
 
Disclaimer: The opinions expressed in the articles and comments are the opinions of the authors and do not necessarily reflect that of NewAgeIslam.com.

Content